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Volume 22/1


Epigraphic Society Occasional Papers

Table of Contents Volume 22 Part I 1993


In Memoriam: Ronald W. B. Morris (1902-1992) (2 pp) Archibald S. Thom 22/1-p 10

A good friend to the Thom family of many years, Morris became an expert on cup-and-ring markings, writing a number of books on the subject. His aim became the accurate presentation of rock art with a total lack of prejudice or bias. Morris and Alexander Thom combined their research which led to Thom’s establishment of the Megalithic Inch and the Megalithic Yard.

In Memoriam: Aurelio Tio Nazario (1907-1993) (1 p) Barry Fell 22/1-p 12A

An outstanding historian and researcher, he was director of the Puerto Rico Academy of History. He will be remembered for the role he played in the recognition and preservation of the inscriptions of the Taino scribes on stones found at Guayanilla, Puerto Rico. He meticulously catalogued the stones and produced two photographic collections which he submitted to Barry Fell for decipherment (see ESOP volumes 16 and 18 as well as Norman Totten’s article in this issue.

In Memoriam: Reginald Britten Hale (1911-1993) (1 p) Rene Fell 22/1-p 13

A journalist with a deep interest in history, for seven years he edited New World News, a global magazine with editions in 24 languages. He wrote two books, The Magnificent Gael (a life of Saint Columba of Iona) and The Beloved Saint Mungo (founder of Glasgow). He edited and illustrated You Can Defend America (with a forward by John J. Pershing). During WW II he served in Europe with the USAAF and was awarded the Bronze star. He and his wife Grete were good friends of the Fells and enthusiastic supporters of the Epigraphic Society.

In Memoriam: Margot de Chatelaine (1937-1991) (2 pp) Kevin Gilligan 22/1-p 14

A Celtic scholar and member of an ancient Irish family, Margot (Ruth Hamilton Burke) was a supporter of the Epigraphic Society from its earliest years. This touching memorial was written by her husband. [Buchanan Comment: Kevin Dixon Gilligan was the Chief Editor of Keltica, the journal of the Society of Inter-Celtic Arts and Culture. His wife Ruth was Managing Editor and (as Margot) was also Art Editor. In 1983 they were kind enough to use a small article of mine on Runic Cryptography. They turned out a wonderful publication and Margot is sorely missed.]

In Memoriam: Chief Shupshewana (1921-1992) (2 pp) Patti Brown 22/1-p 15

A member of the Epigraphic Society who was published in ESOP, Shup She (Howard La Hurreau) was recognized academically, professionally and spiritually as an outstanding Native American of Potawatomi descent. He was familiar with elements of nine languages, Potawatomi, Mississippian Trade Language, Low German, Quebecois French, Spanish, English, Hebrew, Greek, and Latin. He read Runes, Celtic and the Chinook Trade Language as well. He assisted in writing the legislation that established the Indian Land Claims Commission.

In Memoriam: Charles F. Fulton (1908-1992) (2 pp) Milo Rea Gardner 22/1-p 16

A long-time member and contributor to the publication of the Epigraphic Society, he was a prolific writer in his own professional field (chemical microscopy). He developed and interest and became proficient in the scientific aspects of French, German, Spanish, Latin and Mayan arithmetic (with particular attention to the calendar).

Forum-Letter: Saint Dunstan's Runes and Ogam (2 pp) Richard M. Smith 22/1-p 17

The author sends Fell material on Twig Runes (from An Introduction to Old Norse by E. V. Gordon) and “Latin Runes” (from St. Dunstan’s Classbook Umbrae Codicum Occidentalum, Vol. 4, North Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam, 1960).

Forum-Letter: Comalcalco Mason's Marks (1 p) Doyle Wilcox 22/1-p 19

The author calls attention to Studien Uber Steinmetz-Ziehen (Studies on Stone Masons’ Marks), a copy of which he encloses. Roman, Greek and Late Latin marks show many similarities with mason-marks found at Comalcalco.

Forum-Letter: Comment from Thailand (1 p) Gerhard Kraus 22/1-p 19

Expresses his support for Fell against critics, particularly Marshall McKusick and Stephen Williams.

