Epigraphic Society Occasional Publications
Table of Contents, Vol. 1, 1974

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Paper No.

1       An Egyptian Shipwreck at Pitcairn Island (3 pp) Barry Fell 1-p 3
Decipherment of an Egyptian (Libyan dialect) rock inscription from Pitcairn Island, Java, in the Pacific.

2       Polynesian Epigraphy -- A Report to the Society (2 pp) Barry Fell 1-p 6
Founding of The Epigraphic Society, 4 July 1974 as The Polynesian Epigraphic Society.

3       The Ancient Maori Votive Stele of the Pyramid of Ra on Mount Lavu in Eastern Java (6 pp) Barry Fell 1-p 8
Libyan script dated 304 AD.

4       Numerals on Ancient Maori Steles (8 pp) Barry Fell 1-p 14
Roman and Egyptian commerce with S. E. Asia.

5       Ritual of the Dawn: Fragments of Ancient Maurian Chants in New Zealand Maori (6 pp) Barry Fell 1-p 22 
Mithraic religion apparent in ancient Maori inscription.

6       The bilingual Latin-Maori stele of Kaiu from Thullium (6 pp) Barry Fell 1-p 28
Tunisia: Numidian/Libyan script. Maori = Mauri = Moors.

7       The bilingual Latin- Maori stele of Rapa from Thullium (5 pp) Barry Fell 1-p 34
Numidian/Libyan & Amharic script.

8       The bilingual Latin-Maori stele of Fawasa, Priest of the Oracle of Rono (4 pp) Barry Fell 1-p 39
Tunisia Numidian/Libyan script.

9       The bilingual. Punic-Maori stele of Weka, from Bordj-Zoubia, near Oued-Meliz, Tunisia (4 pp) Barry Fell 1-p 43
Neo-Punic and Numidian.

10     Distribution of Ancient Maori Inscriptions written in Maurian (Numidian) script (4 pp) Barry Fell 1-p 47
North Africa to Polynesia.

11     The bilingual Latin-Maori. stele of Zakatutu from Thullium (3 pp) Barry Fell 1-p 51
Latin and Numidian/Libyan script.

12     Chronology of Ancient Maori Scripts (7 pp) Barry Fell 1-p 54
From @ 250 BC to 385 AD.

13     An Ancient Maori inscription from Dakumba, Fiji (6 pp) Barry Fell 1-p 61
From @ 250 BC.

14   Carthaginian and Other Graffiti from West Irian Caves (3 pp) Barry Fell 1-p 67
Carthaginian and other inscriptions in caves in West Irian.

15     Ancient Maori Mathematical and Scientific Hieroglyphs (4 pp) Barry Fell 1-p 70
West Irian and New Zealand.

16     The Treaty of Taranaki, a Mediaeval Stele of New Zealand (5 pp) Barry Fell 1-p 74
Numidian-Libyan script; Hawaikian dialect; stele dated to 1450 AD.

17     Newly Deciphered Naval Records of Ptolemy III (2 pp) Barry Fell 1-p 79
Western New Guinea; Libyan-Egyptian inscriptions c. 232 BC.

18     A Proposition by Eratosthenes, An Astronomer of the Delta Country (6 pp) Barry Fell 1-p 81
Inscriptions in Numidian script and Egyptian hieroglyphs found in caves in West Irian.

19     Maui on Eratosthenes — An additional fragment from Sosorra (2 pp) Barry Fell 1-p 87
Inscriptions in a cave at Sosorra relating to Eratosthenes' calculations.

20   Correspondence (5 pp):
Letter: Conditions for membership. (1 p) Conger Williams 1-p 89
Requests conditions for membership in The Epigraphic Society.

        Letter: Back numbers of Occasional Publications. (1 p) Harold S. Gladwin 1-p 89
Requests availability of back numbers of ESOP.

        Letter: Egyptian coins found in Australia. (1 p) Mrs. E. Dooner 1-p 89
Egyptian coins found in Australia allegedly dated to 4000 BP (questionable since no coins were struck in Egypt before 332 BC according to Norman Totten).

        Letter: Navigation equipment depicted in West Irian Caves. (2 pp) F. E. Bassett 1-p 90
Inscriptions in West Irian caves show early navigational equipment and connection to Egypt.

        Letter: Engraved rocks in New Zealand. (1 p) John C. Yaldwyn 1-p 91
Five sites on North Island; cave paintings on South Island

        Letter: Bronze Age trade routes from the Red Sea to Southeast Asia? (1 p) Edwin Doran Jr. 1-p 92
Study of boat types in the areas concerned show possible ancient trade connections between them.

        Letter: ESOP in Peabody Museum in Salem, MA. (1 p) Ernest Dodge 1-p 93

        Letter: ESOP in the National Museum of New Zealand. (1 p) Roger G. Chapman 1-p 93

        Letter: Undeciphered American Rock Inscriptions. (1 p) George Carter 1-p 93
Provides as yet undeciphered inscriptions from the Americas

        Letter: Egyptian hieroglyphs. (1 p) Charles Speel 1-p 93
Charles Speel, Chairman, Dept. of Religious Studies, Monmouth College (IL) comments on Fell's work

        Letter: Threat to the Moanalua stela "Pohaku ka Luahine." (1 p) Norman Totten 1-p 93
Largest free-standing petroglyph stone in Oahu, Hawaii, needs protection.

        Letter: Gift of petroglyph photographs by Hawaiian membership. (1 p) Ruth Hanner & John & Frances Holt 1-p 93
Photos given by Ruth Hanner, Chairman of the Petroglyph Committee.

21     The Polynesian Discovery of America 231 BC (8 pp) Barry Fell 1-p 94
A cave inscription in Chile which uses Libyan script.

22     An Ancient Polynesian Star Atlas of 232 B.C. Part 1. A Mariner's Guide to finding the Celestial North Pole. (6 pp) Barry Fell 1-p 102
West Irian inscriptions; Libyan and Egyptian scripts.

        Advertisement: Hawaiian Astronomical Society's Astronews article: The Egyptian Connection - Who Settled Polynesia? (1 p) Dennis Stone 1-p 105
Discusses West Irian finds.

23     Karl Stolp's Discovery of La Casa Pintada in 1885 (3 pp) Mina Brand 1-p 108
1885 report on inscriptions in cave in Chile (La Casa Pintada).

        Officers of the Epigraphic Society for 1975. (1 p) 1-p 110
Pres: Barry Fell; Vice-pres.: Norman Totten; Council: Peter J. Garfall, Joseph D. Germano, Sentiel Rommel; Secy: Rene Fell.

        Pohaku ka Luahine. (1 p) Barry Fell 1-p 111
Endangered Libyan inscription on Oahu reported in press (HI).

        Researcher says Hawaiians had written language. (2 pp) Dave De Leon 1-p 111
Facsimile reprint from Star-Bulletin; Honolulu, 10 Dec. 1974.


Epigraphic Society Occasional Publications
Table of Contents, Vol. 2/1 1975

Paper No

            Foreword  (dedication to Harold Sterling Gladwin)  (1 p) Barry Fell 2/1-p  2

24        The Birth of a Society (4 pp) Norman Totten 2/1-p  4
A description of the founding of The Epigraphic Society (originally the Polynesian Epigraphic Society). Bio info about Totten on p 7.

            Officers of the Society (1 p) 2/1-p 7
Barry Fell (Pres.; Editor); Norman Totten (Vice Pres.); Rene Fell (Secy); and David Moynahan (Asst. Secy); Joseph Germano, Peter Garfall, Sentiel Rommel (Board Mbrs).

25        In Honor of Harold S. Gladwin (5 pp) George F. Carter & Barry Fell 2/1-p 8
Two fine scholars pen tributes to a great arch¾ologist and innovative thinker.

            News and Correspondence - Members' Activities (14 pp) 2/1-p 12

            Letter: Honoring Jean Leclant 2/1-p 12
The friends of Jean Leclant celebrate his election to the Academie with a testimonial.

            Letter: The Epigraphical Society of India Opens Contact (1 p) Ch. Chhabra 2/1-p 13
President Chhabra has arranged for the Epigraphic Society to receive literature about Indian Society.

            Letter: Evidence of Egyptian/Libyan visitors to Bougainville Island. (1 p) Paul C. Johnson 2/1-p 13
Johnson, of Boroko in Papua New Guinea, reports the evidence exists in the unique carving styles of certain villages.

            Letter: 5th/6th Century AD C14 Dates from Easter Island. (1 p) Grant McCall 2/1-p 13
North African origin postulated for the inhabitants of Easter Island.

            Letter: Cooperation with the Academy of Applied Sciences (1p) Robert Rines 2/1-p 13
Groundwork laid for cooperation on an expedition to the West Irian Caves.

