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Volume 15


Epigraphic Society Occasional Publications

Table of Contents, Vol. 15,  1986


Fell’s Ogam Decipherments Proved Correct (1 p) 15-p 9

Ancient Celtic America (1983) by William McGlone and Phillip Leonard contains a report which validates Barry Fell’s decipherment of Ogam inscriptions in West Virginia. On the other hand, in 1975 the National Geographic sent slides of Fell’s work on Ogam to an expert in Britain who stated that his approach was “…unscientific. Not a single syllable of his interpretation or translation – has any validity whatever.” Another professor came to a similar conclusion. None approached had ever studied Ogam Consaine. In recent years Celtic scholars in Wales and America have supported Fell’s translations while other British professors have fallen silent.

Forum: Letters from far and wide  (29 pp) 15-p 10

The individual letters are discussed below.

Forum: A Micmac Disaster, 1746 (1 p) A.W. Cavins 15-p 10

Almost the entire Indian Micmac tribe was destroyed in Nova Scotia in 1746 by using infected blankets and other detritus left behind by a departing French naval squadron. This revealed by an essay by one James Lind published in 1774 and quoted by Ralph H. Major in 1932.

Forum: Oak Island Tifinag (2 pp) L.J. Dewald 15-p 10

He suggests that, in light of recent discoveries, the Oak Island inscription, rather than being in Libyan, might be in Irish or Old Norse. Fell agrees and shows examples of the use of Tifinag in modern North Africa.

Forum: How Old is the Basque Syllabary? (1 p) Alan McCone 15-p 12

McCone writes on behalf of a Spanish friend, Josemaria Montesinos, a Mathematics Professor at the University of Saragoza who makes a study of Basque inscriptions found in Iberia. He desires photocopies and locations of Basque inscriptions reported by Fell and support for Fell’s theory that the Basque syllabary predates Roman times. Fell provides the information, citing publications and locations.

Forum: Ancient Egyptian Mnemonics (1 p) Russell B. Stafford 15-p 12

Stafford is writing a book on the use of mnemonic devices by Ancient Egyptians. So far he has completed about 700 pages. He thanks Fell for the stimulus he has provided and for his efforts. He seeks to join the Society.

Forum: Serpentine Solstice Markers in Ohio  (2 pp) M. & C. Creager 15-p 12

Serpent effigies (one 75 feet long and the other 150 feet long) at a 1200 BP site in Ohio turn out to be Solstice markers. These, known as the Kern Effigies, were excavated by John R. White of Youngstown State University. Photos are on exhibit at the Ohio Historical Center in Columbus.

Forum: North America’s Egyptian River Names (1 p) Bill Ainley 15-p 13

At least two river names found in several areas of North America (Saugatuck and Wabash), thought to be Algonquin, prove to derive from Coptic and ancient Egyptian.

Forum: Dating of Petroglypghs (2 pp) Ruth Knudsen 15-p 14

The author brings the Society’s attention to a new method of dating petroglyphs being developed by Dr. Ronald Dorn of California. Fell refers her to a paper by Dorn and Whitley appearing in the Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 74 (2) pp. 308-322, 1984. The Society’s copy was provided by William McGlone.

Forum: Ancient Hindu Contact with Mayans (1 p) V. S. Wakankar 15-p 14

An Indian scholar thanks Fell for the information he has provided concerning ancient Hindu contact with the Mayan civilization. He would like to introduce it into a museum exhibition “India’s Contribution to the World.”

Forum: Amerind Blood Types (1 p) ShupShe 15-p 14

The author expresses his appreciation for and support of the work of Fell and the Society. He particularly cites his interest in the work being done which shows that blood types O and A were present in the Americas before 1500. In many ways ShupShe feels more like a Celt than an Amerind. He signs the letter using his native script. ShupShe is a Pottawatomie, his wife is a Cherokee, but both are of partial Celtic extraction.