Forum-Letter: Ogham Historical Society, Queensland 4109, Australia (1 p) Don Sisson 22/1-p 19

As a result of lectures on Fell’s work by Eugene Bishopp, the Queensland Irish Association passed a motion to formally affiliate itself with the Epigraphic Society. They have also requested the State Library of Queensland to stock current and past volumes of ESOP.

Forum-Letter: Illinois Historic Preservation Agency on "Burrows Cave" (1 p) Thomas E. Emerson 22/1-p 20

Illinois’ Chief Archaeologist responds to an enquiry from Lois Benedict (on behalf of the American Institute for Archaeological Research). He stated that, contrary to reports, with the exception of several telephone calls from Russell Burrows (in which Burrows intimated that he had little involvement with the matter and requested information on State burial laws), no one concerned with Burrows Cave has ever contacted his office requesting a permit to excavate at Burrows Cave (as required by law). Emerson stated: “It is my present opinion that there is little evidence to support either the existence of any protected burials and/or associated artifacts…” He said that if disturbance of a protected burial was found to be occurring, his agency would “notify the local law…and pursue prosecution of those involved. Finally, Emerson added that, in his experience, such a site would have come to the attention of locals, the collecting community, and other interested individuals and be virtually impossible to keep secret –yet none of the traditional sources of information were aware of the site except through the public comments of Russell Burrows.

Editorial: The Epigraphic Discipline (2 pp) Jon Polansky 22/1-p 21

The author lauds the scientific discipline being applied by Fell and others involved in epigraphic research using the comparative method. He points out that there exist trends that are potentially negative: 1) the desire for a “final translation” rather than arriving at an appreciation for the process of decipherment and the scholarly efforts entailed thereby; 2) appropriate methods to achieve productive critical evaluations –the postulates, methodology and evidence which requires testing (there must be no “sacred cows” nor currying favor with established authorities); and 3) epigraphic and linguistic problems, including the work of Fell, should be examined within the context of its own discipline, and it is crucial that adherence to the highest standards of performance and critical evaluation of data is essential, staying within academic boundaries insofar as possible. There should be a “battleground of ideas” rather than a “battleground of personalities.” Credit should be given to the pioneers who established postulates within the field as well as those who contributed in different ways to the careful appraisal of epigraphic evidence. Such efforts should facilitate the cooperation required to examine data and proposals while scientific discipline and personal integrity are maintained.

Editorial: Ad hominem Scholarship (2 pp) George F. Carter 22/1-p 22

Carter details the facts concerning the finding of the Bat Creek Stone and the strong evidence for its authenticity as well as the presence of first century Hebrews in Tennessee. He deplores the purely ad hominem attack made by Professor Lowell Kirk of Hiwassee College.

Editorial: Fell, Epigraphy and the Archaeological Monroe Doctrine (2 pp) George F. Carter 22/1-p 24

The author speaks of the development of his career and how he came to a Diffusionist point of view. He tells of his relationship with Barry Fell and his appreciation for Fell’s work which was carried out against fierce adverse criticism –which is a measure of the impact of his findings not only on Amerind prehistory, but on much of world history and our ideas concerning the growth and development of civilizations. Some noted epigraphers, however, such as Linus Brunner and David Kelley, have lauded Fell. Carter cites Kelley in particular who published a balanced review of Fell’s work in the Review of Archaeology. Kelley first listed in extenso what he called Fell’s linguistic and scholarly sins, then he considered Fell’s contributions, crediting Fell with identifying up to 13 Old World languages in the epigraphy of America ‘mostly correctly’. He added that Fell had made monumental contributions to the world of epigraphy that far offset his so-called ‘sins’.

Review: Ancient American Inscriptions by William McGlone, Phillip Leonard, Jamees Guthrie, Rollin Gillespie, & James Whittall, Early Sites Research Society, 1993 (2 pp) Norman Totten 22/1-p 25

Totten recognizes that he had not had sufficient time to properly evaluate the volume (he had written an introduction for an earlier precursor of this volume). He says on the dustjacket: “This is a book about which there may be considerable disagreement. The serious reader will find this book well-researched and provocative.” He admits that other members of the Society may not agree that the book is “well-researched.” He cites the volume as “relevant to the purposes of ESOP” and invites readers to submit short reviews of their own.