            Letter: Election of Patron (1 p) Barry Fell 2/1-p 13
Ruth  Hanner (of Kauai in Hawaii), a founding Fellow of the Society elected a Patron of The Epigraphic Society. Has a forthcoming book on Hawaiian Epigraphy.

            Letter: Egyptian Coins in Australia (1 p) Margaret Carnegie 2/1-p 13
Coin of Ptolemy IV found near Cairns; others mentioned as in Mt. York Museum.

            Letter: Maui's Star charts and Navigational Equipment. (1 p) Owen Gingerich 2/1-p 13
Material is under study by astronomers at Harvard College Observatory.

            Letter: Maui's Message Likened to Pioneer 10 plaque. (1 p) Carl Sagan 2/1-p 14
Comment by Sagan, of Cornell University, on the Maui message.

            Letter: McCluer Bay Expedition (re Maui) (p 1) Peter J. Garfall 2/1-p 14
Peter Garfall & Christopher Cunningham w/Max Belcher, Julian Fell, Jan-Olaf Williams, plan to mount an expedition to the cave area of McCluer Bay.

            Letter: New publication on Indian Petroglyphs of the Pacific Northwest (1 p) Mrs. Conger 2/1-p 14
Indian Petroglyphs of the Pacific Northwest
by Beth & Ray Hill.

            Letter: Proposed New Museum at Madang, Papua, New Guinea. (1 p) Christine Holmes 2/1-p 14
Holmes, formerly an ethnologist at a museum in Wellington, New Zealand, writes from Madang about the museum and offers cooperation with the Society.

            New Members (2 pp) 2/1-p 14
List of new members since January 1975.

            New Fellows (elected January 1975) (1 p) 2/1-p 15
Dr. George F. Carter for contributions to epigraphy; Dr. Harold Sterling Gladwin for contributions to archaeology.

            Review: Culture-Historical Aspects of the Malayo- Polynesian Settlement in Ancient South-East Asia (1 p) Barry Fell 2/1-p 15
By R. A. Lochore: Hocken Lecture, 1973; Hocken Library, University of Otago, New Zealand, 28 pp, 1974. Infers an Anatolian origin for the Polynesian language & the Polynesians.

            Current activities of members (1 p) George F. Carter 2/1-p 16
He is continuing research in his accumulated files for Libyan inscriptions and directing attention to many US examples hitherto unknown.

            Current activities of members (1 p) Phyllis & Frank Donohue 2/1-p 16
Assisting in the preparation of a Libyan vocabulary based on materials reported in ESOP.

            Current activities of members (1 p) Julian Fell 2/1-p 16
Has undertaken a photo survey of New England inscriptions now attributable to Libyan voyagers of the 1st millenium BC.

            Current activities of members (1 p) Barry Fell 2/1-p 16
Continues decipherments of West Irian (Java) astronomical inscriptions; has begun work on New England & Mexican inscriptions; also Libyan from New Mexico.

            Current activities of members (1 p) Peter Garfall, Joseph Germano, & David Moynahan 2/1-p 16
Preparing photo records of material previously reported in older literature & making visual aids for lecture programs.

            Current activities of members (1 p) Bruce Henderson 2/1-p 16
Henderson, of New Zealand, undertook a preliminary investigatory trip thru coastal Taranaki in search of local epigraphic materials; also spread the word in the local press.

            Current activities of members (1 p) Albert Kalsbeek 2/1-p 16
Continues to work on the etymology of Polynesian roots; his wife, an initiate Tahu'a, is the Society's first associate member from Tahiti.

            Current activities of members (1 p) Gerhard Kraus 2/1-p 16
Publisher of the New Diffusionist. He plans to give much attention to the Society's activities. He is the Society's first member from Africa.

            Current activities of members (1 p) Ernst Klein 2/1-p 16
Has assembled an important slide collection of Scandinavian bronze age petroglyphs & other European materials.

            Current activities of members (1 p) Haris Lessaios 2/1-p 16
Sent Fell an interesting reproduction of a Coptic text held at Yale.

            Current activities of members (1 p) Sentiel Rommel 2/1-p 16
Trained in navigation & engineering, he is reconstructing Maui's navigational gear on the basis of Maui's drawings & Fell's decipherments.

            Current activities of members (1 p) Dennis Stone 2/1-p 16
He combines astronomical & editorial interests and serves as an effective link between epigraphers & scientists in Hawaii.

            Current activities of members (1 p) Helen J. Stuart 2/1-p 16
Sends historical details re her ancestress, Motoitoi, a chieftainess of the Ngai Tahu in New Zealand. Her genealogy goes back to the 14th century.

            Current activities of members (1 p) Norman Totten 2/1-p 16
Visited Peru, Galapagos, Ecuador and Brazil during January 1975.

            New Members (1 p) 2/1-p 17
List of new members since March 1975.

            Letter: Tribute in honor of Harold S. Gladwin (1 p) Thomas E. Lee 2/1-p 17
A tribute in honor of Dr. Harold Sterling Gladwin by the editor of The Anthropological Journal of Canada, writing from the Université Laval, Quebec.

            Letter: Agreement with Fell (1 p) Linus Brunner 2/1-p 17
A professor, of Sankt Gallen, Switzerland, he largely agrees with Fell on Polynesian etymology & its affinities w/Indo-European & Semitic.

            Letter: Comparisons between Maori & Semitic letter-forms (2 pp) Adele Schafer 2/1-p 17
Makes interesting comparisons between Maori letter forms, variants of ancient Hebrew & related Semitic.

            Letter: Harvard Anthro/Archaeology Professor Comments (1 p) Michael E. Moseley 2/1-p 18
Fell spoke to his class. While doubtful of some of Fell's interpretations, he thanks Fell for an excellent presentation & wants him back next year.

            News Item: Astronomical Publication Embarrassed by Fell (1 p) Honolulu Star-Bulletin, 8 March 1975 2/1-p 18
Reports that the Bishop Museum & the Hawaiian Astronomical Society were embarrassed by pro-Fell articles in Astronews. Future Fell articles will be banned (Dennis Stone is editor of Astronews).

            Letter: No Ban in Fiji (1 p) Gavin J. A. Kerr 2/1-p 18
Wrote a book in 1970 titled Fiji in the Pacific for pupils in Fiji schools to use. Asks permission to use Fell's maps & decipherments re Maui's expedition to further instruct Fijian students in their history.

            Letter: New Zealand Artist to study Maori-Bedouin chin tattoo similarities (1 p) Mildred Spalton 2/1-p 19
Auckland artist Kristin Zambucka to go to Egypt to study female chin tattoos (worn by Maori and Bedouin women).

            Letter: Cave inscriptions in the Yasawas Group, about 80 miles NW of Viti Levu (1 p) George T. McGann 2/1-p 19
Mrs. K. E. D. Chitty, of Mosman, New South Wales, reports that the inscriptions, once thought to be Chinese, may instead be Libyan.

            Letter: Unusual Tapa Pattern from Samoa (1 p) Roma K. Miller 2/1-p 19
A design on an ancient Tapa cloth that has been in her possession since 1938 appears to represent papyrus and lotus according to a UNESCO scholar.. It has been photographed for National Museum records.

            Letter: Academy of Applied Sciences support for Society work (1 p) Robert H. Rines 2/1-p 20
The President of Academy supports the work of Society member Peter Garfall, putting him in touch with Charles Wycoff & Harold Edgerton.

            Letter: A Maori Chief Agrees with Fell (1 p) Berthold E. S. Fraser-Collins (Te Taneatua) 2/1-p 20
An honorary Maori chief agrees that probably several Egypto-Libyan expeditions took place. Chinese reached New Zealand too, but later.

            Letter: A New Zealand Whakapapa (1 p) Helen J. Stuart 2/1-p 21
Her Maori genealogy back to the 14th century.

            Letter: A Writer on Maori History Comments on Fell's Work (1 p) Albert E. Tonson 2/1-p 22
A well-known writer in New Zealand, he wrote Old Manukau (1966). He suggests that Libyan visitors intermarried with existing islanders.

            Letter: Scholar Wants to Meet Fell (1 p) Martin De Vries 2/1-p 23
The writer, of the Bureau of Educational Research, University of Nairobi, is very interested in meeting Fell during a planned visit to Boston.

            Letter: A Nigerian Writer on Diffusionism Comments on Fell's work (1 p) Gerhard Kraus 2/1-p 23
He wrote an article for The New Diffusionist (#15, 1974) titled: G. Elliot Smith & W. J. Perry on Trial . He is preparing an article for that publication on Fell's work.