Forum: An Assiniboine Comment (1 p) Alan A. Huemer 15-p 15

The author reports that a Ken Ryan, an official in the Poplar Bureau of Indian Affairs Office and a traditional Assiniboine has read Fell’s work. Ryan pointed out that the Assiniboines, a division of the Sioux mostly living in Canada, have an origin tale about transoceanic migration. The Assiniboine word for writing, Okami, appears to match the Celtic word Ogam.

Forum: British Fakery (1 p) Jay Ellis Ransom 15-p 15

The author comments on Fell’s book, Saga America. He calls it “completely unscientific in every aspect … a mish-mash of impossibilities and improbabilities … this book comes across as idiotic.” He pushes his own book, Fossils in America which he says contains examples of how students plant fakes for gullible professors. He adds that “The British have a long tradition of fakery” and cites Piltdown Man which was faked by Oxford students to be discovered by a professor they hated.

Forum: Ancient Lamps in America (1 p) Stanley A. Long 15-p 15

Long cites the Roman or Italian oil lamps discovered in Connecticut and Alabama and mentioned in Saga America. He draws attention to an article on Italian lamps by Cleo Rickman Fitch printed in the December 1982 issue of Scientific American.

Forum: Biologist – Linguists (1 p) Howard H. Hillemann 15-p 15

The author, an Emeritus Professor of Zoology at Oregon State University, describes his background and training, including linguistics, as paralleling that of Fell. He congratulates Fell on “an amazing piece of work.”

Forum: Navajo Knowledge of Pacific (1p) Bill Ainley 15-p 15

The author encloses copies of four pages  from a Navajo biography titled Hosteen Klah which refers to an ancient migration by the Navajo people across the North Pacific from an ancient homeland in the West.

Forum: Tifinag Letters on Coins of the Ancient Britons (1 p) Lionel H. Atkinson, Barry Fell 15-p 16

The author cites the ESOP reports of Tifinag characters on stone monuments in Ireland and on the coinage of Anglo-Saxon kings. He draws attention to the possible existence of Tifinag letters on coins of pre-Roman Britain. He encloses graphics (shown). Fell calls this an “important new area of epigraphic research.” He finds that the letters are indeed Tifinag and spell Gaulish words appropriate for the coins on which they are found.

Forum: Origin of Copper in Bronze Artifacts (1 p) Aasmund Sandland 15-p 17

The author, a Norwegian, was introduced to Fell’s work by his friends Alexander Thom and his son Archibald. He finds Fell’s book, Bronze Age America, very interesting. He sends graphics (shown) of fleets of ships depicted in Bronze Age carvings in Norway. He also suggests that bronze tools in the Americas and in Europe be analyzed to establish whether the origin of the copper used is European or American.

Forum: Petroglyphs of Cattle in South Dakota Evoke British Comment (2 pp) Gary Licking & John B. V. Jump 15-p 18

A British cattle breeder, John B. V. Jump, suggests that cattle shown in the Ludlow Cave petroglyph with a "double hump" are depicted just after parturition.

Forum: New Sumerian Dictionary (1 p) Robert H. Dyson Jr. 15-p 19

The first volume of the Pennsylvania University Museum of Archaeology’s Sumerian Dictionary is about to go to press. It has been in production for over 25 years.

Forum: Variant Forms and Promiscuous Uses of Runes (1 p) Barry Fell 15-p 20

Two tables showing variant forms and pronunciations of runes.

Forum: Runic Inscription in Ludlow Cave South Dakota (2 p) Barry Fell 15-p 21

Runic letters seen among petroglyphs in Ludlow Cave: M-L-T = malta = mjalta = giving milk or milking.

Forum: Spanish Celts Still Use Ogam (1 p) Barry Fell 15-p 22

In reply to Glenn Isaac of Cambridge, Fell points out the use of Ogam on a publication of the Asturian Celtic League (graphic shown).

Forum: Spanish Celts’ Ogam Heritage (1 p) Xesus L. Pacios 15-p 22

A Spanish scholar agrees that ancient Asturian Celts used Ogam script.