Review: African Presence in Early America edited by Ivan Van Sertima, Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick & London, 1992 (6 pp) George F. Carter 22/1-p 26

Carter calls this “…an interesting series of essays on the question of Africans in America.” Besides reviewing the work of pioneers in the field, such as Leo Wiener and Harold Gladwin, Van Sertima provides several chapters delineating his own work amassing evidence for a pre-Columbian connection between Africa and the Americas. There are also chapters by other leading researchers in the field, Von Wuthenau, Keith Jordan, Jean Covey, Beatrice Lumpkin, David Muffet, Harold Lawrence, Harold Gladwin (represented by a review of his book, Men Out of Asia), L. H. Clegg, and Wayne Chandler. Despite seeing a tendency on the part of the various authors to overstate their claims, it is obvious that the Carter finds this book to be a valuable addition to the corpus.

Gauguin and Easter Island Writing (2 pp) George F. Carter 22/1-p 32

Fell’s work on the Easter Island text seen in Gaugin’s portrait of his Tahitian wife suggested to Carter that the rest of Gaugin’s Polynesian work should be examined to see if other instances of his use of the local script could be found. He managed to find such an example on a carved wood cylinder by Gaugin titled Christ on a Cross.

Gauguin's Crucifix and its Decipherment (5 pp) Barry Fell 22/1-p 34

Fell translates the script shown on the Gaugin crucifix (dated to 1896/97): “The cross of the Blessed Son of God. Our Lord prays for our salvation and for the forgiveness of the countless sins of the world. Such were the sufferings of the Savior.” Gaugin’s crucifix shows that not only was he familiar with the prosonomastic principle of the rongorongo script, but was also acquainted with the post-European-contact religious vocabulary in use in Polynesian Christian communities.

Egyptian Gold Seekers and Exploration in the Pacific (7 pp) George F. Carter 22/1-p 38

Fell’s work on translating the material in the Libyan alphabet in North Africa and his finding that it was the key to reading inscriptions in the Indian and Pacific Ocean areas and even in the Americas, led him to translate the work of Quiring on “The Golden Isle of Isador Von Sevilla…” (given here with his comments in brackets) which dealt with the oceanic discoveries of Egyptian and Phoenician seafarers. Carter, in analyzing the manuscript, comes to the conclusion that Quiring was right in saying that the Egyptians explored Indonesia and also reached China.

The Merchant Fleet of Ancient Iberia (2 pp) Barry Fell 22/1-p 45

Excavations at Ullastret in Northeastern Spain have revealed that maize was stored in ancient silos there (dated to no later than 195 BC). Since the coinage of ancient cities often featured the principal products or trade goods on which their fortune depended, Fell examined the ancient coinage of Spain. He found strong evidence that cities in the northeastern portion of Spain in the vicinity of Ullastret were heavily involved in trade in ancient times, with their coins depicting obvious merchant ships which he inferred must have crossed the Atlantic to obtain the maize found in the silos of Ullastret.

Egyptian Pot Marks: A Dilemma (11 pp) Jesse E. Lasken 22/1-p 47

A very high percentage of non-Hieroglyphic marks found on Egyptian pots dated to the 1st Dynasty match letters from late alphabets. The only logical explanation is that the pots are from a time when alphabetical scripts were in use. This strongly suggests significant errors either in the Egyptian chronology or in current assessments of when the use of alphabetic scripts began.

New Etymology of Hittite (9 pp) Linus Brunner 22/1-p 58

Brunner adds his own contribution to the etymology of Hittite to that of Johann Friedrich (Hethitisches Wörterbuch, Heidelberg, 1952).

A Dialect of Minoan from Cyprus (4 pp) Barry Fell 22/1-p 67

Characteristics of the Paphian dialect show that speakers of Minoan were still to be found in Cyprus in classical times and that the tongue had been influenced by contact with Greek speakers. Fell analyzes an ancient inscribed leaden plaque found by A. P. Cesnola in a cemetery tomb near Salamis, Cyprus. A graphic of the Paphian syllabary is shown.