            Letter: Fell Deals with the "Unclassified Residuum" of Science (1 p) C. E. Joel 2/1-p 23
Joel, Editor of The New Diffusionist, has worked with British diffusionists G. Elliot Smith & W. J. Perry for many years so he has a natural inclination to approach such subject sympathetically.

            Fell Responds to Un-named Reader (1 p) Barry Fell 2/1-p 23
Fell explains why he regards Libyan as an "Afro- Asian language."

            How Could Ancient Egyptian Ships Cross the Indo-Pacific? (1 p) Barry Fell 2/1-p 24
Fell responds to an anthropologist's challenge by referring to his publication, Life, Space and Time, 1974, pp 141-142.

            New Fellows Elected (1 p) Barry Fell 2/1-p 25
New Fellows of the Society were elected by unanimous vote of the Council (later called the Board) of the Society: Prof. Dr. Linus Brunner (Switzerland), Dr. Reuel Lochore (New Zealand), Dr. Ch. Chhabra (India).

            The Early Sites Research Society (ESRS) (1 p) Barry Fell 2/1-p 25
The two societies have developed cordial relations and cooperation on a broad front. ESRS issues a Bulletin. Its Editor is William B. Nisbet. Founder and Archeological Director of the ESRS is James P. Whittall II.

            Lectures in Massachusetts (1 p) Barry Fell 2/1-p 25
In April 1975, Fell addressed the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute on epigraphy and early Iberian & Libyan voyages. Early in May he spoke again to a meeting of the ESRS.

26        Mailu, an African Language of New Guinea (20 pp) Barry Fell 2/1-p 26
Mailu, spoken in southeastern Papua, New Guinea, is identified as a partly creolized member of the group of African tongues now spoken in the Upper Nile Valley in the region of Lake Victoria. Fell suggests that Nubian gold-miners (slaves of the Egyptian Ramesides) came to Sumatra and, when the mines were abandoned c. 1000 BC, established settlements in New Guinea and New Britain.

27        Egyptian Gold-seekers and Exploration in the Pacific (10 pp) George F. Carter 2/1-p 46
Abbreviation and translation of H. Quiring's Die Goldinsel des Isador von Sevilla, Aegypter der 20 Dynastie Als Entdecker und Kulturbringer in Ostasien. Bibliography on page 55.

            Biographic Information on Dr. George Carter (1p) Barry Fell 2/1-p 54
One of the world's leading geographers, Dr. Carter teaches at Texas A&M University. He is a Fellow of the American Geographical Society.

28        An Ecliptic Rebus by Maui (2 pp) Barry Fell 2/1-p 56
The rebus was found adjacent to a depiction of a torquetum (an early navigational instrument invented by Eratosthenes) in a cave in Sosorra, West Irian, by the Frobenius Expendition of 1937-1938. It was published by Josef Röder as R3179 in 1959. Sentiel Rommel cooperated with Fell (whose translation of the rebus is given) and reconstructed the torquetum.

29        Maui's Tanawa — a Torquetum of 232 B.C. (7 pp) Sentiel Rommel 2/1-p 58
He illustrates the torquetum discussed in the previous paper and describes its use.

            Biographic Information on Dr. Sentiel Rommel (1 p) Barry Fell 2/1-p 64
He has a degree in science from the United States Naval Academy as well as a Masters in Engineering and a PhD from the University of Maine. He is a Fellow and a Founder of the Epigraphic Society.

30        An Ancient Polynesian Star Atlas of 232 B.C. Part 2 (4 pp) Barry Fell  2/1-p 65
Maui crossed equator in the late Summer of 232 BC. He left a map in a sea-cave in Egyptian hieroglyphics and Maori (Libyan) script.

31        Moses: Meaning in a Name (7 pp) Norman Totten 2/1-p 69
Derivation and versions of the Hebrew/Egyptian name, Mose(s).

32        Phonetic Mutation in Polynesian Languages (15 pp) Barry Fell 2/1-p 76
Reprint of a 1973 paper by Fell in which he claims to have solved the ancient Polynesian alphabet. He holds that modern Polynesian is derived from Libyan.

33         Egyptian Sprang Technique in an Arizona Textile (3 pp) Bucky King 2/1-p 91
The author notes examples of sprang technique similar to Egyptian in Peru, New Mexico and Arizona.


The printing of this first edition has been made possible through the generosity of Ruth K. Hanner

Epigraphic Society Occasional Publications
Table of Contents, Vol. 2/2, 1975

Paper No 

34        Libyan Visitors to Scandinavia in the Early Bronze Age (3 pp) Barry Fell 2/2-p 1
A Swedish bronze age rock engraving carries an inscription in the Libyan (Mauri) language.

35        Place Names as One Key to Prehistoric Vocabularies (2 pp) Norman Totten 2/2-p 4
The reconstruction of extinct languages through the etymological analysis of place names.

36        Indo-European Roots in Two Ancient Maori Inscriptions (1 p) Linus Brunner 2/2-p 6
Discusses the derivation of certain words found in an inscription from Java deciphered by Fell.

37            Egyptian Influence in Hawaiian Petroglyphs (9 pp) Ruth K. Hanner 2/2-p 7
She gives examples from Luahiwa, Lanai, Hawaii. She believes them to be Egyptian or produced under Egyptian inspiration. Biographic information is given on the author, a Founding Fellow of  The Epigraphic Society.

38        An Ancient Maori Text in Libyan Script from Otaki, New Zealand (9 pp)            Barry Fell 2/2-p 16
It is a Marama-taka (Fishing Calendar). Maori content of 30 lines of ancient Libyan script.

39        Protosanskrit, A Bronze-age Language of Mohenjo Daro (32 pp) Barry Fell 2/2-p 25
Fell tackles the Indus Valley script as depicted on seals (Fell first attacked this problem in 1973).

40        Some Remarks on Protosanskrit (2 pp) Linus Brunner 2/2-p 57
Notes sent to Fell enlarging on the etymology of words on the Indus Valley seals.

41        Cultural Comparisons and Diffusions (7 pp) Norman Totten 2/2-p 59
Definitions and use of terms: ethnographic analogy, cultural diffusion, independent invention, etc.

42        East African Vocabulary in New Guinea and Polynesia (3 pp) Barry Fell 2/2-p 66
Comparative tables of Extra-Nilotic (Swahili) and Papuan (Mailu) vocabularies.

            A Neolithic Universal? (1 p) Barry Fell 2/2-p 68
Comparison of New Zealand Kuri with the Hausa kairre, kura; Lapp kuria; English cur; ON kurra; Celtic cu.

43        Iberian Inscriptions in Paraguay ca 4th c. B.C. (10 pp) Barry Fell & Erik P. Reinert 2/2-p 69
Inscriptions found on th walls of a cave at Cerro Guazu, Amambay, in northeast Paraguay. Fell says they are in the Ogham script, Punic Language.

44(l)    The Inscribed Stone from Comassakumkanit (3 pp) James P. Whittall II 2/2-p 79
An inscription found on Cape Cod south of Great Herring Pond, Bourndale, Massachusetts, known since about 1658.

44(2)    An Iberian-Punic Stele of Hanno (3 pp) Barry Fell 2/2-p 82
Fell deciphers the Comassakumkanit inscription left by Hanno, a Carthaginian explorer.

45        Epigraphy of the Susquehanna Steles (8 pp) Barry Fell 2/2-p 85
Decipherment of the Mechanicsburg (Susquehanna), PA, Stones. According to Fell they are in the Basque language and in the Iberic script.


The printing of this first edition was made possible through the generosity of Ruth K. Hanner



Epigraphic Society Occasional Publications

Table of Contents, Vol. 3/1, 1976

Paper No.

46        A Fifth-century Moroccan Emigration to North America. (10 pp) Barry Fell 3/1-p 4
A long rupestral inscription from El Hadj Mimoun, near Figuig, in Morocco, discovered by Flamand in 1921.

47        Implications of the Figuig Decipherment, (10 pp) Norman Totten 3/1-p 14 
Dates insc. to 535 AD referring to a voyage to North America about 480 AD.

48        An Arabic Dialect In Ancient Moroccan Inscriptions. (12 pp) Barry Fell 3/1-p 24
Inquiry into other so-called Libyo-Berber inscriptions in Morocco.
Includes a graphic of Ancient Maghrib characters.

49        The First European Colonists in New England. (5 pp) Norman Totten 3/1-p 36
Speech to jt. mtg. Epig. Soc., NEARA, & ESRS, Univ. Museum, Harvard Univ., 30 Aug. 1975.
Includes biographic information on Harold S. Gladwin, Robert Stone, Barry Fell, Gloria Farley, John A. Williams, and James Whittall.