Forum: Columbus Celebration (1 p) Hördur Helgason & Thor Heyerdahl 15-p 23

The 500th anniversary of Columbus' voyage will be ignored by the UN because of objections by former colonial subjects. While a great admirer of Columbus, Heyerdahl does not feel he deserves a global celebration day over other explorers (the Norsement, for instance, who got there many years earlier).

Forum: Crack in the Façade? (2 pp) Eric Pawley 15-p 23

The author Cites Goddard & Fitzhugh’s (Smithsonian) block condemnation of Fell, then cites Smithsonian Director Lowe in rebuttal.

Forum: A Phoenician Odyssey to Canada? (1 p) Christine Pellech 15-p 24

A European ethnologist lauds Bronze Age America and cites her own book: Die Odyssee - Eine Antike Weltumsegelung (The Odyssey – An Ancient Circumnavigation of the World). [Buchanan comment: Dr. Pellech went on to found an excellent quarterly publication in 1999: Migration and Diffusion.]

Forum: Celtic or Keltic (2 pp) Barry Fell 15-p 24

Fell elucidates the linguistic rules that demand that the word ‘Celt’ be pronounced with a soft 'C.'

Forum: Georgia’s Ancient Visitors from the Old World (1 p) Barry Fell 15-p 25

The author review's Dr. Joseph B. Mahan's publication: Columbus: Georgia's Fall Line 'Trading Town.' He calls it a well-written and beautifully illustrated work that will be certain to please epigraphers. Ancient Punic coinage and inscribed rocks found in Georgia and in the neighborhood of Columbus are illustrated and explained.

Forum: Hebrew Inscriptions in America (1 p) Cinaid Bunche 15-p 25

He cites an unnamed Harvard middle eastern scholar who agrees Los Lunas is in old Hebrew; and Stephen Williams who disputes it.

Forum: Kannada/Telegu in Mexico? (1 p) S. Venugopalacharya 15-p 25

He refers to bi-lingual inscriptions in Mexico he believes Fell cited, but Fell replies he has no knowledge of them.

Forum: Proto-Celtic [and Tifinag] at Lascaux (2 pp) Barry Fell 15-p 26

Fell reads an inscription next to a bull's head as GH-N L-GH L = ghin loegh lu = "calf-begetter" Old Gadelic Celtic.

Forum: Inscribed Jar from 280 Fathoms (3 pp) Weldon W. Stout, Barry Fell, British Naval Experts J. D. Brown & R. D. Ridding 15-p 28

An inscribed Jar was found by a fisherman at 280 fathoms off mouth of Klamath river in California. Drawings of the inscribed jar were sent to Fell saw an ‘RN’ in the inscription and thought it might be similar to those used on navel containers. He contacted the Royal Naval Historical Office which could not identify it with known Royal Navy containers, but expressed great interest in the find.

Forum: The Megaliths of Luneburg Heath (1 p) Helmut Krock 15-p 30

The author calls attention to the Hunengraber (Giant’s Graves) mounds, for most part now gone, found in a lowland area of northern Germany.

Forum: Bahrain Subscribes (1 p) State of Bahrain Ministry of Information 15-p 30

Asks for a list of publications and an application for membership.

Forum: How Old is the Cree Syllabary? H. C. Meyer 15-p 30

The author cites a Cree elder who claims the syllabary given by ancient ancestor long before the arrival of whites.

Forum: Modern Gauls Still Use Ogam (1 p) Barry Fell 15-p 31

Continuing to refute Dr. Glenn Isaac of Cambridge, Fell cites Le Triscele, a publication by French descendants of Gauls (graphic shown).

Forum: Andean Links with Sumeria (1 p) Alberto Marini 15-p 32

The author writes in Spanish, citing an article by Dr. Francisco Matas about a Sumerian inscription in Bolivia in a previous ESOP. Fell states that further info will be made available in ESOP 16.