A Proper Dating of the Linear B Tablets (9 pp) Jesse E. Lasken 22/1-p 71

The Linear B tablets are shown to contain some Latin/Roman terminology. They must, therefore, date after about 207 BC. It is apparent “Mycenaeans” were  the Greeks known from classical and later sources. Since the links between the “Mycenaeans” and the Egyptians are indisputable, the revision of Mycenaean chronology compelled by the literary sources and the Linear B tablets provides further  proof that the Egyptian and other chronologies linked to it are fundamentally flawed.

Ogam Found in the Rio Grande Valley (2 pp) Arnold Murray 22/1-p 80

The author had the pleasure of visiting a mine site on Victoria Peak owned by Milton E. (Doc) Noss and his wife Ova, reputed to be the “Mountain of Gold” reported by Coronado. While there he spotted an Ogam inscription he copied and forwarded to Fell who deciphered it (shown).

The Ogam Bilingual at Kilbonane, Co Kerry (6 pp) Lawrence F. Athy 22/1-p 81

The author analyzes a sepulchral monument, delineating all the various attempts of scholars to translate the Ogam inscriptions upon it. It proves to be a bi-lingual inscription with Ogam script cloaking both Celtic and Latin language. Athy deftly solves a difficult problem in decipherment.

The Ogam Scales of the Book of Ballymote (46 pp) Barry Fell 22/1-p 87

Fell provides large clear diagrams of the Ogam Scales (that is, graphics of various versions of Ogam alphabets (those used to cloak language as well as script the purpose of which was either magical or mantic). Each ‘scale’ is accompanied by its name and a description of the manner and purpose of its use.

Petroglyphs of Japan (3 pp) Nobuhiro Yoshida (edited by John Williams) 22/1-p 133

More than 800 petroglyphs have been recorded throughout Japan. The most significant appear to be those that are remarkably similar in style to letters from the following ancient alphabets: Proto-Sumerian or Sumerian cuneiform and Ogam.

Letter: Gaelic Ogam in Oregon (1 p) Richard M. Smith & Barry Fell 22/1-p 135

Smith brings to Fell’s attention Ogam-like pictographs from eastern Oregon, one resembling a ladder and the other sun-like. Fell identified the first as Lad-Ogam as shown in the Book of Ballymote. He suggests that the location may be a solar observatory site.

Proto-ogams on Olmec Monuments (7 pp) Lawrence F. Athy 22/1-p 136

Athy reports on his investigation of Ogam-like markings on the tops of some of the Olmec Colossal Heads from La Venta (graphics shown). These markings were noted in a 1990 report by Neil Steede. [Buchanan comment: Rollin Gillespie knew of such markings in the mid-70s. I was with him on a visit to the National Geographic building in the District of Columbia when he persuaded them to provide a tall ladder so that we could examine the top of the Colossal Head they had on display in their lobby. The Ogam-like lines were indeed there.] Athy visited the La Venta park in Villahermosa, Tabasco, Mexico, to inspect and photograph the various Olmec monuments there. At least 18 of the monuments there (only some of which were Colossal Heads) had groups of incised parallel lines. An excellent photo of Monument #63 is shown with Ogam-like markings clearly displayed. Athy provides his trancription and transliteration of the inscription (using Ogam; graphic shown) and sends it and the photo to Fell.

Runestone with a Cryptic Built-in Date (5 pp) E.V. Nicolajsen & Ditlev Thyssen 22/1-p 143

Thyssen and Danish cryptologist Nicolajsen discuss and analyze two famous inscriptions --the Laeborg and Baekke-1 Runestones, both by the same Runemaster, Ravneunge Tufi (Raven Tue). Using Runic Cryptography, Thyssen demonstrates that both monuments carry the hidden date: 10 November 918. [Buchanan comment: Runic Cryptography was ably discussed and demonstrated by the late Alf Monge in several publications including his Norse Medieval Cryptography in Runic Carvings, Norseman Press, Glendale, California, 1967.]