50        Celtic Iberian Inscriptions of New England. (5 pp) Barry Fell 3/1-p 41
Early Ogam script (vowel-less; called Consaine Ogam) found in Portugal, Canaries, & North America.

51        An Early Calendar Site in Central Vermont. (3 pp) Byron E. Dix 3/1-p 46
Possible astronomical alignments are delineated.

52        PreColumbian Parallels between Mediterranean and New England Archeology. (5 pp) James P. Whittall II 3/1-p 49
Abstract of a preliminary report submitted to ESRS, NEARA and the Epigraphic Society.

53        Inscribed Sarsen Stones in Vermont. (2 pp) Barry Fell & John Williams 3/1-p 54
Large prostrate sarsen stones in Vermont near South Woodstock have Ogham inscriptions.

54        Ancient Arabic Script and Vocabulary of the Algonquian Indians. (3 pp) Barry Fell 3/1-p 56
(graphic of scripts shown).

55        A Celtiberian (Gadelic) Law-Tablet from Ourique, Portugal. (3 pp) Barry Fell 3/1-p 59
Fragmented and incomplete, i
t is in the collection of Santiago de CacŽm, Portugal; from Ourique. Graphics of Ogam, Iberic, and Ourique characters shown.

56        A Dialect of Ancient Greek from South-eastern Spain. (6 pp) Barry Fell 3/1-p 62
Several docs. in Iberic of late date seem to reflect a peculiar dialect of Greek.

57        Ancient Iberian Compass Dials from Liria, Spain; and A Related Object from Tennessee. (6 pp) Barry Fell 3/1-p 68
Reports on two of four identified magnetic compass dials made of ceramic, and lettered with cardinal points and operating instructions in the Iberic language. All four are from the general area of Valencia, but the other two are not from Liria.

58        A Celtiberian Funeral Stele in Navarra, Spain, Inscribed in 0gam. (2 pp) Barry Fell 3/1-p 74
Piedra de Roldan, Erroldan-Arriya, Navarra, translated by Fell.

59        Atnakuna Motifs on Egyptian Figurines. (3 pp) David Oedel 3/1-p 76
Symbols noted on the backs of Ushabtis buried with mummies bear resemblance to N. American symbols.

60        A Possible Plinth Monument in Central Vermont. (6 pp) Byron E. Dix 3/1-p 79
A plinth, used to determine the midday altitude of the sun, has possibly been found in Vermont.

61        A Second Early Calendar Site in Central Vermont. (18 pp) Byron E. Dix 3/1-p 85
Alignments and calendrical aspects of the site are discussed.

On the Cover
This mysterious life-size sculpture was found at Hillsboro. New Hampshire, during excavations in the 1950's. It is one of a series of comparable sculptures found at various times in New England soil, now believed to be the work of the Iberic cultures whose emigration to America can be detected from inscriptions. Drawn by Gertrude Johnson. (By permission of the Early Sites Research Society).


Epigraphic Society Occasional Publications

Table of Contents, Vol. 3/2, 1976

Paper No.

62        Unde Origo? — The Crisis in Linguistics Today; Bibliography. (13 pp) Marge E. Landsberg 3/2-p 3
The Amerind portion of her Materials for a Bibliography of Trans-Linguistic Studies.

63        The Roots of Libyan. (6 pp) Barry Fell 3/2-p 16
List of roots possibly part of vocabulary of Libyan Mariners.

64        Structure of The Zuni Language. (10 pp) Barry Fell 3/2-p 22
Zunis apparently speak a creolinized dialect of Libyan.

65        An Ancient Judean Inscription from Tennessee. (5 pp) Robert E. Stieglitz 3/2-p 32
Decipherment of the Bat Creek Inscription.

66        A Theory Concerning The Indus Seals. (10 pp) Donal B. Buchanan 3/2-p 37
Suggests that the seals were associated with trade and the animal figures were totemic.

67        The Romano-Celtic Phase at Mystery Hill, New Hampshire in New England. (3 pp) Barry Fell 3/2-p 47
Decipherment of the Beltane Stone found at North Salem, New Hampshire.

68        The Gowen Bluff Shelter. (2 pp) Gloria Farley 3/2-p 50
Recording petroglyphs at a site near Gowen, Oklahoma.

69        Inscriptions from Mid-America. (10 pp) Gloria Farley 3/2-p 52
Records the Cass (Arkansas), Cimarron (Oklahoma), Warner (Oklahoma), Turkey Mtn. (Oklahoma), & Hillsboro (Missouri) petroglyphs. Gloria Farley was elected Fellow of the Society in 1976.

70        L'Étymologie et les Migrations Polynésienness — Où était situé Havaiki? (3 pp) Linus Brunner 3/2-p 62
A theory concerning the origins of the Polynesians as revealed by etymology.

71        Remains of Indo-Aryan Culture on the Hawaiian Islands. (7 pp) B. Ch. Chhabra 3/2-p 65
Demonstrates contact between Asia, South Asia, and Polynesia. Biographic information on Chhabra is given.

72            Possible Libyan Petromanteia in Quebec. (5 pp) Barry Fell 3/2-p 72
The Sherbrooke Inscription as an example of rock- divining.

73        The Most Sacred Season. (3 pp) Techqua Ikachi 3/2-p 77
The time of Ka-mu-ya (December), preparation for new life, the sowing of the seeds of the coming year.

74        The Pima Myth of Persephone. (7 pp) Barry Fell 3/2-p 80
Pima chants (recorded by Frank Russell) show Arabic (Semitic) vocabulary.

75        Two Ancient Iberian Hospitality Pledges and Their Texts. (3 pp) Barry Fell & Gertrude Johnson 3/2-p 87
Examples of Iberian tesserae hospitalis in Latin and Iberic (both from Southeastern Spain).

76        The Etymology of Some Ancient American Inscriptions (6pp) Barry Fell 3/2-p 90
Cuenca Elephant Stele, Rio Grande Inscription, Cimarron Cliff, Catfish Painting, Grave Creek & Braxton tablets.

On the Cover  
Knowledge of the African elephant was brought to America 2000 years ago by emigrants from North Africa, This inscription in the Libyan language is one of a series found in Cuenca. The inscription is referred to in article no. 76.


Epigraphic Society Occasional Publications
Table of Contents, Vol. 4/1, 1977

Paper No.

77        The Minoan Language — Linear A decipherment  (67 pp) Barry Fell 4/1-p 12 [In this section, the first number given below is the page number in the paper; the second is the page number in the volume.]
Fell holds that the Linear A Script reflects a language close to Hittite.

            Introduction p. 1 (12) 
Linear A Matrix p. 2 (13)  
Isomorphic Equations p. 4 Equations p. 4 (15)  
Inferred Paleographic Distribution of Signs p. 8 (19)
Accidence — Nouns p. 9 (20)
Verbs p. 10 (21)

Vocabulary of Minoan Words in Linear A 11 -- 40 (22 --51)
Material Studied p. 40 (51)
Minoan Society p. 40 (51)
The Urban Centers p, 40 (51)
Government and Administration p. 41
p. 41 (52)
The Agricultural Economy p. 42
The Wine Harvest p. 43 (54)
The Wheat Harvest p. 43 (54)
The Olive Harvest p. 44 (54)
Household Economy p. 51 (60)
Inscriptions on Drinking
Cups p. 53 Drinking Cups p. (62)  
Harvest Festival 1250 B.C. p. 54
The Omens p. 54
The Palace Inventories p. 54 (63)
Graffiti and Signatures p. 54 (63)
References p. 54. (63)
Various tablets & Decipherments pp 55-65 (64 --77)
Appendix: Layout of a Bronze Age Orchard p 66 (78)
Nine Steps in the Decipherment of an Unknown Language in an Unknown Script Barry Fell p 67 (79)
It is possible that these steps, in the proper hands, could be incorporated in a computer program.

78        Fell: A Letter from Hiram III, ca 540 B.C. (12 pp) Barry Fell 4/1-p 80
Reprint of
a December 1973 paper. Fell holds that Minoan, Paphian, and Etruscan are inter-related languages of the Anatolian group.

79        Fell: The Phaistos Disk ca 1600 B.C. (17 pp) Barry Fell 4/1-p 92
Reprint of a paper published in December 1973 about the decipherment of a bifacial ceramic tablet, the Phaistos Disk, in the Herakleion Museum.

80        Fell: A Dialect of Minoan from Cyprus (5 pp) Barry Fell 4/1-p 109
Reprint of
a December 1973 paper identifying a Minoan dialect in Cyprus reflected in Cypriot inscriptions.