Forum: A Lakota Teacher Writes (1 p) Pahizi Wawoyaka 15-p 32

Rev. John Gibbons (Pahizi) claims that there is a Lakota tradition of visits by European visitors in ancient times.

Forum: Makah Taught in School (2 pp) Howard Hellmann 15-p 32

The ancient tongue of the Olympic peninsula and Vancouver Island is to be taught in local school on the Olympic Peninsula. Written Makah has an alphabet of 44 characters.

Forum: Written Language Before Dictionaries (1 p) Paul A. Elias 15-p 33

The ancients had no dictionaries, therefore spelling varied.

Forum: Cherokee Tradition of Pygmies (1 p) Jerry King 15-p 33

The author cites old Cherokee tales of the Little People, called Nunnihi, dwarves said to live in the Southern Appalachians.

Forum: Windmill Hill Amulets (3 pp) Ida Jane Gallagher, Barry Fell 15-p 34

Gallaher reports on artifacts in the Avebury Museum (w/pics). Fell comments on his translation of the inscribed artifacts.

Forum: Ancient Basques in France (1 p) Frank Bourdier 15-p 36

The author cites two of his papers relating to the Euskera syllabary: "The Basque People & Mining Prospectors [in] the Copper Age" & "Prehistory and Typonomy, Bascoid Sources in France." Fell wants him to prepare a summary of them to be published in translation in ESOP.

Forum: An Ogam-Inscribed Atlatl-Weight from Stillwater, New York (2 pp) William H. Bunce & Barry Fell 15-p 37

The writer found an artifact in a plowed field that shows marking similar to Ogam. Fell, however, does not think artifact has anything to do with Celts since no meaningful connection with Celtic roots can be made. It is possible that an Amerindian language could be present but the use of an apparent ‘O’ character causes difficulty as most Ogam found in North America is consonantal and vowel-less.

Forum: “Gaelic-Speaking Indians” in New York (1 p) Sam Rosenberg 15-pp 38, 46

The author cites an account in the History of the Town of Flushing, Long Island, New York by Henry D. Waller. Fell responds (on p 46) that our founding ancestors regarded Amerindian and Celtic languages as mutually unintelligible just as the Greeks thought all foreigners spoke ‘Barbarian’.

Translinguistics  (1 p) Marge E. Landsberg 15-p 39

A review of Materials for a Bibliography of Translinguistic Studies a paper prepared by the Indiana University Linguistics Club.

Ancient Celtic America (1 p) William R. McGlone & Phillip M. Leonard 15-p 40

This is basically an ad which extols their book about recent extensive discoveries of ancient Ogam/Gaelic inscriptions in the western United States. It tells a bit about the contents and shows graphics of an Ogam inscription from Colorado, the Tunnel Rock Ogam, deciphered by Fell. Rollin Gillespie wrote an appendix to their book.

Fantastic Archaeology: Alternate Views of the Past (1 p) Barry Fell 15-p 41

A review of a malicious attack on Barry Fell, Norman Totten, Donal Buchanan, George Carter, et al, issued by a Harvard professor, Stephen Williams.

Report of the Gadelic Committee (5 pp) Burrell C. Dawson, Robert T. Meyer, Proinseas Ni Chathain, Linus Brunner 15-p 42

The report deals with remarks made by a critical Irish scholar and includes a tabulated etymology of the vocabulary of the West Virginia inscriptions.

Pre-Columbian Tobacco in India (1 p) Jaweed Ashraf 15-p 46

Research by Dr. Jaweed Ashraf shows the use of tobacco (Hindi: tambaku) in India 150 years before Columbus.

The Arabic Numbering System on the Kensington Rune Stone (15 pp) Richard Nielsen 15-p 47

Nielsen's research has uncovered facts in support of Robert Hall's opinions on the authenticity of the runestone.

The Walls of Cuzco  (4 pp) Carol Patterson 15-p 62           

This is a photo essay illustrating Inca mortarless stone work.

