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Volume 19


Epigraphic Society Occasional Papers

Table of Contents Volume 19 1990

In Memoriam: Warren L. Cook (1 p) Warren W. Dexter & Gloria Farley 19-p 9

Warren Cook (photo shown), D. Litt, Ph.D, Prof. of History & Anthropology, a Fellow of the Epigraphic Society and strong advocate for diffusion, became ill on 5 Dec. 1989 while flying from New York to the home of his brother Charles in California. The plane landed in Omaha, Nebraska, to hospitalize him. He died there on 7 Dec. 1989. His influence will long continue.

In Memoriam: Burrell Dawson (1 p) René Fell 19-p 10

Byrle Charles (Burrell) Dawson (photo shown), a valued member and Fellow of the Epigraphic Society, passed away in his home in California on 31 July 1990. He wrote a Gadelic- English dictionary which was published by ESOP in Volume 16 and following volumes. He will be sadly missed.

Editorial: Ave Atque Vale (1 p) Barry Fell 19-p 11

Barry Fell announces his resignation from the editorship of ESOP and the appointment of his successors, Bill Rudersdorf and Michael Skupin. His final words as editor: "Lumen accipe et imperti" = Take the Light and pass it on.

Editorial: Our Muse (1 p) Bill Rudersdorf 19-p 11

Emphasizes the motto of the Society: Ex Epigraphia historia = From Epigraphy, history. Thus, the muse of the Society is history (known to the Greeks as Clio).

Editorial: Nostalgia for Condemned Buildings (2 pp) Michael Skupin 19-p 11

The Society's biggest challenge in the 90s will be "depigraphy" --that is, dealing with frauds and misinterpretations (citing as an example the "power-drill ogam" of Kentucky).

Editorial: 1992 And All That (1 p) Bill Rudersdorf 19-p 12

Hopes the Society will have a significant part to play in the quinicentennial of the 15th century discovery of the Americas by Iberians (i.e., the anniversary of Columbus' voyage in 1492).

Editorial: Our New Look (1 p) The Editors of ESOP: Bill Rudersdorf & Michael Skupin 19-p 12

Points out that they have slightly changed the look and organization of ESOP with the idea of making it easier to read. Also, instead of the title being "Epigraphic Society Occasional Publications," it is now "Epigraphic Society Occasional Papers." Content and policies will remain the same. Just aiming for a more polished look.

The Burrell and Margaret Dawson Building Fund (1 p) The Editors 19-p 12

An endowed fund has begun as a result of an initial bequest of $10,000 from Margaret Dawson in keeping with the wishes of her late husband, Burrell. It is to be a building fund, dedicated to projects for housing and maintaining books, records and artifacts of the Epigraphic Society.

Forum: Congratulations (1 p) 19-p 13

William A. Welch congratulates ESOP on E. Morgan Kelley's article which appeared in Volume 18 (Kelley had two items in 18, but the author did not mention which one he was commenting upon). Bruce, Prince de Conde of Morocco, thanks Barry for material he sent and wishes the ESOP well. Ernest Mayr, an old friend, tells Fell “I can believe it must be a great satisfaction to you that your work of so many years is finally being recognized.” R. T. Huntingdon congratulates Fell on the fact that he is beginning to receive the professional recognition he deserves. Cites article by E. Morgan Kelley (without specifying which of the two in volume 18 he meant: probably both). He also enjoyed Mike Skupin's "incisive review" of Kelley's article.

Forum: Comalcalco Bricks (1 p) Sherri Kline Smith 19-p 14

The writer is a director of the Foundation for Research on Ancient America which funded the photography of 4,600 inscribed bricks from Comalcalco by Fred Weddle and the late Steve Bryant, under the direction of Neil Steede, President  of the Sociedad Epigrafica de Mexico. The writer thanks Fell for publications sent and is gratified that the photographs are being used for research.

Forum: Irish (1 p) Sanford Etheridge 19-p 14

The writer, a Professor of Classical Languages at Tulane University, sends a item he wrote in Gaelic which was recently published in Gaeltacht, the only Irish language periodical outside of Ireland (published at Tulane). It mentions Barry Fell's recent hospitalization in a San Diego hospital for cardiac trouble (but now at home and recovering). “May all go well with you, Barry, and may God prosper your work.”

Forum: Easter Island (1 p) Gordon Hislop & Marshall Payn 19-p 14

Hislop, a Chief of the Maoris, congratulates Fell on the "news from Easter Island ... What a wonderful success..." Payn passes on a phone conversation he had with Petero Edmunds of Easter Island. Edmunds had met with the local Council of Elders and explained to them Barry's premises for the translation of the Rongorongo tablets. The Council members readily equated Barry's premises with Easter Island tradition concerning "reverse talking" --i.e., person A speaking to person B so that person C cannot understand the conversation. Reverse talking called for the using of words which, when spoken, sounded very close to the words they actually meant, but taken literally were gibberish. Payn says that Petero was quite optimistic about "the accuracy of your translation."

Forum: Secret Languages of Polynesia (1 p) Likeke McBride 19-p 15

Says that Fell's Easter Island hypothesis was upheld by none other than the late Mary Kawena Pukui (a co-author of the Hawaiian Dictionary). Over 20 years ago she told the author that "obscure talking" was an integral part of the game Loku. The author cites other cases of "secret languages" known to have been employed by Polynesians. [Buchanan note, July 2000: The Easter Islanders even have a special word pon-ko = "noun: a jargon by which the logical order of the syllables in a word is changed so as to talk without letting the rest learn of the subject discussed; as a transitive verb: to talk jargon." A US example would be "Pig Latin."]

Forum: Mississippian Dictionaries (1 p) Joseph P. Mahan 19-p 15

Mahan is pleased that Fell plans to publish papers on the Mississippian dictionaries and the MicMac hieroglyphs.

Forum: Dictionaries (2 pp) Elizabeth H. Stewart & The Editors 19-p 15

Suggests that dictionaries be published separately. Cites a friend who does not purchase ESOP because of the number of pages devoted to dictionaries --also suggests that such dictionaries would be easier to use if they were separate. Editors reply that the number of pages devoted to dictionary material amounts to about 7% and the cost of separate volumes would be prohibitive.