81        A Text to Change the History of the World (3 pp) Reuel A. Lochore 4/1-p 115
This article on the work of Barry Fell originally appeared in the New Zealand Listener. Biographic information is given on Dr. Reuel Lochore, linguist & former New Zealand ambassador to Bonn. He was educated in various New Zealand and German Universities and holds a PhD in language & logic. He specializes in Anatolian languages.

82        Phaistos Disk: The Oldest Printed Text. (5 pp) Norman Totten 4/1-p 118
Reports on the Phaistos Disk (found in Crete; now in Herakleion Museum).

On the Cover
Harvest Festival, 1450 BC (
See p. 54, no 77).


Epigraphic Society Occasional Publications

Table of Contents, Vol. 4/2, 1977

Paper No.

83            Greek Place Names in South America (6 pp) Henriette Mertz 4/2-p 5
Villages in South America bear Greek names: witness to a history now lost.

84            Co a biad na Cruithnich? (5 pp) Aonghas mac Eanruig 4/2-p 11
He suggests that the Pictish language is non-Celtic. A graphic of the Aboyne Stele is shown, with a partial translation. [Note: Buchanan has translated the inscription on the Aboyne Stele. It is in a basically Celtic language heavily larded with Anglo-Saxon and Old Norse loan-words. This and other Scottish Ogham inscriptions will be the subject of a future paper.]

85            Epigraphy on Medieval Coins (9 pp) Norman Totten 4/2-p 16
Characteristics of writing which developed along non-classical lines as shown from coins.

86            The Eye of God and the Agricultural Grid (11 pp) Norman Totten 4/2-p 25
Concentrates on the two motifs found in New England and Iberia.

87            A Phallic Inscription in Western Mexico (2 pp) Donal Buchanan 4/2-p 36
A Tanit altar? Vindication of a similar inscription found in Vermont.

88        Carthaginian Coins Found in Arkansas and Alabama (7 pp) Norman Totten 4/2-p 38
Coins reported to the Society by Gloria Farley are examined by Dr. Totten. Biographic information on Totten is given.

89            The Status of Arabian Archeology and Epigraphy (4 pp) Robert W. Lebling 4/2-p 45
A wealth of epigraphic and arch¾ological evidence lies waiting in the Arabian peninsula.

90            Linguistic Terminology, 1 (3 pp) Norman Totten 4/2-p 49
An introductory list of technical words relating to the study of ancient writings.

91            Pre-Islamic Libyans (6 pp) Harold S. Gladwin 4/2-p 52
Discussing the tribal makeup and extent of the ancient Libyan nation.

92            Takhelne, A Living Celtiberian Language (28 pp) Barry Fell 4/2-p 58
Substance of a lecture delivered 20 Nov 1976 at Hammond Museum, N. Salem, Westchester, NY.

93            The Pontotoc Stone (2 pp) Gloria Farley 4/2-p 86
Report on an inscribed stone found in Pontotoc County, Oklahoma.

94            Some Notes on Zuni (7 pp) George F. Carter 4/2-p 88
Discussion of Fell's finding that the Zuni seem to have North African connections and language.

95            Whence the Cuna Tree-of-Life Ceremony? (6 pp) Clyde Keeler 4/2-p 95
Cuna ceremonial and legend is much like those in Mesopotamia.

96            Amphorettas from Maine and Iberia (3 pp) Barry Fell & James P. Whittall II 4/2-p 101
Finds of amphorettas are tied to the Manana Island inscription deciphered by Fell (ESRS Bulletin, Fall 1976).

97            Patterns of Symmetry in Norse Inscriptions (9 pp) Alf Monge 4/2-p 104
An introduction to Runic Cryptography.

98            A Proclamation (1 p) Michael S. Dukakis 4/2-p 113
The Governor of Massachusetts proclaims 30 July 1976 as Viking Thanksgiving Day in honor of Leif Ericson and other Viking explorers.

On the Cover

A Carthaginian bronze coin minted about 350 BC, in imitation of silver dekadrachms of the Greek city of Syracuse, At least two examples have recently been found in the United States. Professor Norman Totten discusses their significance in article number 88.


Epigraphic Society Occasional Publications

Table of Contents, Vol. 5/1, 1978

Paper No.


99        Restored Greek Content of OPES 56 as deciphered by Fell. (3 pp) Linus Brunner 5/1-p 1
The author, a Fellow of the Society and an Emeritus Professor of Greek and Latin, supports Fell's decipherment of the Pujol inscription (Castellon de la Plana) as Greek. [Buchanan note: But the text was faulty! Fell made 9 errors in transcription in the first line alone!]

            Letter:Possible Georgian-Basque Affinities: a Georgian tablet from Spain. (3 pp) Julian G. Fernandez 5/1-p 4
Forwards an article in Georgian re Basque-Georgian similarities from publication "Motherland."

100      Etruscan (continued from OPES vol 4, no 88) (48 pp) Barry Fell 5/1-p 7
Decipherment of a number of important Etruscan inscriptions.
Results of the decipherment —Administration — Literature — Origin of the Petrarchian Sonnet — Religion of the Etruscans — Etruscan Legal Documents — The Resurrection Hymn — Funerary Phalluses and Their Texts — Other Funerary Inscriptions — The Toscanella Dice — Linguistic Relationships — Loan Vocabulary — Method of Decipherment — Tests for the Veracity of the Decipherment — Ventris' Rules — Pasteur's Test — Declension of the Personal Pronouns — Demonstratives — The Etruscan Verb — The Etruscan Noun — The Etruscan Adjective — Declension of Nouns — Vocabulary. 

101      Correspondence: (35 pp) 5/1-p 55
            Origin of the Polynesian Vocabulary (4 pp) Reuel Lochore
5/1-p 55
            States that Brunner's work supports that of Lochore and Fell re the homeland of Polynesians.
            America B.C. (3 pp) Harold S. Gladwin
5/1-p 59
            Calls it an important work.
            Expedicion Breogan (7 pp) Fernando Alonso Romero
5/1-p 61
            Curing Skins for a Celtic Vessel (2 pp) Santiago Domingues
5/1-p 68
            Information on a nautical experiment: crossing from Galicia to    Ireland in a leather & wicker craft.
            Sanskrit Roots in Western North America (1 p) Donald B. Lawrence & Makarand Jawadakar
5/1-p 73
            Presented at the World Sanskrit Conference in Paris, in June 1977: Sanskrit roots exist in Indian languages in Alaska, British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and California.
            The Willard Stone (1 p) Gloria Farley
5/1-p 74
            Description (with a graphic) of a stone bearing a short inscription found near Willard, Missouri.
            Entdeckungen Amerikas v Chr. (2 pp) Linus Brunner
5/1-p 75
            A review, in German, of America BC.
            Ardmore Inscription (2 pp) Gloria Farley
5/1-p 75
            Report on an inscribed boulder found in Ardmore, Oklahoma.
            Tennessee Disk (2 pp) Gloria Farley
5/1-p 77
            Report on a small inscribed disk found along the Tennessee    River below Hiwasee Island (see ESOP 3.1, #57).
            The Tennessee Disk (6 pp) James E. Kelley
5/1-p 79
            Report on the disk from Tennessee (with a graphic). He     suggests it is an amulet.
            Five-foot Ogam from Cimarron (2 pp) Gloria Farley
5/1-p 85
            Report on a long Ogam inscription in the Oklahoma pan-handle, Cimarron site (a large eroded cave).
Analysis of Markings on the Tennessee Disk (4 pp) Rollin W. Gillespie
5/1-p 86
            Suggests that the disk may be a device to predict eclipses.

102      Pre-Columbian Inscriptions  (8 pp) Gloria Farley 5/1-p 90
            Discusses the Pontotoc Stone, the Cimarron Site, & other Okla- homa inscriptions as well as the Tennessee disk and an Arkansas coin.

103      Anubis and Placental "Dogs"  (4 pp) Clyde Keeler 5/1-p 98
Discussion and comparison of Egyptian, Mesopotamian, Greek & Amerindian mythology re the Underworld.

104      Denomination of Cardinal Points  (4 pp) Linus Brunner 5/1-p 102
Different ways of naming the cardinal points in human speech.

105      Computerization of Consonantal Frequency. (3 pp) Sentiel Rommel 5/1-p 106
            Describes a computer program which will plot a frequency spectrograph of the consonants in a language.

106      Alphabets of the Berbers (4 pp) Daniel G. Brinton 5/1-p 109
Describes the alphabets in use by modern Berbers.

            The Rumney New Hampshire Inscribed Blue Stone Bead. (1 p) Lynn Chong 5/1-p 112
The writer suggests that the bead might have been a surveyor's tool for the laying out of ancient worship sites.