Evidence of Links Between Ancient India and Mexico (3 pp) S. Subramonia Iyer & K. V. Ramesh 15-p 66

Indian scholars comment favorably on work by Barry Fell and Neil Steede on material from Tihosuco and Comalcalco.

Gene Frequency Distributions in Epigraphic Research: Possible Indic Influences on the Tewa of New Mexico (8 pp) James Guthrie 15-p 69

Blood group data can aid epigraphic research by supporting or denying Old-World/New World linkage.

Letter: Warm Greetings from India  (1 p) B. Ch. Chhabra 15-p 77

The Universities of India where Epigraphy is taught are requesting full runs of ESOP.

Letter: Ogam Discovery in Wyoming (1 p) Robert E. Walker 15-p 77

A large rock panel in Cedar Canyon, northeast of Rock Springs, Wyoming, has an Ogam inscription: "Byanu Mother-Goddess."

Letter: Libyan Sea Captain's Amulet Excavated in Azores (1 p) Guenther Nollau 15-p 77

An inscribed amulet has been found invoking the aid of Allah to protect and guide a ship. The script is Old Libyan. The language is Berber-Arabic.

Letter: Lead Disk from Adams Co., Ohio (1 p) Daniel N. Rolph 15-p 77

An Iberic traveler's amulet has been found with a small cache of Amerind artifacts in a cave in Ohio.

News in Brief: Bronze Age America (1 p) Barry Fell 15-p 78

Complaints have been received that the volume is hard to obtain. Fell investigated with the publisher and found that between 6,000 and 7,000 unsold copies held by publisher have mysteriously disappeared. Fell received no royalties on those copies.

Letter: Cuzco Stele (1 p) Joachim G. Liehr 15-p 78

A stele in the Cuzco museum may bear medieval Indic. Scholars in India and Indonesia are examining photos. Details will be published in a later ESOP.

Stick Charts of the Marshall Islands (1 p) K. O. Emery 15-p 78

This article, reviewing all known specimens of such charts, will appear in volume 16 of ESOP.

Indian Treaties and Land Grants (1 p) Ida Jane Gallagher, Ellen M. Manganaro, & David Muga 15-p 78

Photos of signatures & details of purchase prices of lands in Connecticut and Pennsylvania obtained were obtained by Gallagher and Manganaro. They are to be in ESOP, volume 16, together with information on Indian stone-marking provided by Muga.

Midwestern Epigraphic Society (1 p) Barry Fell 15-p 78

Members of the MES have located more Ogam panels in Kentucky. They may be published in ESOP, volume 16.

Ancient Coins Discovered (1 p) Barry Fell 15-p 78

More reports of the discovery of ancient coins: the Midwestern Epigraphic Society reports a bronze coin from Ohio. There are also reports of two Ptolemaic coins being found in New Zealand.

Letter: Linguistic Enigma Solved (1 p) Gerhard Kraus 15-p 78

The ‘discovery’ of a surviving stone age people, the Tasaday, on Mindanao, in the Philippines, is determined to be a hoax.

Old World Contacts with America  (8 pp) Norman Totten 15-p 79

A broad examination by the Vice President of the Epigraphic Society of the proofs for Old World-New World contacts.

Ad: History on the Rocks (1 pp) Scott Monahan 15-p 86

A video by Scott Monahan: History or Mystery? is available from the producer for $55. It deals with equinoctal inscriptions found in the Oklahoma panhandle and Southeastern Colorado.

Etymology of Etruscan (2 pp) Linus Brunner 15-p 87

Brunner backs up Fell's claim that Etruscan belongs in the Indo-European linguistic family group.

Mediterranean Mythology in Traditional Pima Chants (19 pp) Barry Fell 15-p 89

Fell’s decipherments of Chants: Noah, Icaros, Persephone, the Creation, some of Aesop's fables. Fell comments on George Stuart's 1979 criticism.