Forum: The Opposite Continent (1 p) G. G. Michaelyuk 19-p 16

The author, a Russian, learned of Fell through his colleague, Dr. V. Gulyeyev. The author has been a science historian for about 20 years. He has been dealing with ancient geography and came to the conclusion that Homer was the first European to describe the known world in its entirety, including both the Eastern and Western hemispheres. He believes that references to Hades and the Underworld are actually references to the Western Hemisphere. It was only later, he says, that the term came to denote a "sepulchral world." He identifies rivers and other place names with locales in the Americas.

Forum: A Missionary Story (2 pp) Don Eckler 19-p 16

In Oct 89, while attending church in Oneonta, NY, Eckler was listening to Dr. Byron and Mary Sheesly, two prospective missionaries to New Guinea, complain that their studies of the language were being held back by lack of materials. Eckler raised his hand and announced that he had a "Dictionary of New Guinea Pidgin English" (ESOP, Vol. 12, Part 3) in his car. He gave it to the thoroughly amazed, but profoundly greatful couple. Fell and the Society (besides replacing Don's copy) also gave the Sheesly's and the Wycliff Translators additional copies which were also greatly appreciated.

Forum: Natural Formation? (1 p) Michael Cohen 19-p 17

Disputes Fell's view that the "Old Man of the Mountain" is a natural formation.

Forum: Language and Modern History (1 p) David Radloff 19-p 17

Radloff praises English for its rich vocabulary which allows its users to conceptualize and express an unlimited range of subleties and meanings. He suggests that the limitations "built in" to some languages have had an influence on the course of human events: author has heard that Russian has no word for "compromise" --does this affect the way they negotiate? etc. A recipient of volume 18, he praises it.

Forum: An Icelandic Child (1 p) Edward T. Krumeich 19-p 17

The author cites an Apr 1990 New Yorker article by John McPhee which states: “ Icelandic child, Snorri Thorfinsson, was born on an island in the Delaware River, quite near the site of Philadelphia, in June AD 1002.” Barry Fell replies that the statement is based on the Eirikssaga wherein Thorfinn Karlsefni's wife, already pregnant when the Vikings were attacked by Indians somewhere south of their landing-spot in Vinland in the Autumn of a year said by some to be 1002, subsequently gave birth to a boy who was named Snorri. All the saga says is that they were camped at hop (Barry calls it “Hope Lake”). Where the reference to the Delaware River came from is unknown.

Forum: Farley’s Letter to ROA (1 p) Gloria Farley 19-p 18

On behalf of the Society, Farley expresses appreciation for the article published by the Review of Archaeology (vol. 11, No. 1, Spring 1990) by Dr. David H. Kelley: "Proto-Tifinag and Proto-Ogham in the Americas." She takes issue with Kelley, however, on his claim that Dr. Fell had distorted an Ogham inscription (the alleged Poem to Mabo). She pointed out that Fell had nothing to do with the copying of the inscription--she had made the tracings herself and was most careful. She points out that photos can and do produce mistaken readings and latex molds (which would settle the question) are frowned upon. Kelley himself rendered the transcription incorrectly. She hopes that Kelley can review the actual transliteration and photographic data and the grouping of strokes in the inscrip- tions to see if a reading closer to that of Dr. Fell can be justified.

Forum: Unusual Stones in Connecticut (2 pp) Lawrence Banks 19-p 18

Speaks of "stone circles and other stones" on an elevation near his home a high point north of Long Island Sound at about 820 feet altitude some 14 miles from the shore at Westport, Connecticut). He took John Williams (a founder of the Society) to see the site in 1988. Among the stones there is an egg-shaped boulder with a hole in its top which could have held a pole with a signal flag. On the western face of that boulder was inscribed three vertical lines over a horizontal line, resembling an Ogham "T."

Forum: Deal Replies to Lynch (2 pp) David A. Deal 19-p 19

Deal replies to Richard Lynch's article "The Astronomy of Hidden Mountain" (ESOP, Vol. 18, 1989, p. 101). He suggests that Lynch has made several errors in his criticism of Deal's interpretation of the Hidden Mountain petroglyph representing a datable solar eclipse. He points out that the suggestion that it might be a zodiac was Phil Leonard's, not his (Deal does not think it is a zodiac). He displays a graphic of the inscription overlaid by a computer-generated graphic of relevant con- stellations prepared by astronomer Charles Kleupfel.

Forum: Peterborough and Bohuslan – A German Scholar’s View (2 pp) Henning Fikentscher 19-p 20

The author suggests that the population in ancient times was heavily youthful (due to a heavy early death rate) and this affected the kind of mythology that grew up. The mentally adult population was quite small for most of history and pre-history.

Forum: Ogam, Tifinag, Futhark (1 p) G. R. Murray 19-p 21

The author, editor of the Midwestern Epigraphic Journal, suggests that an inscription seen on p. 15 of Barry Fell's Bronze Age America (Ogam and Tifinag) contains a hidden meaning in that the Ogam and Tifinag groups resemble runes from the Norse futhark.

Stay Tuned (1 p) Stuart M. Gross 19-p 21

The author is in contact with Ted Timerick to make a film relating Barry Fell's discoveries. He is also interested in Ethel Stewart's work on the Maiming tribes in Alaska and Canada.

Review: Out of Egypt (4 pp) Michael Skupin 19-p 22

“Proto-Tifinagh and Proto-Ogam in the Americas” by David H. Kelley appeared in the Review of Archaeology, Spring 1990. Skupin commented: "An intelligent critique of Fell's work is such a novelty that one is tempted to simply report it as a wonder..." The general tenor of Kelley's paper (which dealt in detail with Fell's work on the Peterborough inscriptions) is that Fell was right in general, but wrong in certain particulars. Kelley goes on to say: “The presence of a proto-Tifinagh alphabet at Peterborough seems to me certain.”  and “The iconography of the Peterborough site is thoroughly Bronze Age Scandinavian, particularly resembling materials from Bohuslan.” Dr. Kelley gives confirmation of the broad outlines of Fell's work in an important archaeological journal.