On the Cover

The new decipherments of Etruscan disclose that much of our modern law descends from Etruria. The illustration shows a portion of the text (reading right to left) of the Laws on burglary, engraved on a stone stele at Volterra, Italy. On the same stone, reference is made to a Jury of Twelve. See article 100 in this issue.

Epigraphic Society Occasional Publications
Table of Contents, Vol. 5/2, 1978

Page No.

107      Tree of Life and Labyrinth (32 pp) Clyde Keeler 5/2-p 5
Interpretation of the underlying Babylonian and Minoan features of Cuna (Kuna) Indian mythology.

108      Analysis of the Phaistos Decipherment (47 pp) Reuel Lochore 5/2-p 37
He suggests alternative readings.

109      The Bache Gravestone  (2 pp) Gloria Farley 5/2-p 84
An inscribed stone found near Bache, Oklahoma (with a graphic).

110      Some Celtic Phalli  (5 pp) Barry Fell 5/2-p 86
Phalli from Portugal and Vermont carrying Ogam inscriptions.

111      Comparisons of Potsherds from Tunisia and Morocco, IVc A.D. (3 pp) Gertrude B. Johnson 5/2-p 91
Discusses potsherds from a Roman site in Africa (Borj Younga, Central Tunisia).

112      The word Soul in Different Languages  (3 pp) Linus Brunner 5/2-p 94
Comparative etymology of the word for "soul."

113      Iberic in Norway?  (4 pp) Barry Fell 5/2-p 97
Suggests that some inscriptions in Norway may be Iberic.

114      The Cuna Soul Boat  (17 pp) Clyde Keeler 5/2-p 101
Describes a Cuna burial practice.

115      Eastern Norse Runes of the Roman Iron Age  (3 pp) Barry Fell 5/2-p 118
Inscriptions from Slavic areas which may be Runic.

On the Cover:

The occurrence of identical or nearly identical labyrinth designs in the Old and New World has long been an unexplained mystery. Recent advances in linguistics and comparative mythology are now bringing us to the solution of how the designs were transmitted to America. See article 107 by Dr Clyde Keeler in this issue.

Epigraphic Society Occasional Publications  
Table of Contents, Vol. 6/1, 1979

Paper No.                                                                  


Society of Inter-Celtic Arts and Culture (1 p) 6/1-p7

Books In the Irish language, and other Irish texts (1 p) 6/1-p 8

Books on Cryptography (1 p) 6/1-p 10

Membership (12 pp) 6/1-p 11

Instructions to authors  (1 p) 6/1-p 22

116      Ogam Arabic Inscriptions in North and South Africa (4 pp) Barry Fell 6/1-p 23
Libyan and South African inscriptions (with graphics).

117      Late Roman Inscription from the Canary Islands (4 pp) Barry Fell 6/1-p 27
Maghrib (Moroccan dialect of classical Arabic) probably about 364-455 AD (see ESOP 3 #48).

118      Tamacheq, a Living Dialect of Libyan (4 pp) Barry Fell 6/1-p 31
Taking an inscription from Luka, Sura 18 in Libyan, Fell shows similarity to Polynesian cognates.

119      Berber Roots in Polynesian (8 pp) Barry Fell 6/1-p 35
Fell identifies a third source of Polynesian vocabulary (Berber) besides Maori and Libyan.

120      An Ancient Libyan Mariner's Prayer (2 pp) Barry Fell 6/1-p 43
Reported from the Canary Islands (see ESOP 6.1 #117).

121      A Basic Egypto-Polynesian Word List (40 pp) Barry Fell 6/1-p 45
Egyptian (East Libyan) roots in Polynesian.

122      An Inscription of King Masinissa ca 138 B.C. (4 pp) Barry Fell 6/1-p 85
Bilingual Libyo-Punic inscription from Thougga (now held in the Louvre) (see Chabot, 1918).

123      Arab Horse-Racing in Ancient Libya (4 pp) Barry Fell 6/1-p 89
Translation of an inscription reported by Chabot in Melanges Epigraphiques, 1921.

124      Petroglyphs on St John (US Virgin Islands) (4 pp) Barry Fell 6/1-p 93
Decipherment of Libyan inscription carved above a rock-pool, Reef Bay Valley, St. John, US Virgin Islands.

125      Plague and Cat Worship in Ancient Libya (4 pp) Barry Fell 6/1-p 97
Medical inscription found 1902 in Thougga, now in Museum of Bardo.

126            Hunting Inscriptions of the Ancient Libyans (8 pp) Barry Fell 6/1-p 101
Rupestral inscriptions from southwest of the Fezzan region, Libya.

127      Libyan Evidence in Southeast Kentucky (6 pp) Warren J. & Annette E. Calhoun 6/1-p 109
Carloftis sculptures (Livingston, Kentucky), Rockcastle Site #2, Virginia Sculpture (w/graphics).

128     Sculptures Bearing Libyan-Ogham Inscriptions (2 pp) Barry Fell 6/1-p 115
Fell suggests the inscriptions are Libyan Ogam.

On the Cover

Petroglyph of a Zebra from the Transvaal, accompanied by an ogam descriptive comment in Libyan Arabic, one of a series of ancient African inscriptions that make use of the ogam consonantal alphabet. 0gam consaine, or "ogam without vowels" occurs in the oldest Irish inscriptions, on the mainland of Europe, in Africa and in North America. It was first recorded from Ireland by Roghan Ruadh ua Suilleabhain, and noted by the Irish lexicographer Padraig Dineen in 1901, 1927 and subsequently overlooked until American examples were recognized in 1975. English archeologists deny the existence of any kind of ogam other than the one variety studied in the nineteenth century.



Epigraphic Society Occasional Publications
Table of Contents, Vol. 6/2, 1979

Paper No.

129      Etymology of The Minoan Language (5 pp) Linus Brunner 6/2-p 121
Brunner comments on Fell's decipherment of Minoan as an Indo- European language closely related to Hittite. He gives a comparative etymology of Minoan words derived by Fell's decipherments.

130      Minoan Decorative Motifs (2 pp) Gertrude B. Johnson 6/2-p 126
These motifs were collected and drawn (graphics shown) from various sources.

            Kolumbus nicht der Erste (1 p) Linus Brunner 6/2-p 128
A review of America BC for the German publication, Ostschweiz, 2 Apr 1978.  

131      Symbolic Field Patterns: Four American Examples (3 pp) Norman Totten 6/2-p 129
Totten discusses boundary markers, sun symbols and field patterns.

            12 Sites Suggested forWorld Heritage List (1 p) UNESCO 6/2-p 132
A UNESCO announcement of the selection of twelve cultural and natural sites in seven countries, setting them aside for preservation.

Petroglyphs Suggest Prehistoric Migrations (5 pp) Eleonora Novgodorova 6/2-p 133
Soviet & Mongol archaeologists find new and important evidence about the eastward movement of peoples.

Odyssey of the Irish: Blood Group and Craniometric Analysis (19 pp) Albert E. Casey & Eleanor L. Downey-Price 6/2-p 138
Reprinted from the Alabama Journal of Medical Sciences, Vol. 15, #1, 1978.

132      Madoc — A Persistent Legend (9 pp) Tristan Jones 6/2-p 157
Examination of the case for early Welsh visits to the Americas, specifically, that of Madoc. Short Biographic material on the author is available.

            Letter from Dr Mohamed Jarary (1 p) 6/2-p 166
Announcement of the establishment of a Research Centre in Tripoli, Libya, under the auspices of El Fatah University. Asks for assistance in provision of materials for the Centre.

133      Elements of Maya Arithmetic with Particular Attention to the Calendar (14 pp) Charles C. Fulton 6/2-p 167
Originally published as #85 of Notes on Middle American Archaeology and Ethnology, 14 Nov. 1947.

134      Cockaponsett Carvings (8 pp) Frederick J. Pohl 6/2-p 181
Discusses carvings and cupule patterns found in the Cockaponsett area of Connecticut.

135      Center for the Ancients (3 pp) Gloria Farley 6/2-p 189
Discusses sites in Colorado, New Mexico and Oklahoma, all within a 50 mile radius. A boat graphic is shown.

136      The Cresson Shell (3 pp) Elizabeth Lockwood Coombs 6/2-p 192
An incised shell, bored for wearing, found in 1891, shows a picture of a mammoth (graphic shown).

137      Inscriptions and Other Features at Cockaponsett (5 pp) John Gallagher 6/2-p 195
Further discussion of carvings and cupules at Cockaponsett, Connecticut.

138      Two Southwestern Petroglyph Sites (9 pp) Don Rickey 6/2-p 200
One is at Hackberry Springs, Colorado, and the other at Waterflow, New Mexico (the latter was deciphered by Fell).

