The Epigraphic Society
Epigraphic Society Occasional Publications
of Contents Volume 18 1989
In Memoriam: Victor Conway Moseley, Warren Laurence Cook, and Raymond Dart (1 p) Barry Fell 18-p 9
of the page deals with Victor Moseley (with a photo), who passed away on 30
October 1989. One paragraph reports the death of Warren Cook on 7 December 1989
and the final paragraph deals with the death of Raymond Dart.
Pre-Columbian Voyages to America (1 p) H. E. Robinson 18-p 10
Points out Donald H. Keith's comment in
Ships and Shipwrecks in the Americas that "some early maps...show coastal profiles of New World lands that, according to conventional history, had not yet been visited by Europeans."
Did Denmark Import Bronze-Age Copper from America? (2 pp) Stig Wiene 18-p 10
the find of a Scandinavian-type bronze axe near Peterborough, Ontario, and suggests that bronze-age Scandinavians imported copper from the New World.
Holly Oak Mammoth (1 p) Peter J. Dawson 18-p 12
that the shell bearing a depiction
of a mammoth may not be fraudulent since mammoths may have existed in New World longer than thought.
Cooperation with the USSR Valeri I. Guliaev 18-p 12
Agrees to an exchange of publications.
Michigan Stone Circle (2 pp) Brad Vincent 18-p 12
1,000 year old stone circle was found in 1985 on Beaver Island in Lake
Michigan. It may have been used as a calendar. Smaller circles (medicine wheels?)
were also found near the site.
Pre-Columbian Greenland Settlements (1 p) W. R. Anderson 18-p 13
Draws attention to
Documenta Selecta by J. C. Heywood, issued by the Vatican Press in 1893, giving authenticated sources for the history of Norse Christianity in America before Columbus.
Adena Tablets (1 p) Elizabeth H. Stewart 18-p 14
the existence of a "carved Adena tablet" and wonders if it might contain writing.
Prehistoric Petroglyphs in North Bavaria (2 pp) Walter Stender 18-p 14
Stones reported in 1985 bear enigmatic linear markings
(photo). They are exhibited in the Pfalz Museum in Forchheim, Bavaria.
From H. R. H. The Prince de Condé (1 p) Condé 18-p 16
Praise for the Society's publication of evidence of Mediterranean and North African infusions into Amerindian and Pacific cultures.
Arabic and Pima (2 pp) Alan S. Kaye 18-p 16
A professor of Linguistics comments on and criticizes Fell's Pima/Arabic
comparisons. He also criticizes Fell's Alcoy translation and points out mispellings in the article re Alcoy in volume
Reply (1 p) Ernest Bloom & Jon Polansky 18-p 17
Dr. Ernest Bloom and Dr. Jon Polansky make a brief
reply to Alan Kaye's criticisms of Fell.
Cooperation with China (1 p) Cai Yuniang 18-p 18
The Deputy Director of the Serials Department, China National Publications, Beijing, China, expresses an interest in receiving ESOP publications.
Creek Rock Art (2 pp) Raymond M. Beaumont
Forwards photos and tracings of rock paintings (illustrations p. 19) found at Paimusk Creek near Molson Lake, northeast of Norway House, Manitoba, Canada. The author tells of native Cree (at Norway House) interest in the Society's work on the origins of their script.
Characters in the Walam Olum (1 pp) Peter
Backs Fell's and ShupShe's work on the Mide script showing a relationship with Ancient Egyptian and Kufi (illustration below letter on the same page).
Trails Across the Pacific (9 pp) George F.
A noted archaeologist investigates the proposal that there were outside influences from the Pacific on North and South American cultures (reprinted from The Johns Hopkins Magazine, 1957).
Origin, Development and History of the Ogam Script: Facts and Conjectures (5 pp)
Brendan 0 Hehir
Abstract handout sheets from the Ridgecrest Meeting of the American Rock Art Research Association 1988 Symposium in Ridgecress, California. His paper held that Ogam was not an independent invention, but a cipher based upon the Roman alphabet of the second half of the first century BC--designed specifically for the transposition of archaic Old Irish. "The study of Ogams cannot be separated from the study of Old Irish. The 'Old Gaelic' proposed by Fell and others has no linguistic standing. So-called American ogams do not look like genuine Ogams and their purported transliterations are forced and their translations ignorant gibberish. The purported Ogam alphabet said to be used in America is a disingenuous fraud."