Review: A New Landmark (2 pp) Michael Skupin 19-p 25

The reviewed book is Pre-Columbian Contacts with the Americas Across the Oceans by John L. Sorenson and Martin H. Raish, Research Press, 1989. If ESOP had a Book of the Year, this would be Skupin's choice. The 5613 entries cover the entire range of conventional, unorthodox, and popular materials --evidences for and against transoceanic contacts, claims and critiques, theory and method. It draws from the literature of many scientific disciplines and descriptive abstracts of up to 1200 words are provided for most entries.

Review: A New Benchmark (1 p) Michael Skupin 19-p 26

The reviewed article is “The Newark Holy Stones: the History of an Archaeological Tragedy” by Robert W. Alrutz, Journal of the Scientific Laboratories, Denison University, 1980. Skupin says: “This superb study is a must for everybody...Dr. Alrutz' work is consistently excellent...his writing is so clear, so polished that "The Newark Holy Stones" could serve as a model for similar efforts.”

Review: Yearning for Ivory Towers (3 pp) Bill Rudersdorf 19-p 26

This review is of an unpublished typescript, a work-in-progress, by James Guthrie, Rollin Gillespie, Philip Leonard and William McGlone (add to that James Whittall of the Early Sites Research Society, who wrote the cover letter forwarding the 33-page document). The typescript is divided into 3 papers: Introduction: The Two Sides of the Epigraphic Controversy; The Confrontation of Science by Epigraphy: Basic Issues, Methodology and Impasse; and The Demand for Artifacts: Evidentiary Issues in the Case for American Epigraphy. Skupin takes the authors to task for “ upon page of graffiti, starting with the authors quoting themselves, followed by a swarm of inflammatory quotations, often without context.”

Review: A “Family Portrait” (1 p) Michael Skupin 19-p 28

The reviewed volume is Exploring Rock Art by Donald L. Cyr, Stonehenge Viewpoint, 1989. Skupin calls it “...a very instructive introduction to the state of the 'rock art' question. Pictographic interpretation is included, but the emphasis is on the zestier question of Ogam.” Cyr included a variety of viewpoints both pro- and anti-Fell (leading the latter was Brendan O Hehir). He also included Fell's reply to O Hehir (to be seen in Vol. 18 of ESOP).

Review: Tabloid Epigraphy (3 pp) Michael Skupin 19-p 28

The volume reviewed is Dragon Treasures by Donald L. Cyr, Stonehenge Viewpoint, 1989. Skupin calls it "...a slapdash production...(It) cheapens the subject, and does the reader a disservice by its inadequacies. He decries Cyclone Covey's use of three different romanization systems to express Chinese ideograms. Skupin does find two articles in the volume as useful. One on the “iceblink” phenomenon (atmospheric conditions can reflect distant geographic features) and the other on Chinese geomancy. Skupin says “ including Don Clifford's The Mongolian Connection, which belabors a posthumous Mertz book, The Mystic Symbol...” Cyr has done a further disservice. Henriette Mertz should be remembered for her classic Pale Ink, not for the embarrassing entanglement with the fraudulent “Detroit artifacts.”

Review: The Musical Parameter (1 p) Michael Skupin 19-p 30

The article “Geography and Human Song” by Graham Pont appeared in New Scientist, January 1990. It is a sequel to one by Denys Parsons in New Scientist for March 1977. The breadth of the subject becomes evident when we consider that a lifetime is not enough to master even one of its subdivisions. While uncertain as to how this research will be relevant to epigraphy, Skupin commends the researchers for undertaking a formidable task.

Review: Stone Spirits (1 p) Barry Fell 19-p 30

The volume Spirits on Stone – the Agawa Pictographs is by Thor and Julie Conway, Heritage Discoveries Publications #1. This 87 page soft-cover book deals with the 117 Indian petroglyphs to be seen on rocks at Agawa Bay, Lake Superior. The authors pay especially detailed attention to the surviving traditions of Ojibway shamans (one of whom was their guide and instructor). Throughout the text there is reverence for Indian lore and respect for the present-day Indian descendants of the shamans who created the site.

Review: More Rock Art (2 pp) Michael Skupin 19-p 30

This Colorado Archaeological Society Memoir #3, 1989, Rock Art of the Western Canyons was edited by Jane S. Day, Paul D. Friedman, and Marcia J. Tate. It is a collection of papers delivered in 1987 at a rock art symposium. In the main they cover the same ground as Donald Cyr's Exploring Rock Art, but more blandly. Skupin feels that the authors of the various articles failed to rise to the urgency and excitement of their subject. Of interest is that about a third of the space in the Memoir is given over to a discussion of Southeastern Colorado petroglyphs.

Review: Soap Opera Digest (2 pp) Michael Skupin 19-p 31

A review of Myth Makers: Epigraphic Illusion in America by James P. Whittall II, Early Sites Research Society, 1990. It stirs up the embers of the Burrows Cave hoax which “...has been debunked for some time now, except in the minds of perhaps a half-dozen unconvinceables...” with a focus on the sleaziness that has surrounded the affair. Skupin remarks that the publication is “...voluble about the soap opera aspects of this controversy, yet strangely tongue-tied on the decisive matter of the childish doodles on these artifacts.” Apart from Burrows Cave, it “dawdles over other subjects resolved years ago in ESOP...” He asks: “Are the organizers of Myth Makers the new epigraphy cops, or are they merely vigilantes...?”

Review: Better than the Movie (1 p) Michael Skupin 19-p 32

The reviewed book is Testament: The Bible and History by John Romer, Henry Holt, 1988. It is a “fresh, stimulating and well-written overview of a subject of interest to many of our readers. ...It deserves to be read.”

Review: Landscape/Mindscape (2 pp) Michael Skupin 19-p 32

The reviewed book is Manitou – the Sacred Landscape of New England’s Native Civilization by James W. Mavor Jr. and Byron E. Dix, Inner Traditions International, 1989. The book deals with archaeoastronomy and is “a handsome, well-written book, that sets new standards in the examination of the megaliths of New England.” Skupin, who is part Indian, did feel, however, that the book was “permeated with the misty sentimentality that our day attaches to the American Indian.”

Review: Objects of Wonder (1 p) Bill Rudersdorf 19-p 33

This volume reviewed is Symbols of Power at the Time of Stonehenge by D. V. Clarke, T. G. Cowie and Andrew Foxon, National Museum of Antiquities of Scotland, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1985. Skupin calls it “...a splendid presentation of artifacts which will help breathe life into this bygone epoch...” (the Neolithic).