Report on A Rupestral Inscription from Waterflow, New Mexico (2 pp) Barry Fell 6/2-p 209
Fell gives his decipherment of the petroglyphic inscription mentioned in the previous paper. He reads the script as Libyan Tifinag and the language as a Moroccan dialect of Iberic.

On the Cover

A graceful tapered Minoan ceramic vessel, used for serving liquids at table. Having no base, such a vessel had to be held during the meal by a serving man. Related forms, some termed amphorettas, are being discovered on the seabed, and also depicted in petroglyphs, in North America.



Epigraphic Society Occasional Publications
Table of Contents, Vol. 7/1, 1979

Medical Terminology of the Micmac and Abenaki Languages (14 pp) Barry Fell  7/1-p7
Cognates shared with Greek and Egyptian languages.

Takhelne, A North American Celtic Language, Pt. 2 (22 pp) Barry Fell 7/1-p 21
Takhelne, spoken in the lakes region of the Fraser River Valley in British Columbia, shows a connection to Celtic.

New Etymology of Hittite (8 pp) Linus Brunner 7/1-p 43
Hittite is believed by Brunner (and Fell) to be Indo-European, but some correspondence to Semitic languages can be shown.

Additional Lirian Compass Dial Inscriptions from Spain and New Mexico (3 pp) Barry Fell 7/1-p 51
Pottery sherds inscribed in Iberic or Iberian Greek in South Spain and New Mexico are believed to derive from ancient "compass bowls."

Iconography of the Narmer Palette: Origin of Egyptian Writing (8 pp) Norman Totten 7/1-p 55
The palette dates from the earliest dynastic period and shows the beginning of hieroglyphic writing.

The Anubis Fetish of Tutankhamun (3 pp) Clyde Keeler 7/1-p 63
Keeler relates the fetish to Kuna motifs and rites.

Searching out the Sites (4 pp) Gloria Farley 7/1-p 67
Reprinted from the New England Social Studies Bulletin, Vol. 36, No. 1, 1978.

Sherds and Artifacts of North Africa and Northeast North America (12 pp) Gertrude Johnson 7/1-p 71
Illustrated by the author.

Three Vocabularies from West Africa (7 pp) G. Edmond Stelling 7/1-p 83
Comparative vocabularies are given for Vai, Belle, and Grebo (for which no dictionaries exist).

Redbird River Inscription (2 pp) Vernon J. Calhoun 7/1-p 90
Description of an inscription (illustrated by Annette E. Calhoun) at Site 1, Clay County, Kentucky.

The Inscribed Rock near Spuzzum, British Columbia (7 pp) Bruce A. MacDonald 7/1-p 93
The rock is located east of the Fraser River opposite Spuzzum (the inscription is shown).

A Taxonomy Spinoff of Papyrus (1 p) John N. McGovern 7/1-p 100
The derivation of the word "Papyrus" and its influence on taxonomic terminology.

Phenomenology of Human Behaviour (6 pp) Pedro J. Arenas Zaefferer 7/1-p 101
Connections and coherence among different disciplines relating to human behavior.

Did the Maya have a Zero? (7 pp) Charles C. Fulton 7/1-p 107
The meanings of our zero and the Maya zero symbols.

Origin of the word CARD (1 pp) Linus Brunner 7/1-p 113
He suggests that the word derives from Middle Egyptian.

On the Cover

The protective eyes of Horus, an ancient Egyptian motif, as rendered by Daniel Kolos, from an Eighteenth Dynasty original Numerous engraved motifs based on the eye are being reported now from North American sites and many of them appear to be of ancient origin. See OPES, Vol 6, p. 34, for information on full-color versions of the Egyptian studies by Kolos.



Epigraphic Society Occasional Publications
Table of Contents, Vol. 7 /2, 1979

Inhaltsverzeichnis vorheriger ausgaben (3 pp) Helke W. Phelps 7/2-p 119
German language summary of the contents of back issues of ESOP.

Ancient Greek in Malayo-Polynesian languages (3 pp) Linus Brunner 7/2-p 123
Suggests Greeks were among the Libyan crews who traveled the Pacific.

Cuna-Mediterranean Parallels (1 p) Clyde Keeler 7/2- p 125
Connections to Egyptian religious motifs.

Pope John Paul II, a distinguished Polish linguist (1 p) 7/2-p126
Elected Pope John Paul II 17 Oct 1978.

Ancient Diamond Miners in South Africa (7 pp) Brenda Sullivan 7/2-p 127
Petroglyphs and artifacts left by ancient miners.

Exploring Northern New Jersey (8 pp) William P. Child 7/2-p 134
Sacred sites in the Ramapo Mountains of NJ (Hemlock Hill, Rock Pile, Tripod Rock, Sacred Mesa).

"Root Cellar" in Vermont Carbon-dated to 545 A.D. (1 p) James P. Whittall II 7/2-p 142
Carbon date from Richards Site, Putney, Vermont Stone Structure = 545 AD plus/minus 190 years.

Prepositions in Hieroglyphic Micmac (3 pp) Barry Fell  7/2-p 143
Signs are derived from Egyptian Hieroglyphic and Hieratic scripts.

Micmac Manuscripts (20 pp - 5 + 15) Barry Fell 7/2-pp146, 167
Relates the signs to Egyptian Hieroglyphs. Kyrie Eleison, Agnus Dei and Gloria in Micmac.

South to Eldorado (3 pp) Norman Totten  7/2-p 151
Relates Totten's visit to Mexico and San Blas Islands in search of "Epigraphic Gold."

An Ancient Libyan Epitaph from Nubia (3 pp) Barry Fell 7/2-p155
Rupestral Libyan inscription in Arabic from Khor Kilobersa, Nubia (reads R-L, bottom to top).

Zulu and Ashanti Symbols (2 pp) Brenda Sullivan 7/2-p 158
Zulu symbols carved on love pendants; Ashanti Akua'ba figures similar to Ankh and Tanith.

An Interview with Barry Fell (7 pp) NE Social Studies Bulletin 7/2-p 160
Reprinted from the New England Social Studies Bulletin, Fall 1978 (Jefferson Co., PA, inscription shown).

Inscribed Stones from Kent County, Michigan (5 pp) E.R. Moore 7/2-p 182
Zoomorphic (bird effigy?) stones found in Solon Township, Kent Co., MI, bearing possible writing.

Ancient Celtiberian and Mediterranean Peoples in the New World (3 pp) Roberta C. Smith  7/2-p 190
Brief review of sites showing Old World-New World contact before Columbus.

Decalogue Tablet, Newark, Ohio (7 pp) Dana C. Savage Jr. 7/2-p 193
Excavated with other artifacts in 1860 during excavation of the "Great Stone Stack."

Numerals and Epigraphy (7 pp) L. Lyle Underwood 7/2-p200
Review of number systems and symbols used to represent numbers.

How Champollion Solved the Hieratic Script (2 pp) Barry Fell 7/2-p 208
Fell replies to criticism of his translations of Egyptian.

Ten Iberian Inscriptions (15 pp) Donal Buchanan 7/2-p 210
Buchanan published ten inscriptions as Semitic [but later he repudiated most if not all of these translations: he discovered the language for most of the Iberian inscriptions had to be Indo-European].

Anubis in Oklahoma (7 pp) Gloria Farley & Clyde Keeler 7/2-p 225
Report of the Anubis Cave and the inscriptions found there and elsewhere in Cimmaron River area.

Ogam-inscribed Gravestone (1 p) James P. Whittall II 7/2-p 232
Found on Skellig Michael off the coast of County Kerry, Ireland.

Cartouche of Shishonq in Spain (1 pp) Barry Fell 7/2-p 233
Engraved on an alabaster trade vase found in Tomb 16, Almunecar.

Ptolemaic Tetradrachm from Queensland (1 p)Barry Fell 7/2-p 234
Australian press reports coin found on Atherton Tableland, Queensland, Australia.

Libyan Anubis in Southern Spain (1 p) Barry Fell 7/2-p 235
Discovered on alabaster funerary vases in tombs at Almunecar, Southern Spain.

Silver Tetradrachm of Philip II in Montana: Coin Found - or Lost Coin? (1 p) Riley Sunderland 7/2-p 236
Found by a local rancher four feet below the surface.

A Possible Megalithic Calendar Site (4 pp) John H. Bradner 7/2-p 237
Shaped and inscribed stones found in a large site in the western Ramapo Mountains.

Minoan and Aegean Symbols at Driekopseiland, South Africa (2 pp) Maria Du Toit 7/2-p 241
Some ancient South African rock art may have been carved by Minoan or Aegean visitors in search of ore.

How the Egyptians Really Wrote (3 pp) Barry Fell 7/2-p 243
Neat published versions do not reflect the actual text properly.