Origin and History of Ogam—An
Interview with Barry Fell (17 pp) Marshall
Payn & Barry Fell
Fell's response to Brendan O' Hehir's attack concerning Fell's decipher- ment of Ogam Consaine.
Patron Saint of Carthaginian Sailors (4 pp) E.
Examines the goddess Tanith, her history, symbols and mythological connections, particularly the spread of her cult by means of Carthaginian sailors even to the shores of North America.
The Forgotten Army Of the Dilmun Culture (16 pp) Ali-Akbar H. Bushiri 18-p 56
The author holds that Dilmun was not merely a trading center, but a military power with a very impressive collection of weapons in a large number of styles--observable not just from archeological finds, but also on the seals (as seen in over 700 photos in his own collection).
Update, How and Why They Were Built (13 pp) Marshall
Since bronze had yet to be discovered, how did the Egyptians manage to cut and trim the stones for the pyramids? Payn examines Joseph Davidovits theory of the Egyptians' use of a kind of concrete. He also looks at the works of Dr. Kurt Mendelssohn and Peter Tomkins. Payn suggests that the Pyramids were intended to represent model Kas--specifically mirroring the Ka of the Sun God Ra (and/or the Ka of the Earth). He points out that the Egyptian hieroglyph for "exalted one" (God?) is a profile of the first of the great pyramids (a step pyramid).
A Guide to Babel (1 p) Michael Skupin 18-p 84
A favorable review of Writing Systems of the World: Alphabets, Syllabaries, Pictograms, by Akita Nakanishi (published by Charles E. Tuttle). Although not perfect, Skupin feels the book is a must for anyone interested in language.
to Frederick J. Pohl, Centenarian (1 p) Gloria
Outlining the accomplishments and publications of author Frederick Pohl.
Caroline Islands Script Before the European Contact (4 pp) Barry Fell 18-p 86
Disputes the Smithsonian's 1960 allegation that the Caroline Islands script was developed in 1907 from an alphabet given the islanders in 1905 by a missionary. Fell shows an example of the script which dates from 1697. At the bottom of the page is a short biography of Fell.
Note on The Elephant in America (1 p) George
The author examines evidence for the recent extinction of the elephant in the Americas. Evidence from a mastodon kill site in Ecuador suggests that its death occurred no earlier than 3,000 BC and possibly later. Information from Indians and eskimos in North America also suggest a very recent extinction.
Gothic Inscriptions in Spain (1 p) Lawrence F. Athy 18-p 91
The author draws our attention to Documentacion Goda en Pizarra (Gothic Documents on Slate-shale) by Manuel Gomez-Moreno of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid (1966). The slates were primarily found in the Province of Salamanca. He assigns the inscriptions to the Gothic period (c. 400-800 AD). He compares them to wooden tablets carved in Tunisia c. 500 AD. Two types of inscriptions: 1. numbers 2. cursive letters. The numeric system appears similar to the Roman. The cursive letters appear to be the miniscule cursive alphabet used in the western part of the Roman empire. Many translations are given in the book.
Apache and Other Tribes Whose Ancestors Came from Khotan (9 pp) Ethel G. Stewart
The author holds that ancestry of the Apaches and other Dene Indian tribes can be traced back to the Khotan area of the Tarim Basin (below the Gobi, below Lake Bai-kal) during the early 13th century AD.
Creek Update (1 p) Michael Skupin
The author recommends the article by J. Huston McCulloch "The Bat Creek Inscription: Cherokee or Hebrew" in vol. xiii, #2 of The Tennessee Anthropologist (Fall 1988). He calls it a "polished, meticulous and comprehensive examination of the issue. The circumstances of the discovery, a history of the controversy, and the present state of the question are given." He praises McCulloch for his "solid work."
Astronomy of Hidden Mountain (4 pp) Richard
Discusses the Las Lunas inscription and the stone ruins and zodiac inscription found on Hidden Mountain (arrived at by a trail leading up the mountain from the Las Lunas inscription). The author concludes that the "Zodiac Stone" is nothing more than a collection of Indian petroglyphs similar to many others found along the mesa. He does not feel that the site marks an eclipse. He believes that David Deal's work on the site is flawed.