Dates Dividing the Seasons 1986  (1 p) Rollin W. Gillespie 15-p 108

The author relates material from the Astronomical Almanac for 1986 to the data from Anubis Cave.

Prehistoric Zoolatry (4 pp) Joaquim Rodrigues dos Santos Jr. 15-p 109

A discussion of the Berroes (Boar-worshipping?) culture of Trás-os-Montes, Portugal.

Illustration: Stone Circle in Northern Quebec (1 p) 15-p 112

Made known by the late Prof. Thomas Lee in his field work, it is located in Ungava, Northern Quebec, Canada.

The Thunderbird of the Dene and Na-Dene  (4 pp) Ethel Stewart 15-p 113

The Thunderbird motif is found in both cultures and also in East Central Asia and South Asia.

A Sumerian Inscription of the Fuente Magna, La Paz, Bolivia (Part 2: The Third Column) (2 pp) Alberto Marini 15-p 117

The first part of this article appeared in volume 13 of ESOP. It deals with a Sumerian Cuneiform inscription seen in a large bowl found in South America. It is to be continued in a future issue.

The Epigraphic Controversy  (14 pp) William McGlone & Phillip M. Leonard 15-p 119           

The authors discuss the criticism and critics of Fell and delineate their own positions in the controversy.

An Old Norse Translation of the Heavener runes (9 pp) Richard Nielsen 15-p 133

Nielsen discusses and deciphers the Heavener Runestone inscription.

Ten Commandments in the New Mexico Desert (3 pp) Guenther Nollau & Iuris Ultriusque 15-p 142

The author discusses the Los Lunas Inscription. He holds that it is an authentic inscription and not a hoax.

Forty Years Ago (1 p) The Editors 15-p 144

An early paper by Fell: “The Pictographic Art of the Ancient Maori of New Zealand” (graphic shown) is discussed. It was published in 1941 in Man by the Royal Anthropological Institute.

The Decipherment of Late Iberic Part III (8 pp) Donal Buchanan 15-p 145

The author’s paper is continued from volume 14, p. 185. Buchanan is a  Fellow of the Epigraphic Society.

El Sacerdociu los Druides (2 pp) Xesus Lopez Pacios 15-p 153

A Spanish language discussion of the Druids and their function in the Celtic culture.

Astronomers Complain "Archaeologists dragging their feet" (1 p) George Reed 15-p 154

The author sends an extract from an article in Astronomy, Jan. 1986: Archaeologists are reluctant to accept astronomers views re Stonehenge.

Archaeologists Found Wanting (2 pp) Rollin W. Gillespie 15-p 155

The author, a retired NASA astronomer, writes an angry protest against the views expressed by two archaeologists in the video History or Mystery.

A Summer Solstice Sunset at the Compass Cave (3 pp) Scott Monahan 15-p 157

The author examines a 5 x 10 inch inscription, northernmost of all the Ogam inscriptions in the Anubis Cave complex.

Money Cowries and the Midewiwin Society (10 pp) George F. Carter 15-p 160

The use of the cowry is memorialized in Winnebago and Ojibway texts, as well as Algonquin ritual practices.

In Honor of Elliot Smith & William James Perry, Founders of Diffusionist Theory (17 pp) Gerhard Kraus 15-p 170

A leading diffusionist discusses Grafton Elliot Smith and William James Perry, whose theories were roundly criticized by Glyn Daniels. Biographic information on the author, with C. E. Joel a founder of the New Diffusionist, is given (with a photograph).

Grafton Elliot Smith (1872-1937) (2 pp) Gerhard Kraus 15-p 187

Biographic material on Smith with some discussion of his theories.

William James Perry (1887-1949) (1 p) Gerhard Kraus 15-p 188

Biographic material on Perry, including some of his publications and his views on worldwide interrelationships.