An Enquiry into the Dating of Certain Celto-Scandinavian Inscriptions in the British Isles (6 pp) Donal Buchanan 22/1-p 148

Discussion, analysis and translation of 4 inscribed monuments, one from Ireland (Killaloe) and three from the Isle of Man (Maughold 1 & 2 and Michael 3), which exhibit (as well as Runic inscriptions) Ogham letters or have contents which indicate a Celtic influence. Their internal characteristics and runic cryptography combine to suggest dates for these inscriptions in the late 12th or early 13th centuries AD. The Bressay stone in Scotland, which bears an Ogham inscription and contains both Old Norse and Celtic language (discussed by R. R. Brash in his The Ogam Inscribed Monuments of the Gaedil in the British Islands, 1879) are noted, but is planned for coverage in a later paper.

Spirit Pond Runestones (4 pp) Paul Chapman 22/1-p 154

This article shows specifically which words of the various proposed translations of the inscriptions (by Buchanan, Carlson, Chapman, Haugen, and Nielsen) on these artifacts are in accord, and the extent of the accord, so that the degree of agreement is plain. Synonyms are counted and secondary renderings are included. The consensus translation reached agreement on 80% of the text. Compare this to the record of the National Museum of Denmark where only seven of the fifteen runestones on display have been completely translated. And also consider runeologist R. I. Page’s quotation of D. M. Wilson’s statement: “That for every inscription there shall be as many interpretations as there are scholars working on it.”

An Old Norse Translation of the Spirit Pond Runic Inscriptions of Maine (60 pp) Richard Nielsen 22/1-p 158

An analysis is presented which shows that previous interpretations of the Spirit Pond Runestones from Maine, USA, have erroneously placed their date around AD 1011, whereas the present analysis shows a dating of AD 1401-1402.The basis of this new interpretation is a closer consideration of the Golden Number rune series and the language use of the period surrounding AD 1401. The content of the inscriptions shows they are the result of a well-established trade route from Gotland to Western Scandinavia to Iceland, around Greenland, and on to North America. The impetus of this expanded trade route included the rich supply of ship timber and furs. Previously discovered runestones, such as the Kensington Runestone in Minnesota, USA, support the conclusion that medieval Scandinavian trade activity in North America was more extensive and occurred at an earlier date than presently accepted. The Spirit Pond Runestones are one more corroboration of this now probable extensive pre-Columbian exchange with Europe. This opens a new and rich opportunity for the re-evaluation of this period of history.

Medical Terminology of the Micmac and Abenaki Languages (14 pp) Barry Fell (edited by Jane Blume) 22/1-p 218

A study of the medical vocabulary of the two chief Amerindian dialects of Northern New England, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. It is apparent that the language of the ancient physicians of the Micmac and the Abenaki was essentially that of the writers of the medical papyri of the Copts and their predecessors, the Ptolemaic Greeks of Alexandran times.

Two Letters to Mr. Champollion in 1832 (9 pp) C.S. Rafinesque 22/1-p 232

A reprint of letters from Rafinesque, a Professor at the University of Pennsylvania, to Champollion on the graphic systems of America and more specifically, the glyphs of Otolum or Palenque in Central America. The letters reveal a man with a startlingly comprehensive grasp of Amerindian languages, culture and scripts unusual for his time –and even for our own.

Hemp Discovers America (8 pp) Jack Frazier 22/1-p 240

The author reviews the history of hemp and the evidence for hemp usage by Amerindians in pre-Columbian times. His article is followed by a commentary by George F. Carter.