Review: Required Reading (2 pp) Bill Rudersdorf 19-p 33

The reviewed softcover volume is Motel of the Mysteries by David Macaulay, Houghton Mifflin, 1979. It takes us on an “adventure into the 39th century, when antiquarians of that date are beginning to re-discover the 20th century and its marvels.” The conclusions drawn by the archaeologists are often hilarious, for instance, stripes on traces of super-highways seen from the air are thought to be planned as “landing strips for extra-terrestrial craft or as coded their many powerful gods.” The remains of a busy street lined with ads and signs is called “Monument Row.” It epitomizes “...the folly of interpretation without cultural context...” and “...of relying upon our preconceptions of the past by way of circular argument...”

Review: Measuring Up (1 p) Marshall Payn 19-p 34

The reviewed volume Ancient Metrology by Donald L. Lenzen, 1989, is available from the author. “Metrology is the science of measurement. ...Today metrological standards are defined by atomic clocks and wavelengths of light. The ancients used what was handy: so many grains of barley equals a shekel (Hebrew); a cubic foot equals the volume of an amphora, the liquid weight of which equals a talent (Roman); six handsbreadths equals a cubit (Assyrian).” Lenzen shows how the measures of various cultures mesh together. The book is well-illustrated and is “both a good introduction to this interesting field as well as making a number of original contributions.”

Review: Short Measure (1 p) Bill Rudersdorf 19-p 34

The reviewed paperback volume is Full Measure edited by Donald L. Cyr, Stonehenge Viewpoint, 1990. It deals with metrology, the science of measurement. Rudersdorf decries the fundamental lack of accuracy of authors who claim astonishingly close measurements for ancient artifacts (such as the Pyramids). “Measured from where?” he asks. He concludes: “Despite...shortcomings, much material is treated well in this useful volume, and many good questions are raised, as well as possibly answered.”

Etymology of thc Lower Mississippian Languages - Part I (13 pp) Barry Fell 19-p 35

After his return from Africa in 1978, Fell noticed that Algonquin words for certain activities show a remarkable correspondence to the words for the same activities in the languages of Egypt, notably Ptolemaic Greek, Coptic and Arabic. By 1981 his attention was drawn to an even more extraordinary correspondence between the vocabulary of the Indians of the Lower Mississippi and that of the peoples of the Nile Valley, specifically the speech of the Atakapa, Tunica and Chitimacha tribes. The article is illustrated with maps of the areas involved and the delineation of phonetic transforms that link them.

The Discovery of the Venus of Milo (4 pp) J. Fergusson Roxburgh 19-p 48

This is a little known account of the discovery and removal to France of the famous statue by Jules Sebastian Cesar Dumont D'Urville (1790-1842) in 1820. It was given to a meeting of the Hellenic Travelers' Club on 15 April 1930. It is here reprinted from the Club's Proceedings.

An Early Casualty (1 p) The Editors 19-p 51

Ali Akhbar Bushiri of Bahrain has reported that, following the August 1990 invasion of Kuwait by Iraq, the museum in Kuwait City was ransacked and, among other things reported missing, are antiquities including the Dilmun seals which Bushiri had been studying. Similarly, artifacts excavated from Troy were found to be among the many items missing from the Berlin Museum in 1945. Once again the past, as well as the present, is a casualty of war.

Sacred Albino Mice of Apollo Smintheus: a Touch of Troy Clyde Keeler 19-p 52

The story of how the author traced a simple gene, that of albinism, back 4,000 years in history to the time and place of the Trojan War.

Gal Tender and Private (1 p) Michael Skupin 19-p 53

Skupin discusses language oddities and points out that ambiguities and misunderstandings are common in language work. A radically different reading is often generated by extra jots and tittles ...or simply by not possessing all the necessary information. If a dollar bill is folded just so, you obtain the title of this item: This note is leGAL TENDER for all debts, public AND PRIVATE.

When is a Dolmen a Dolmen? – Tôlven, Dolmen, Dysse, and Dös (3 pp) Edward P. Roemer 19-p 54

The term 'dolmen' as used by archaeologists in the past century, has had different meanings at different times and places. The Breton word is used in France to designate what British call a 'cromlech.' 'Dolmen' may be a corruption of Cornish 'Tôlven' which denoted a boulder left naturally perched on humps of rocks. In Sweden, 'Dös' is the term used for 'dolmen.' The Tripod boulder is found across Northern Europe and Northern North America. When a structure is made up of dressed stones supporting a capstone and a mandatory body interred, it is NOT a dolmen.

Setting the Record Straight – The “Epigraphic Controversy” (3 pp) George F. Carter 19-p 57

A reply to the article by Bill McGlone and Philip Leonard in Vol. 15 of ESOP (1986). He accuses them of leaning over backwards “to nearly apologize for the lack of communication” with the critics of Epigraphy and Diffiusion. Carter cannot agree that the fault is on both sides. The epigraphers and diffusionists are willing to talk, but the opposition is not and batter away with ad hominum attacks and guilt by association remarks. They are the ones resisting dialogue.

A Revised Date for the Pontotoc Stele (3 pp) Barry Fell 19-p 60

Fell originally suggested a date of 800 BC for the stele. He now feels that it belongs to about the first century BC, although its religious content appears to be more appropriate for a much earlier era.

Monumental Errors (1 p) Bill Rudersdorf 19-p 63

The author quite rightly points out that the way the ancients actually wrote an inscription is not the way we often see them depicted in carefully typeset books. All too often ancient manuscripts and inscriptions were done in a variety of cursive and degenerate forms every bit as bad as some modern handwriting and with as many subtle and not so subtle variations.

Rock Art for the Birds—Interpreting in Cultural Context (2 pp) George F. Cartcr 19-p 64

Carter points out that bird harvesting and capturing activity seen in Spain may also have been used in Egypt and portrayed in Nefer-seshem-Ptah's tomb. He notes that understanding scenes in rock art and inscriptions may require cultural historical knowledge.

Canadian Hebrew (1 p) Michael Skupin 19-p 65

Skupin deciphers a modern inscription carved by a climber high up on a Canadian cliff. Written in modern Hebrew script (with vowel points), a person named Preston immortalized his ascent. This “Hebrew” inscription had stumped Barry Fell, who rightly pointed out that the inscription, as it appeared, made no sense in Hebrew. One is sometimes fooled by a familiar word (in this case, the name Preston) in an unfamiliar script.