Observations on the Willow Gulch Petroglyphs, Utah. (3 pp) Manton L. Botsford 18-p 105
Two mammoth petroglyphs reported in BLM, Utah Cultural Series #4, were field-checked to determine if the original proposed association with Paleo Indian artists is credible or if any indication may be present to imply their having been produced by another culture group. Observations are presented regarding the site of the petroglyphs and general character of the sites with which they are associated.
Queen Guinevere buried in Scotland?
(2 pp) David MacLean Eaton & Tom
Among the Pictish stones displayed at the Meigle Museum in Meigle Scotland (NNE of Perth; NW of Dundee) is one alleged to be the burial marker for the tomb of Guinevere. The author delineates Scotland's connection with the Arthurian legend. In this version, while a captive of the Picts (who were at war with Arthur) Guinevere had an affair with Mordred, a Pictish prince. Arthur won and, for her adultery, put his queen to death. She was buried in Meigle. Tom Strider came across this tale when the author's wife, Eileen Eaton, was introducing him to the Meigle Museum. She persuaded her husband to write it up for ESOP.
Kensington Runestone Part 3: Linguistic Evidence For Its Authenticity (23 pp) R.
Nielsen continues his exhaustive examination of the Kensington Runeston inscription, replying to the arguments of the critics and strongly bolstering arguments for the authenticity of the inscription.
Ohio Runestone (1 p) Gloria Farley
Describes the finding and subsequent investigation of the Ohio Runestone. A photo of the inscription is shown.
Arabic/Islamic presence in America before Columbus: Indisputable Proof Based Upon the Power and Placement of M (3 pp) Louis D. Buff Parry 18-p 134
The sharing of a unique rule-ordering procedure, the placement of the 'm' sound and/or symbol, in the phonology and grammar of Semitic, Egyptian and North American languages is offered as proof of an early contact between the cultures.
People of the Ankh: Deciphering Tribal Names (9 pp) E.
Expanding on Joseph Campbell's The Masks of God, the author expounds on probable or possible contacts between Old World and New World cultures as revealed by their vocabularies when examined using sound-shift rules. One suggestion made is that the biblical Joseph may be identical with a known Egyptian Apa'ankh (or Ip'ankh).
Cappadocia's Caves Embrace a Legacy of Christian Art (7 pp) Ida Jane Gallagher 18-p 146
Describes the cave dwellings and underground towns of Cappadocia, occupied by monks and others since at least 373 AD. It is well illustrated and mentions the Maltese Cross Inscriptions. There is a picture of Clyde Keeler, who apparently accompanied the author.
and Oblomovism (1 p) Michael Skupin
A review of Archaeology and Language by Colin Renfrew (Cambridge University Press, 1988). Skupin pans the book as "a pastiche of the opinions of his circle, a survey. Renfrew finds everyone wanting, which makes the book increasingly morose, autumnal. ...Aside from period interest, Archaeology and Language has nothing of value."
Discover America Before Columbus (1 p) Tom
An introduction to ESOP and the books of Barry Fell. He notes that a Spanish language edition of America BC is issued under the title: America A.C. Los Primeros Colonizadores del Nuevo Mundo.
Antiguas Inscripciones del Paraguay (6 pp) Jim
The author discusses apparent Ogham and Iberic inscriptions found in Paraguay. The article is in Spanish.
Zuiva = Comalcalco (7 pp) Lawrence F. Athy
The author states that the site now known as Comalcalco is probably identical with a Mayan religious and educational center called Tulŕn Zuiva (in the area once called Nonoalco).
Review: Nu Sun by Gunnar Thompson (1 p) Marshall Payn 18-p 166
Thompson shows that there was a diffusion of at least thirteen Asian symbols to the Maya about 300 BC, nicely complementing the theories expressed by Alexamder Von Wuthenau and Paul Shao.
The Anubis Cave is a Celtic Calendar (1 p) Gloria Farley 18-p 167
Farley demonstrates that the various inscriptions and symbols illustrate festivals occurring throughout the Celtic religious year.
of the Xauen Region, Morocco (2 pp)
Prince de Condé
The author found Neo Punic inscriptions on a cliff in the area of Xauen, Morocco. Barry Fell translated one of them as reading "Lion."