The Los Lunas Decalogue (3 pp) Dan E. Rohrer 22/1-p 248

It is suggested that the Los Lunas inscription was carved by Jews who fled northward to New Mexico from Old Mexico at the time of the Inquisition (possibly about around 1580-1600). A graphic of the inscription is shown.

lnscribed Burial Birdstones (7 pp) Luther Damon Howard 22/1-p 251

In 1985, Howard discovered a stone artifact on the Pratt Farm (Middleboro, Plymouth County, Massachusetts) in 1985. It was in an area which he suggests could have been a burial platform. His curiousity about it and the markings upon it led him into a years-long investigation of similar artifacts such as those described by E. R. Moore (1979) which were found in Kent County, Michigan, on what might have been a burial platform. Moore referred to them as a form of “birdstone burial effigy.” In 1987 Howard became aware of the material found in Glozel, France, and recognized, in the script on the artifacts found there, the same markings he saw on the Middleboro and Kent County artifacts.

A Greek Christian Inscription in Clay Co., Kentucky (3 pp) James Burchell 22/1-p 258

In 1972 Burchell found some unusual engravings in a sandstone cave in Kentucky. In 1992, after seeing a documentary about Fell’s work, he returned to the cave, recorded the inscription, which he determined to be in Greek, and sent it to Fell. Fell determined it to be an abbreviation for an expression used in the Gospel of St. John: Jesus Christ, the only-begotten son of God the Father.

National Honor for Clyde Keeler (2 pp) Loretta Crosby 22/1-p 261

In August 1992 the Retinitis Pigmentosa Foundation presented to Keeler a special award in recognition of his pioneering work in the field. This is a reprint of an article in The Union Recorder newspaper, Milledgeville, Georgia.

Ogam Bricriu in the Cimarron Valley (1 p) Barry Fell 22/1-p 262

Fell takes the authors of Ancient American Inscriptions to task for an error in investigation, failing to take into account the possibility that a purported Ogam site in the Southwest might be in Ogam Bricriu.

Wyoming Students Awarded the Society's Medallions – A Case History of Establishments Bias (4 pp) Jon Polansky 22/1-p 263

Two high school students, Chris Bentsen and Dustin Jacobsen, prepared a truly outstanding History Day project (including an excellent display –photos available) on pre-Columbian messages in America. Many of the coaches of the various groups in the state entered in the History Day competition predicted that their project was a winner, but the judges deemed it “too controversial” and two others were chosen by the Governor to represent Wyoming in the national competition. Dr. Fell and Jon Polansky were made aware of the facts of this case by a teacher, Rod Laird. It was arranged that the two students should be awarded a Society Medal of Honor for their achievement. This occurred on 6 October 1993 in a short public ceremony conducted by District Superintendent of Schools Larry Mowry. Further, each of the two received personal letters of congratulations from the Governor of Wyoming, Mike Sullivan.

Swansea, a Multicultural Petroglyph Site in Inyo Co., Califomia, Part 2 (6 pp) Roderick L. Schmidt 22/1-p 267

This paper adds further details to the information provided in Part 1 (in volume 21 of ESOP). Excellent graphics and photographs are included.

A Dated Star Pattern in Arkansas (4 pp) Gloria Farley 22/1-p 273

In April 1970 the writer observed a site in the Ozarks –a wall bearing 21 pecked figures which appeared quite old and with patina evident in the grooves. The wall was dominated by one 22-inch figure who wore a radiant crown. He was much larger than the other figures which averaged 10 to 15 inches in height. Several of the figures (including a cross within a broken circle) were studded with drilled holes which suggested to Farley a star pattern. In 1992 she consulted David Deal about the site. He studied the photos and came to the conclusion that some kind of event was recorded as occurring in the constellation of Gemini. A conjunction of Saturn and Jupiter with Delta Geminorum is suggested as the event. This occurred on 30 March 710. Farley also suggests that the figures may have Egyptian connections. It is further suggested that excavation should take place at the site since some material once known inscribed on the wall has been covered by the rising ground level. A graphic of some of the figures is shown.

The Lone Pine Solar Site Glyphs (8 pp) Roberta C. Smith 22/1-p 277

These glyphs are shown to be derived from Egyptian hieroglyphs and mark a site for observing the summer solstice. Further study of Egyptian astronomy, astrology and religion resulted in the probable identification of the Anubis constellation in the Dendara Zodiac.