Archaeoastronomy on the Rocks? --A Mere Mirage (1 p) Bill Rudersdorf 19-p 66

The author examines recent findings concerning positional variations in observations of the sun on the horizon (Refraction on the Horizon by Bradley Schaefer and William Liller, July 1990) and its effects on the findings of Alexander Thom. He takes issue with astronomer Gerald Hawkins' remark (cited by Peter Weiss in “Reflections on Refraction,” Science News, 12 Oct 1990): “The whole structure that [Thom] made has collapsed.” Rudersdorf points out that Hawkins was known to “oscillate between attacking and defending an astronomical interpretation of Stonehenge in successive books.” He concludes: “We now have a good idea of the accuracy of the position of the sun near the horizon as well as of the limits of the accuracy of an astronomer in evaluating the life's work of a fellow scientist.”

The Lost Princess - a Misidentified Stele (3 pp) Gloria Farley 19-p 67

The author describes the history of a boulder popularly known (erroneously) as the “Indian Princess.” The boulder is carved with what appears to be a figure of a round-headed human figure (some felt it to be a woman). The author saw the stone at the Columbus (Georgia) Museum and Dr. Joseph Mahan said it had been brought to the Georgia Dept. of Archives and History in Atlanta by someone from Carrolton. Records indicated it was found near a stone structure in Carroll County, Georgia. Orville Russell, however, did some research in the Smithsonian and found that the boulder, carved with what was considered to be an image of a “prehistoric god,” was found in 1909 in a wild area known as “Jack's Hills” near the top of a cliff 100 feet above a creek in Douglas County, Georgia, near Douglasville (bordering Carroll County). A 4 September 1909 clipping reporting the find is shown as well as a good Smithsonian photo of the artifact.

A Peterborough-style Rebus in Georgia (1 p) Michael Skupin 19-p 69

The author suggests that the Georgia “Jack's Hills” petroglyph contains an inscription using the Tifinag script which may echo an inscription found at the Peterborough site in Canada. He makes the point, however, that his readings are tentative, pending further investigation.

For the Finding: The Pennsylvania Story (3 pp) Jon D. Baughman 19-p 70

Discusses unusual sites in Pennsylvania which might reflect pre-Columbian visits by people from the Old World: the Susquehanna Stones (Semitic script, possible Basque language); a standing stone; the Indian Steps; mysterious stone walls; and the enigmatic (possibly Celtic) Fort Hill site.

Ogam Consaine in the Book of Ballymote (2 pp) Barry Fell & Marshall Payn 19-p 73

An interview with Barry Fell by Marshall Payn which originally appeared in Cabrillo #1, February 1990. This was in response to various charges and criticisms made by Brendan O Hehir at a conference of the American Rock Art Association on 28 May 1988 (reported by Donald Cyr in his publication, Exploring Rock Art. Fell points out that Brendan's comments result from Brendan's dependence on George Calder's publication of a the Ogam line in question which was faulty. Fell worked from a better original which was checked in Dublin by Philip Leonard with the librarian there on an original copy of the Book of Ballymote. Fell's reading was proven correct.

The Newark, Ohio Inscribed Head - a New Translation (5 pp) J. Huston McCulloch 19-p 75

Discusses in brief the five Newark “Holy Stones” calling them into question. He dwells in particular on the “Inscribed Head.” Robert W. Alrutz of Denison University has written an exhaustive article on these finds. Joseph Schenck (1982) has also compiled the complete text of many of the early documents relating to these finds. The author points out that all efforts to read the Hebrew letters as Hebrew have necessitating changing the reading of the actual script somewhat. He notes that, read as English, the letters read: J - H - Nicol. A Dr. John Nicol (or Nichols) and John Haines were two witnesses to the finding of the Decalogue Stone (one of the five above). More credit was given to Wyrick than Nichol. Annoyed, he fabricated two or more specimens to show how easily people could be deceived. Nichol said that the 2 were afterwards found.

Kit for a Model of the Johnson-Bradner Stone (2 pp) J. Huston McCulloch 19-p 79

Explains how to make a paper model of the Johnson-Bradner stone (one of the 5 “Holy Stones” found near Newark, Ohio).

Love Among the Runes: the Ohio Runestone (2 pp) J. Huston McCulloch 19-p 81

Points out the discrepancies in runic usage exemplified by the inscription and traces the inscription to its appearance in a novel by Nevil Shute, published in 1940: An Old Captivity. The stone is a fake.

North American Indian Tribal Names (9 pp) E. Morgan Kelley 19-p 83

Deals with the problem of proper classification of the many Amerindian languages. He suggests that certain morphemes connect various tribes and also show a connection to Old World languages. He makes a strong and interesting case.

The Petroglyphs at Tule Lake (4 pp) E. Morgan Kelley 19-p 92

The lake is located at the end of Lava Beds National Monument, not far from the border between California and Oregon almost directly northeast of Mt. Shasta. The author discusses motifs found in inscriptions on rocks by the lake, breaking them down into four groups: sun disk and cross and circle; snake-like forms; cross-hatch/rectangular grids; and shaman or thunderbird symbols.

Meatball Mines (1 p) Marshall Payn 19-p 96

The author addresses the question of the fraudulent Burrows Cave artifacts and bemoans the necessity to taking time over and over again to point out the massive discrepancies that prove the falsity of the artifacts --time that could be better used on more worthwhile controversies.

Russell Burrows Writes —Barry Fell Responds (1 p) Russell Burrows & Barry Fell 19-p 97

A letter from Russell Burrows to Dr. Fell threatening legal action if “any further slanderous, libelous and defaming remarks” are made. Fell's reply to Russell Burrows' letter is printed below the letter and Fell again calls the Burrows Cave inscriptions fraudulent.

Epigraphy of the Illinois Burrows Cave Tablets (2 pp) Barry Fell 19-p 98

Fell points out that one of the Burrows artifacts is a copy of an inscription he published in America BC which contained an error in transcription (later corrected). Burrows' artifact faith- fully replicates the error, further underlining the fraudulency of the Burrows Cave inscriptions.