Case of the Purloined Letters (1 p) Bill
The author reports on Ogham-like inscriptions found in the vicinity of "Inscription Rock" at El Morro National Monument, near Grants, New Mexico. He investigated the site in 1988 with the aid of Larry Athy and found several previously unnoticed apparently Ogham inscriptions.
Irish Ogams, Some on the Stone Face, Some without Vowels
(8 pp) Lawrence F. Athy Jr.
Athy does an excellent job of proving that Og(h)ams in Ireland were not always carved on the edge of the stoneŃand did not always contain vowels.
Conversation with Nobuhiro Yoshida (1 p) Michael
Skupin interviews a noted Japanese pictographer and epigrapher. Yoshida remarked that most of his work was centered around Fukuoka and Kyushu since his funding comes from the Fukuoka Board of Education. Yoshida believes he has found Sumerian inscriptions in Japan.
A Sumerian Inscription of the Fuente Magna, La Paz, Bolivia - Part 3 Archaic Aymara Script Combined with Sumerian Script (4 pp) Alberto Marini 18-p 180
This is a continuation of the reports given in Volumes 13 and 15 of ESOP. The author is a leading authority on Sumerian language and cuneiform inscriptions.
Mobilian Jargon - Trade Language – And Its Contribution to the Hopewellian
Culture (2 pp) ShupShewana (Howard L. La
The Mobilian Jargon was a trade language made up of several very different tribal languages from the area around the Gulf of Mexico. This article is from a paper read before the Ancient World Cultures in America conference in San Francisco, June 1988.
on a Footnote (1 p) Michael Skupin
Skupin points to Footnote 29 on page 466 of The Chinese Heritage by K. C. Wu (Crown, 1982) which contains a detailed discussion of internal confirm- ation of ancient texts by archaeoastronomy as well as a plea by Wu for an expert willing to investigate the matter.
Deciphering the Easter Island Tablets - Part 1 (26 pp) Barry Fell 18-p 185
The author deciphers the Easter Island rongorongo inscriptions with the aid of New Zealand cave inscriptions, signatures of Maori chieftains on the Treaty of Waitangi, and spoken passages recorded more than a century ago by Bishop Tepano Jaussen from the dictation of an Easter Island chief named Metoro. Passages cover the early discovery and settlement of Easter Island and sequences of formulae for use as protective charms. A vocabulary of the words encountered is included.
An Overview of the Petrograph News, Japan (1 p) Michael Skupin 18-p 211
The Author gives a rundown of items published by the West Japan Petro- graph Society (Nobuhiro Yoshida, Editor, Toshiro Inadomi, President) from July 1986 through March 1989.
Ogam Sites in Eastern Kentucky (1 p) John
This was a paper read at the June 1989 conference of ISAC in Columbus, Georgia. The author describes how he was taken in by a faker and the steps taken that proved the inscriptions were fraudulent.
Mammoth in American Epigraphy (2 pp) George
The author discusses various depictions of mammoths and elephants found in North America.
of Christian Irish in North America: Two Icelandic Sources (2 pp) John Spencer Carroll p 214
The author discusses evidence found in the Landnámabók and the Flateyjarbók as well as in various sagas.
Longitudes, A possible technique (4 pp) Wyn
A possible technique for finding longitude on land using simple equipment and arithmetic. The stellar sphere rotates at a different rate to that of the sun as seen by an observer on earth. The proposed method fractionates this daily differential to determine intermediate longitudes around the earth.
History of a Heresy (1 p) Michael Skupin
A favorable review of John Michell's Secrets of the Stones: the Story of Astro-Archaeology (Penguin, 1977). Michell takes modern scientists to task for too often assuming that because they are distant in the past, our fore- fathers were naught but illiterate, unthinking savages.
Geometry of Stonehenge (9 pp) Alban Wall
Wall discusses Alexander Thom's Megalithic Yard as appled to Stone- henge.
English-Gadelic Dictionary, Part 2 (20 pp) Burrell
I through R of the author's dictionary, begun in Volume 17 of ESOP.