Diffusionism in the Doldrums (1935-1970) (1 p) Gerhard Kraus 15-p 189

The author discusses the fact that the diffusionism of Grafton Elliot Smith and William James Perry and the scholars they inspired which attained world-wide renown in 1922 and subsequent years later suffered almost total eclipse. The death of its leaders all but killed the diffusionist movement.

European Dugout Canoe Excavated in Maine (1 p) Richard Swete 15-p 189

A nautical archaeologist reports that a 21-foot dugout canoe of European type has been excavated in Southern Maine.

In Memoriam: Henriette Mertz (1896-1985) (2 pp) Gloria Farley 15-p 190

An obituary notice for a diffusionist author: (Pale Ink, The Nephtali, The Wine Dark Sea, Atlantis, Mystic Symbol). A photograph is shown.

Douglas Gilman Blizzard (1910-1986) (1 p) Mary Louise Blizzard 15-p 191

An obituary notice for the author of The Ruins of Great Ireland in New England.

Gertrude Johnson (1 p) Barry Fell 15-p 191

Notice of the death of the noted artist who served well as art editor of the Early Sites Research Society.

Medicine Wheel (1 p) James Graham 15-p 192

The author sends a graphic of a small medicine wheel located south of St. Lawrence, South Dakota and asks for comments on its use.

Need for artifacts (3 pp) William McGlone & Phillip M. Leonard 15-p 193

The authors see the archaeologists requirements for artifactual proof as too rigid.

Volcanic Eruption Destroys Armero Museum (1 p) Fernando Espinoza 15-p 196

Dr. Edgard Torres survives, but ESOP volumes in the museum were buried by volcano. The Society will replace them.

McKusick Versus Fell (1 p) Gerhard Kraus 15-p 197

While generally supporting the efforts of the Skeptical Inquirer, the author takes Marshall McKusick and J. R. Cole to task for their irresponsible criticism of Fell.

Dilmun Fashion in the Third Millenium B.C. (8 pp) Ali-Akbar Habib Bushiri 15-p 198

A discussion of the similar sartorial and tonsorial styles of Dilmun, Sumer and the Indus Valley.

La Escritura Vasca (13 pp) Imanol Agiré 15-p 206

A Portuguese language article by the late noted lexicographer and epigrapher on Basque, the language, its script and the resemblance of the script to Cree. The Basque syllabary according to Fell is given. The Boticario inscription is shown and deciphered. A photo of the author, with biographic information, is shown.

Enclosed Ogam Designs: Possible Explanations (7 pp) Gloria Farley 15-p 219

The author, a Fellow of the Epigraphic Society, discusses short Ogam inscriptions enclosed in ovals, circles or rectangles and gives suggestions for their meanings.

New Etymology of Hittite (8 pp) Linus Brunner 15-p 226

While Hittite seems to be an Indo-European language, nevertheless many words seem to derive from Semitic.

Script of the Maori Fishing Calendar (5 pp) Barry Fell 15-p 234

Signs on the calendar, previously thought to be Libyan, are actually Batak.

Ringerike, Home Base of a Bronze Age Expedition to Ontario  (9 pp) Walter Stender 15-p 239

The author discusses the inscriptions at Peterborough, Ontario, Canada, relating them to the Norwegian area of Ringerike.

Ideographic Inscriptions (2 pp) Burrell Dawson, Harry Martin, Nancy Martin & Barry Fell 15-p 248

The authors bring to Fell’s attention some inscribed panels (photos shown) found by Vince Yoder east of a Shoshone Cemetery, in Inyo, California. Fell replies that the panels are inscribed in an ideographic script used by many of the Plains and Western tribes. [Buchanan comment: I recognize these inscriptions as some of the same ones investigated and written about by the late Roberta Smith.]

Mide Scripts of the Algonkians (5 pp) ShupShe & Barry Fell 15-p 250

First of two papers on Amerindian scripts by a scholar of the Midé Grand Medicine Lodge. With an introduction by Barry Fell.

On the Cover

Kensington Rune Stone, Minnesota. © Alexandria Chamber of Commerce.


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