The Burrows Cave Artifacts (7 pp) Charles W. Bailey 19-p 99

The author's study of the Burrows Cave artifacts convinces him that they are fraudulent. “It appears...that a prodigious effort has been made to manufacture a bunch of stuff to hoodwink the unwary.” Several pages of graphics of alleged inscribed artifacts from Burrows Cave are shown.

Peruvian Skulls (4 pp) James L. Guthrie 19-p 106

According to the author, data from cranial studies made in 1967 and 1979 “support postulates of Indus Valley, North African [Egyptian], and other Mediterranean presence in ancient Peru.”

In Memoriam: Orville L. Hope (1 p) Lynn Stewart & Ida Jane Gallagher 19-p 109

Obituary of Orville Hope who died 27 October 1989 in Gastonia, North Carolina. He was the author of 6000 Years of Seafaring and many published and unpublished articles. He was an ardent diffusionist.

The Celtic Imprint on Stonehenge (5 pp) Alban Wall 19-p 110

Wall concludes that Stonehenge was built by Celts. It reflects the Celtic calendar schemes found in the Coligny calendar and in later Celtic calendar systems.

Dating  the Calalus Texts (5 pp) Barry Fell & Marshall Payn 19-p 115

In an interview with Marshall Payn, Fell cites linguistic and epigraphic evidence that the Calalus inscriptions and artifacts are modern. The only “good” Latin in the inscriptions comes from heraldic mottoes of the nobility as well as known quotes from Virgil, Horace, etc. The rest is what Fell calls “ignorant dog-Latin” with grammatical errors and misspellings. He suggests that the Calalus objects may have been the regalia of some order of Freemasons with special interest in Hebrews. He believes, however, that neither the finder, Tom Bent, or his son, had any connection with any fraudulent plan to deceive. Cyclone Covey first showed Fell photographs of the artifacts in 1977 and Payn later arranged with Bent to let Fell study certain of the originals.

Calalus: a Hard Look (3 pp) Michael Skupin 19-p 120

Skupin concurs with Fell's findings concerning the "Tucson Artifacts," underscoring the many errors in the “dog-Latin.” He remarks that the Hebrew on the inscriptions also shows a modern and uninformed touch, that the Hebrew phrases were probably copied from a reference work of some kind. He concludes that the inscriptions are modern. Cyclone Covey had implied that faculty members of the Wake Forest University Classics Department had participated in the translation of the artifacts, but Skupin found no members of that Department had any desire to claim such credit and firmly disassociated themselves from the matter.

The Tucson ArtiFacts: A Fingerprint (1 p) Michael Skupin 19-p 122

Skupin suggests that one of the “dog-Latin” errors that makes no sense in Latin or in English translation would make sense if the author was a Spanish speaker. This clue to the origin of the artifacts should be taken into account.

The Tucson Artifacts: Starting from Scratch (1 p) Michael Skupin 19-p 123

Skupin, at the suggestion of George F. Carter, corresponded with Julian D. Hayden regarding the Tuscon artifacts. Hayden replied that he remembered when the finds were made and had kept up with the situation. He described how he believed the artifacts were inserted from the side under layers of undis- turbed caliche. He noted that there was little or no corrosion on the lead artifacts, but lead-sheathed phone cables placed in Tucson caliche tend to corrode badly even in a short period of time. Further, the caliche layer into which the objects were inserted dated to a period 9,000-24,000 years ago.

The Tucson Artifacts: A Rebuttal to Skupin (4 pp) Chris Hardaker 19-p 124

Hardaker was hired by ISAC to examine and summarize archaeological investigations of the Tucson artifacts. He points out that few participants in the discussion had read further than Covey's book, "Calalus," and thus few were arguing with a full grasp of the events that occurred. Skupin and the Epigraphic Society  had concluded that the artifacts were buried in the 19th century by some club or cult and they were not a hoax per se while most modern archaeologists believe it was a hoax. He scolds Skupin for “not doing his homework” and the “cynical, cocky overtone of his presentation.” Hardaker concludes that Skupin and Fell have “postulated the who and the why,” but “have not succeeded in putting it all together to explain how.”

On the Level with the Tucson Artifacts (17 pp) Bill Rudersclorf 19-p 128

The author discusses the symbols and inscriptions on the artifacts in some detail and relates them to Masonic symbols and practices. He points out that a possible connection with Spanish Freemasonry and, by extension, with Masonry as practiced in Mexico.

Comments on Criticism of Calalus (1 p) Cyclone Covey 19-p 145

Covey defends his portrayal of the Tucson site and artifacts in his book. He states that he and the colleagues he consulted were quite aware of the linguistic errors in the Tucson inscriptions. He states that he and the Bents welcome proof or disproof of the material equally.

If They were Aspirin: Questions About the Tucson Artifacts (1 p) Jane Eppinga 19-p 146

Jane Eppinga, a Freelance Writer living near Tucson, recommends a more thorough investigationof the artifacts and all the infromation available concerning their discovery.

The Origin of ESOP (1 p) Barry Fell 19-p 147

Fell describes the Society's founding on 4 July 1974 in Arlington Massachusetts (originally under the name: The Polynesian Epigraphic Society; but George Carter suggested dropping “Polynesian” from the title). The journal, originally called Epigraphic Society Occasional Publications [DB Note: sometimes Occasional Publications of the Epigraphic Society which was often shortened to OPES], modified its title in 1990 to ESOP: Epigraphic Society Occasional Papers. ESOP's history has been one of small beginnings followed by steady growth and increasing resources, both financial and scholarly.

American Ogam or Welsh Coelbren y Beirdd? (3 pp) Barry Fell & Marshall Payn 19-p 148

Fell replies to Alan Wilson's who suggests that many so-called Ogham (or Ogam) inscriptions in the US and the British Isles, as well as Etruscan and Phrygian inscriptions, are all in Old Welsh and in the ancient script of the Welsh bards known as Coelbren y Beirdd. Fell pointed out that the latter was not ancient, but a spurious alphabet probably invented by Edward Wilson in the late 18th or early 19th century. Although regarded as a fabricator and a forger, Wilson's brilliance as a scholar and Romantic poet was nevertheless recognized.