Challenge for Epigraphic Sleuths (2 pp) Gunnar Thompson 22/1-p 285

Murals in temples in Bonampak, Mexico, show Mayan priests performing sacred rites. The writer notes that, besides the typical Mayan glyphs, there appeared to be more than 8 lengthy inscriptions on the fringes of the robes worn by the priests. These inscriptions were in a style of writing unknown in the region, but similar to that used in an inscription seen in Chile which Fell identified as a Libyan proclamation left by an Egyptian expedition (see ESOP, volume 19, p 161). The challenge: identify the script and attempt a translation.

Letter: A Tifinag Inscription in Eastern Colorado (1 p) Gloria Farley & Barry Fell 22/1-p 286

Gloria Farley spotted a petroglyph of an owl in eastern Colorado with apparent Tifinag next to it (graphic provided). Fell reads it as W-L and relates it to Teutonic and Scandinavian words meaning “hoot.”

Analysis of an Aztec Artifact (8 pp) Alban Wall 22/1-p 287

17 artifacts similar to one another have been found in various areas of Mexico. They are mostly quite elaborate in design and contain complex symbols and configurations. The layout consists of concentric rings of elements the outermost being composed of eight equally spaced rectangular configurations. Alban came to the conclusion that the purpose of the artifacts was calendric. He analyzes one of the artifacts, which apparently came from an Aztec site. He compares it to the layout of Stonehenge and points out that dividing the year into eight half-seasons was a common calendrical practice (most prominently evident in the Celtic calendar where eight festival days delineate the divisions). There are excellent graphics.

The 260-Day Calendar of Sahagun (8 pp) Terry Stocker & George B. Dodge 22/1-p 295

The Aztec 260-day calendar presented in Sahagun’s Book of Soothsayers is analyzed. It is concluded that at least two different scribes painted the day signs. It is suggested that Sahagun’s confusion over the mechanism of the 260-day calendar may have resulted from the possibility that Sahagun himself never interviewed a soothsayer.

Taino: Indians who Discovered Columbus (6 pp) Norman Totten 22/1-p 303

Totten gives a brief history of the people of the Caribbean first encountered by Columbus. Numerous features in the Taino culture seem to relate directly or indirectly with pre-Columbian peoples in the southeast US, Mexico, Central America, and northern South America. It appears that writing did occur in the Taino culture, perhaps as an imported feature, guarded and secret. There is a discussion of the 800 inscribed stones found at Guayanilla, Puerto Rico.

The Cuna Soul Boat (8 pp) Clyde Keeler 22/1-p 309

Keeler describes a Cuna funerary practice and compares it to a similar Egyptian practice.

Dinosaurs at Ica (2 pp) George F. Carter 22/1-p 317

Carter makes a strong case of fraud against the artifacts from Ica which show dinosaurs.

Celtic Scholars Comment (1 p) Sanford Etheridge & Lou Menez 22/1-p 318

Sanford Etheridge, a linguist from Tulane University, and Lou Menez, a Breton missionary who worked with the Takhelne in the Northwest Territories, both separately comment favorably on Fell’s work.

The Kinderhook Plates (8 pp) Scott Young & Barry Fell 22/1-p 319

Young brought the six inscribed brass plates found near Kinderhook, Pike County, Illinois, to Fell’s attention in February 1977. The place are said to have been discovered on the 23rd of April 1843 during the excavation of a large mound. Fell proves to his satisfaction that the plates are fakes, fabricated as an April Fool’s joke in 1843 by a local named W. Fugate (one of the witnesses who attested to the original find). The plates are depicted in excellent graphics.

Filmore, Utah Inscription (2 pp) James Harris 22/1-p 327

The author links a petroglyph found near Filmore, Utah, to Egyptian motifs associated with Anubis.

On the Cover

A Brick Pyramid (also known as Temple 1) in Comalcalco, Tabasco, Mexico. Photo by Lawrence F. Athy. Built of fired bricks, thousands of which bear inscribed graffiti said by Fell to be like that of Roman North Africa, the pyramid has been the subject of continuing research published in recent volumes of ESOP. According to Fell, the graffiti show that the bricks were made by Christian and Moslem workers apparently held captive by the Mayans They used Punic, Libyan and Arabic scripts.



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