Los Lunas Errata (4 pp) Michael Skupin
The author investigates the spelling anomalies in the Los Lunas inscriptions and concludes that the inscription, whatever its true provenance, was inscribed by someone more familiar with spoken Hebrew and Greek rather than classical written Hebrew.
"Mooring Stones," An Enigma Deserving More Attention (3 pp) John J. Olson 18-p 253
The author urges more investigation into the so-called "mooring stones" found at various sites in North America.
"Pyramids" (2 pp) Hao Xin-hua
The author describes his trip to the Mao Tombs of the Emperor of the Western Han dynasty. The tombs are pyramidal in shape and have a number of similarities to the pyramids found in Mexico.
Mexican Ogam? (1 p) Walter Stender
In a letter to Barry Fell, the author speaks (and sends a rather poor picture) of an Ogam-like inscription seen in a cave on Marina in Mexico. He received this information from his friend, Pedro Hendrichs.
Ogam and Runes from Central Oregon (1 p) Richard M. Smith 18-p 258
The author reports on inscriptions from Oregon (shown) which appear to contain both Ogam and Runic-like symbols.
Tanith in North Carolina (1 p) R. B. Myers 18-p 259
In a letter to Barry Fell, the author enclosed photographs of alphabetic petroglyphs found in the region as well as a symbol that appears to be a Tanith. Fell suggested that the alphabetic symbols were Cherokee and unrelated to the Tanith.
Shawnee Creek Stone of Oklahoma (2 pp) Gloria
The author discusses an inscribed stone brought to her attention in April 1989. She provided a copy of the inscription to Barry Fell who suggested the motif shown resembled seals found at the site of Dilmun, an ancient site on the island of Bahrain in the Persian Gulf. Photos of artifact shown. Also a photo of the Hearn Cuneiform Tablet (found in Georgia, USA) and graphics illustrating motifs from Dilmun, Alabama, and Oklahoma (Spiro Mound).
Pre-Spanish Crosses in Yucatan and Mexico (9 pp) John S. Carroll 18-p 262
The author discusses the evidence for the use of the Christian cross symbol in the New World before the Spanish discovery of America.
Reconstructive Writing System of the Dilmun Culture (28 pp) Ali Akbar H. Bushiri
The author disputes the argument that ancient Dilmun was devoid of a written language. He calls it a "reconstructive writing system" derived from Sumerian pictographic ideograms and used only on the seals of Dilmun.
Qulu Writing, The Ancient Finger Language of Sun Worshippers (2 pp) Beryl Page 18-p 298
The author shows the close resemblance of Qulu finger language to Ogam.
Maya Inscribed Bricks from Comalcalco (3 pp) Nancy
The author discusses the decipherment of three bricks given her by Neil Steede.
and Hmong Clues to a Western American Petroglyph Group (8 pp) Paul R. Cheesman & David L. Tomlinson
Cheesman, a Fellow of the Epigraphic Society, presented this paper to the World Cultures of Ancient America Congress of the Epigraphic Society, 5 June 1988, in San Francisco, California. 12 American sites are discussed and claims that the sites (which appear to contain Egyptian hieroglyphs) were inscribed by Hmong Asians are examined. These sites have been studied by, among others, Roberta (Bobbie) Smith. Two other sites are mentioned, but not included in the paper, which is well-illustrated.
Worship in Central Asia (1 p) Raya Rechaim
This was reported by Marshall Payn. Evidence of a prehistoric bull cult has been discovered in the Altai Mountains of the USSR.
The Newport Tower (2 pp) Paul H. Chapman 18-p 312
The author discusses a purported Runic inscription found on a stone built into the Newport Tower.
Discovery of Ancient Coins in Ohio Continues (1 p) Barry
Gordon Eggers of Hubbard, Ohio, found a brass sestertius of Nero (AD 54-68) (illustrated).
Petroglyph of the Court of Antiquity (2 pp) Brent
A petroglyph translated by Dr. Fell and published in Saga America, known previously only from line drawings, has been located, photographed, and preserved by tracings. It is found at the "Court of Antiquity" site in Washoe County, Nevada. It is here described, complete with additional markings not recorded previously, to encourage further attempts at translation. Fell said it was an instruction on how to find the area of a circle, which derived an approximation for Pi of 3.