The Ancient Egyptian Pyramids—Concrete Or Rock? (8 pp) D.H. Campbell & R.L. Folk 19-p 151

A Principal Photographer of Construction Technology Laboratories, Skokie, Illinois (Campbell) and a Prof. Emeritus of Geology at the University of Texas (Folk) discuss “overwhelming evidence” that Davidovitz' theory that the Egyptian pyramids were constructed of a form of poured concrete rather than stone. The authors call the theory of cast-in-place origin “preposterous.”

Mexican Sellos: Writing in America (9 pp) George F. Carter 19-p 159

This is an edited and updated version of a paper originally published in Diffusion and Migration (1978), Univ. of Calgary. The author discusses the fact that cylinder seals (sellos) exist in Mesoamerica (mentions seals found in Costa Rica and Mexico). He mentions several American inscriptions which might be forms similar to seals. In a postscript, the author relates information gained from Julian Hayden of Tucson, Arizona, that his father found an Egyptian seal at a depth of about 5 feet near Mecca, California.

Libyan Alphabetic Script on a Mexican Cylinder Seal (1 p) Barry Fell 19-p 168

According to the author, a number of Mexican seals present Old World alphabetic or hieroglyphic scripts in the Libyan language. He highlights one inscription that bore the Libyan characters for Q-T-Z-L (Quetzal), a reference to the Quetzal bird. David Kelley comments on the inscription.

A request for Information on Hill figures (1 p) Pattie Lawler 19-p 168

The author asks for information on the Hill Figures of England. She is looking for correspondence with individuals with similar interests.

Beards In North America Before Columbus (7 pp) Lawrence F. Athy Jr. 19-p 169

The author discusses the pre-Columbian occurence of beards on Amerindian artifacts: of stone, clay, bone, wood, and metal; as well as in pictographs, and manuscripts. He makes the point that full beards and moustaches on Indians only occur in areas where advanced cultures existed.

The Mystery of the Székely Runes (8 pp) Edward D. Rockstein 19-p 176

The author discusses the Székely Runes (also known as “Hungarian Runes;” the Székels were a relatively isolated tribal group in Transylvania). The letters were dubbed “runes” because they vaguely resembled the Germanic script. The script also has elements that resemble the Italo-Celtic and Iberic scripts. The Hungarians call it “Notch Script.” There are 32 character --several with alternate forms. Comparisons are made to several other scripts including Turkic.

A Note on the Kuru-Bekiir Gorge “Turkish Runes” (1 p) Edward D. Rockstein 19-p 184

Dr. Rockstein presents and comments upon a paper by Russian colleagues which he received from Barry Fell. Rockstein states he is “no Turcologist, but rather a specialist in the languages of the more sedentary peoples of East Asia --the Chinese, Koreans and Japanese-- although I have dabbled in Kalkha Mongolian and Old Turkic and Uighur.” He tried his own hand at decipherment, but found there to be insufficient text and not enough help from the context.

Inscriptions and Petroglyphs of the Kuru-Bekiir (4 pp) Gorge Ch.D. Dzhumagulov et al. 19-p 184

The authors sent Barry Fell a short paper with attached graphics of inscriptions found in the Kuru-Bekiir mountain gorge by a Soviet expedition from the Institute of History and the Institute of Language and Literature of the Kirghiz SSR. The inscriptions appear to be in Old Turkic or Sogdian “Runes.” Edward D. Rockstein adds his own comments and suggestions concerning the interpretation of the inscriptions (starting on page 185).

Colloquial Carthaginian (14 pp) Michael Skupin 19-p 188

The author does an excellent job of facing up to the challenge of retrieving and explaining Punic words and phrases appearing in the text of an ancient play by Plautus called Poenulus (the Carthaginian) --especially since the text has passed through the hands of numerous non-Carthaginian scribes through the centuries.

Backstage Carthaginian (3 pp) Michael Skupin 19-p 202

The author gives us insight into the interpretation of part of Hanno's opening monologue in Plautus' play, Poenulus, illuminating ancient humorous references and customs.

Barracks Carthaginian (1 p) Michael Skupin 19-p 205

The author discusses a Punic word scratched onto a bowl found in a Roman outpost in Wales.

Redundant Carthaginian (1 p) Michael Skupin 19-p 206

Skupin discusses Carthaginian as revealed by Carthaginian writers who wrote in Latin.

Plagiarized Carthaginian (2 pp) Michael Skupin 19-p 207

Discusses Louis H. Gray's plagiarism of Paul Schršder's work on Plautin Punic.

In Memoriam: Frederick J. Pohl (1 p) Gloria Farley 19-p 208

Teacher, playwright, and diffusionist author, Pohl died at 101 on 21 Feb 1991. He was a recipient of ISAC's Root Cutter Award.

Gaelic Carthaginian (1 p) Michael Skupin 19-p 209

Discusses the attempts by Friederich Soltau and a certain Mr. O'Connor to relate Gaelic to Carthaginian.

GeseniusCarthaginian (1 p) Michael Skupin 19-p 210

Discusses the work on Phoenician and Carthaginian by the noted Hebrew Scholar William Gesenius.

Funeral Carthaginian (1 p) Michael Skupin 19-p 211

Skupin suggests an alternate translation for the Weka inscription (a bilingual from North Africa –see ESOP 1:9:43-- which shows connectiions to Maori). He suggests it may contain a formula similar to that in inscriptions Fell discusses in ESOP 3/2:76:4 (specifically the Grave Creek and Braxton Tablets from West Virginia).

An Ancient Egyptian Ship in Australia? (1 p) Charles Bailey 19-p 211

Bailey came upon an undated illustration in an Australian newspaper. It was the result of a computer analysis of a badly faded pictograph of a ship found on Booby Island off the coast of Australia. The ship appears to be clearly similar to those of the ancient Egyptians.

Photo Credit (1) 19-p 212

The color plate on this page (which goes with the following article) is printed by courtesy of the Midwestern Epigraphic Society.

Four Fraudulent Ogam Inscriptions (3 pp) from Kentucky Barry Fell 19-p 213

Fell discusses faked Ogam inscriptions inscriptions in Kentucky (he identified them as fake to Victor Moseley of the Midwestern Epigraphic Society as early as July 1988. He shows clearly that they were copied from his own publication of material from valid sites in West Virginia. On p. 212 is a large color picture showing three persons (unidentified, but probably from the Midwestern Epigraphic Society) recording one of the fraudulent inscriptions. [Buchanan note: Dr. John Payne of Kentucky subsequently gave an amusing talk to ISAC about how two “good ol' boys” took him in with these inscriptions.]