Temple Stele in Yuan-shi County (3 pp) Cai
The stele dates from the Yuan Dynasty. It is in Yuan-shi County in He-bei Province (Hopei in the old system). It is inscribed bilingually in both Mongolian Posba and Chinese Regular script.
Inscribed Stone from the Genesee River Bed (1 p) Barry
Fell & Don Eckler
The author reports the finding of a stone inscribed with apparent Iberic characters. An excellent photo of the stone is included, along with a map showing the general area where it was found.
Iberic Trader’s Token from New York (1 p) Barry
Barry Fell tackles the inscription reported by Eckler and says that the stone was an Iberic trader's token.
Punic Inscription on An Atlatl weight from Georgia (5 pp) Barry
Fell reports on his decipherment of an inscribed atlatl weight found in the state of Georgia (illustrated on page 323). The inscription appears to read: "Javelin caster." Michael Skupin supports his reading.
Susquehanna Petroglyphs (1 p) Russell H. Jensen 18-p 325
Jensen writes to point out that a manuscript referred to on page 273 of vol. 17 of ESOP was a gift from him personally to the Society and had at no time been the property of the Delaware Museum. Fell notes that the MS shows that the Susquehanna petroglyphs were already known a century before they were reported from Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania.
A Fraudulent Tablet (Burrows Cave, Illinois) (1 pp) Russell E. Burrows 18-p 326
In volume 16 of ESOP, p. 24, Barry Fell discussed a tablet alleged to be from Burrows Cave which he determined to be fraudulent (it carried a version of the Cuenca Elephant from Ecuador and duplicated an error Fell himself had made in recording the artifact). In a letter dated 8 Dec 1989, Burrows, then living at 512 N. Fair St., Olney, IL 62450, stated that he had investigated and concluded that the artifact in question was indeed fraudulent, having been done by the deceased nephew of the deceased landowner.
Tugalo Stone of Stephens Co., Georgia (2 pp) Barry
Fell & Joseph B. Mahan
Fell reports on his translation of one of the inscriptions on theToccoa Stone (later called the Tugalo Stone). In August 1980 he was given a latex impression made by Gloria Farley, Donal Buchanan, and Earl and Peg Syversen (Fell mistakenly put Clyde Keeler and Roberta Smith there, but they weren't). Fell believed that the Ogham-like markings on the stone had to do with a Yuchi-Cherokee treaty. Additional Information on the Tugalo Stone is provided by Joseph B. Mahan who gives historical facts unknown to Fell which bolster his translation. The inscription is well-illustrated.
Discovery and Decipherment of the Turkish Runes (4 pp) Edward
Describes the discovery of the existence of the Turkic "runic" script 300 years ago and their decipherment by Vilhelm Thomsen in 1893. A character map of the script is provided.
in Amber (1 p) Michael Skupin
A review of Discovering Our Past: A Brief Introduction to Archaeology by Wendy Ashmore and Robert J. Sharer. Skupin regards the book as "more valedictory than introductory."
Stone Artifacts from Guayanilla, Puerto Rico, Part 2 (9 pp) Barry Fell
Continued from ESOP Vol. 16, p. 334. A character map of the Taina sylla- bary is given. It looks very much like Cree and appears to be a variant of that language. Fell translates a number of the inscriptions as invocations to the gods (a mother goddess and a father god).
Language Identified (2 pp) Jean Hunt
Hunt identifies Shelta as the language of the Megalith builders.
Language on a Pictish Stele (2 pp) Barry
Fell translates a so-called "Pictish Ogham" inscription from Scotland (illustrated on p. 43 of this volume as 5A). He reads it as referring to the death of a Pictish King, Nehto(n). He says the remaining letters, TRZB have no meaning in Gaelic, but could be a form of the Shelta Tarsp "to die; dead; death." Fell refers to a letter from Jean Hunt. [Buchanan comment: This Ogham inscription is from Keiss Bay in Caithness. It actually transliterates as NEHTETRI which can be broken down as NEHT ETRI. I suggest it could be Gaelic neachd edor-i = tribal enclosure (mausoleum? cemetery?).]
Easter Island Statue (Photo by Barry Fell). Volume title: Deciphering the Easter
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