Epigraphs, Petroglyphs, Pictographs??? (13 pp) Raymond M. Beaumont 19-p 216

This is a reprint of a Teacher's Guide pamphlet prepared by the author for use at the Peterborough Site. The site displays markings which might reflect Old Scandinavian as well as North African scripts. The paper mistakenly calls Tifinag a “Nordic” script. Numerous examples of the script, with Fell's translations, are given.

Easter Island Traditions (5 pp) Petero Edmunds 19-p 229

Edmunds' response to a letter from Marshall Payn in which he replies to a series of questions on the history and traditions of Easter Island. “I strongly believe that the makers of the moai were not pleople from the Indus Valley, nor from the Inca Valley, nor from the Egyptian Valley, but were our tohunga (priests, wizards, skilled artisans). And our tohunga were Polynesian.” He recommends Englert and Routledge and Mulloy's writings on Easter Island. He praises the Epigraphic Society for the work it is doing, particularly for Fell's translations of the Easter Island script. He points out that the ancient war on Easter Island was not between the “short ears” and the “long ears” --this was a mistranslation. It was between the “short, stocky race” and the “tall, slender race.” Heyerdahl, unfortunately, perpetuated the mistranslation.

Easter Island: Unravelling Mysteries (3 pp) Marshall Payn 19-p 234

Marshall Payn undertook a visit to Easter Island where he met with Petero Edmunds.  He tackled the questions: “(a) Who built the Moai (the statues)? (b) What was their purpose? (c) How were they moved? (d) How were they erected on the ahu (the base, platform or altar)? (e) What was the origin and meaning of the hieroglyphs?” As for (a) and (e), Fell's translations show a Polynesian origin --the boards seem to translate as historical documents. Marshall tends to mostly agree with Heyerdahl about (d), but not necessarily about (c). Marshall relays the Islanders' version of the historical war. As for (b), the moai were repositories for the souls of past leaders and thus the ahus and the statues were sacred places, not to be disturbed. On the last page is a picture of Petero Edmunds and his wife.

Plants and Culture in the Origin of the Polynesians (9 pp) George F. Carter 19-p 237

Carter discusses the problem of accounting for the heavy Europoid element among the Polynesians (in addition to the Melanesian and Asian elements in their racial mixture). He holds that the evidence suggests repeated waves of people entering the area at different times from differing directions. There is a connection to the Uto-Aztecans in America noted through linguistic and cultural similarities. He cites David Kelly's work (as well as his own and that of Mary Ritchie Key) on trans-Pacific transfer of plants. He speaks of Heyerdahl's idea that people from the Mediterranean came to Peru and also cites the work of John Rowe and Stephen Jett. Carter sees overwhelming evidence for the presence of overwhelming influence of a Mediterranean presence in the Andes. Biological and cultural evidence definitely proves trans-oceanic contacts with Polynesia and the Americas.

Possible Ogam in the Paris Basin (3 pp) Paul Minault 19-p 246

He cites an illustration (shown) in Gilles Tassé's "Pétroglyphs du Bassin Parisien" which he says shows linear markings similar to the Ogam writing discovered in the US. Tassé noted that such petroglyphs were found by the thousands throughout the sandstone deposits of the Paris Basin and Northeastern France.

Mediaeval Elements in the Paris Basin Petroglyphs (1 p) Barry Fell 19-p 249

Fell agrees with Minault that the markings discussed in his article were not Neolithic, but later. Many could be mason's marks used as early as Roman times and into Medieval times.

Deciphering the Easter Island Tablets, Part 2 (27 pp) Barry Fell 19-p 250

This is a continuation of the article in Vol. 18 on the decipherment of the Kohau Rongorongo of Easter Island. He mentions letters of support from Petero Edmunds of the Easter Island Council of Elders and Likeke McBride of Hawaii as well as Maui Pomare, a leading Maori chief and scholar. He also heard from Gordon Hislop, an Otago chief. In this article, Fell gives a proposed reading of the opening passage of the Kohau known as Tahua using Thomas Bartel's transcription of the writing on the tablet published in 1958. A catalog of 270 Rapanui ideograms is given as well as the meanings of the phonoglyphs.

English Prosonomasia (1 p) Bill Rudersdorf 19-p 277

The author compares the type of word play detected by Fell in the Easter Island tablets to English examples as shown by the song “Mairzy Doats” (“Mares eat Oats”) and “Ladle Rat Rotten Hut” (a garbled version of “Little Red Riding Hood”).

A Polynesian Inscription from Tahiti (3 pp) Barry Fell 19-p 278

Fell deals here with Tahitian ideograms shown in a famous painting by Paul Gaugin (Merahi Metua no Tehamana) and shows their relation to the Easter Island script Again he makes his translations by finding appropriate words which are homo- phones or isophones of the root meanings of the symbols. One is exemplified by the first word of Gaugin's title: Merahi is probably intended to be M'Arahi = “the many.” Fell shows that the Tahitian script is a form of the Easter Island script and adds that a form of the script can be also found in the Caroline Islands (see Vol. 18, pp 86-89).

The Voyage of Tupac Inca Yupanqui, Part 1 (8 pp) John Spencer Carroll 19-p 281

A momentous voyage of discovery by a 15th century Incan ruler and conqueror which apparently penetrated deep into Polynesia and Micronesia and may have reached portions of Australia or Southeast Asia.

English-Gadelic Dictionary, Part 3 (10 pp) Burrell C. Dawson 19-p 289

This covers the words beginning with the letters "R" and "S." It will be continued.

The Comalcalco Bricks: Part 1—the Roman Phase (36 pp) Barry Fell 19-p 299

Fell concludes that visitors from North Africa were present at Comalcalco during the first three centuries of the Christian era. He considers the site to be a predecessor of Palenque. This paper is focuses on a study of the markings on the bricks from Comalcalco to bolster this deduction.

On the Cover

Paul Gaugin's Merahi metua no Tehamana, courtesy of the Art Institute of Chicago.


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