Epigraphy of Three Sinai Steles (2 pp) Barry Fell 7/2-p 246
Mis-spellings parallel those on American examples.

On the Cover

The Sanctus of the Mass, as translated into the hieroglyphics of the ancient writing system of the Micmac Indians three centuries ago by Fr Pierre Maillard. See "The Micmac Manuscripts," p. 146. The lines read, left to right, "Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God of-hosts, Heaven and Earth are full of splendor"


Epigraphic Society Occasional Publications
Table of Contents, Vol. 8/1, 1980

Major Library Holdings of OPES [ESOP] Sets (3 pp) 8/1-p 5

A partial list of learned institutions and libraries receiving Society publications.

Celtic Scholars Comment on the Society's Work (1 p) Sanford Etheridge & Lou Menez 8/1-p 7

Prof. Etheridge, of the Department of Classical Languages of Tulane University and also Lou Menez, a Breton missionary who works with the Takhelne in the Northwest Territories, praise Fell's work.

The Society Adopts a Seal (1 p) Barry Fell 8/1-p 8

A description of the makeup and origin of the Society's seal.

The Ancient Zodiac from Inyo, California (6 pp) Barry Fell 8/1-p 9

Pictographs from U. of CA site Iny-272, originally investigated by Heizer and Baumhoff, are shown. Fell offers his decipherment and his identification of many of the markings as zodiacal in nature.

Translation of the Decalogue Tablet from Ohio (6 pp) Ernest Bloom & Jon Polansky 8/1-p 15

Translation and analysis of a controversial artifact showing similarities and differences with ancient Hebrew.

The Name Amon-Shishonq in Ptolemaic Use (3 pp) Barry Fell 8/1-p 21

The name occurs in a papyrus from Denderah dating to the Roman or Ptolemaic era. It is compared to an example from Texas mentioned in America BC.

Society's Members Join Totten Expedition (1 p) Norman Totten 8/1-p 24

Members are invited to join Totten, Vice President of the Society, in an archaeological tour of Egypt.

The Phaistos Hieroglyphs (2 pp) Linus Brunner 8/1-p 25

An attempt to isolate syllabic pronunciations in the Phaistos inscription.

The Dilmun Civilization--Its Seals and Sun-God Symbols (9 pp) Ali-Akbar H. Bushiri 8/1-p 27

A discussion of Bahrain as the location of the ancient land of Dilmun.

Vermont History (8 pp) Harvey G. Laudin 8/1-p 36

A response to Giovanna Neudorfer's article in "Vermont History."

Thirty-Two Cypro-Minoan Signatures to the British Treaty with the Abenaki   People, Signed July 25th 1727 (6 pp) Barry Fell 8/1-p 44

The author shows that Indian signatures bear similarities to Cypro-Minoan Linear C.

Noah at Nineveh – A Koranic Chant of the Pima Tribe (7 pp) Barry Fell 8/1-p 50

Fell translates a Pima chant using Arabic and shows that the languages derive from similar roots.

The Islamic Inscriptions of America (20 pp) Barry Fell 8/1-p 57

Fell suggests that Arabic occurs among many inscriptions found in western America.

Cypro-Minoan Syllabaries of America (6 pp) Barry Fell 8/1-p 77

Fell shows that Cypro-Minoan inscriptions are widely distributed in American archeological contexts.

Origins of Germanic scripts (10 pp) L. Lyle Underwood 8/1-p 83

Comparative work linking the origin of Runic alphabets to Mycenaean Linear B.

Potsherds from Wisconsin – Their Designs and Some Comparisons (16 pp) Gertrude B. Johnson 8/1-p 93

Johnson compares sherds from Wisconsin with sherds from Amoskeag, New Hampshire, and Alabama Sites.

The Archaeology of Tremeauleau County, Wisconsin (16 pp) David Radloff 8/1-p 109

A description of the land of the Natchez tribe who appear to have used a Libyan script.

Message from a Norse Trader (1 p) Barry Fell 8/1-p 124

An inscription is communicated by a reader who found it on her property in Pelham, New Hampshire.

On the Cover

The Colorado “Swanship” of Osunoba on the Society’s Seal. This petroglyph was discovered in 1978 by a group led by Gloria Farley. The Latin legend that circles the seal reads Ex Epigraphia Historia = “Out of Epigraphy comes forth History.”


Epigraphic Society Occasional Publications

Table of Contents, Vol. 8/2, 1980

Tree Ogam: A Variant Form of the Linear Script (6 pp) Norman Totten 8/2-p 129

The author discusses the development of Ogam with special emphasis on Tree Ogam.

Oak Island  - and After (2 pp) Barry Fell 8/2-p 136

A comparison of the famous Oak Island Inscription to the Tuareg Tifinag of Sheik Ohman.

On Libyan Contributions to the Mediterranean Cultures (7 pp) Ali F. Kushaim  8/2-p 138

Libyan influence on Greek history, mythology, literature, etc.

Who Created Linear B Script? (3 pp) Linus Brunner 8/2-p 145

Brunner agrees with Hooker that the syllabary is an "instrument for the rendering of Greek."

Decipherment of Rune-like Akekanovo Inscription from Eastern Europe (4 pp) Victor Kachur 8/2-p 148

An inscription on a vase found in 1897 in Alekanovo, near Moscow -- read in Old Slavic.

Inscriptions from North Africa (5 pp) Barry Fell 8/2-p 152

Libyan sepulchral inscriptions, some bi-lingual with Latin, are deciphered by Fell.

Baal in Oklahoma (5 pp) Gloria Farley 8/2-p 157

The author identifies an Oklahoma petroglyph with renditions of Baal.

Georgia Elephant Disk (3 pp) Bubba Davis & Clyde Keeler 8/2-p 162

A description of the finding of the disk in May 1973 by Tom Hill Davis Sr. and his son Tom Hill (Bubba) Davis Jr.

Two Lusitanian memorials (3 pp) Barry Fell 8/2-p 165

Fell's reading of two sepulchral inscriptions from Portugal. [Note by Donal Buchanan: Fell's reading of these two inscriptions is faulty. He read them left to right. They read from right to left. He used Semitic. They are in a form of Celtic.]

The Gungywamp complex (6 pp) David Pitt Barron 8/2-p 168

A description of a primitive "megalithic" complex in Connecticut.

Differential Craniometry Suggests European Pelasgians Founded Egyptian, Chinese-Japanese, and Carib-Andean Civilizations (11 pp) Albert E. Casey, Eleanor L. Downey-Prince, & Ursula Dietrich 8/2-p 175

21 mean cranial measurements and indices available on Cretans compared with 864 peoples worldwide.

Ogam consainne (1 p) Barry Fell 8/2-p 185  

Petroglyphs on a cairn at Lough Crew, Ireland, are translated.

SEAS at Bimini (10 pp) Talbot S. Lindstrom  8/2-p 189

The Scientific Exploration and Archeological Society (SEAS) conducts land and sea archaeological inquiries.

Horned snakes of Southern Africa in Rock Art and Mythology (10 pp) Brenda Sullivan 8/2-p 199

Animal-headed snakes and snakes with horns are pictured on rocks over a wide area of South Africa.

The Logic of Linguistics (9 pp) Frank Parson 8/2-p 209

A society's linguistics decay in direct relation to a decay in the culture. Language is culturally dependent.

A Seal Ring Found in Huntingdon, Virginia (1 p) Patricia L. White 8/2-p 218

A ring made c. 1618-1620 by Accomack Indians was presented by King Debedeavon to Grace O'Neill of Virginia Colony.

How Much Did Columbus' Crewmen Know of America Before 1492? (1 p) Michael Scott 8/2-p 218

Columbus chose his crewmen because they already had knowledge of early voyages and existence of the Antilles.

Pseudo-Ogam (1 p) Robert C. Bell 8/2-p 218

Ogam-like natural markings on a pebble.

Sarmatian Petroglyphs (1 p) Anatole M. Kazanov 8/2-p 219

Symbols on a stone burial chamber at Kerch in the Crimea (Sarmatians: Indo-Europeans ancestral to Slavs).

Epigraphy in Poland  (1 p) Jerzy Cepik 8/2-p 220  

The author has just published the first volume of his work on the history of man titled, Jak Czlowiek Nauczyt Sie Pisac. It deals with the evolution of alphabets and writing systems. A graphic of a Slavic Inscription from Novgorod is shown. 

Micmac Manuscripts (1 p) George A. Webster 8/2-p 220

Informs that a new Micmac prayer book has come to light in New York state. Webster is in contact with the owner.

An Act to Suppress Tohungas (1 p) B. R. Patterson 8/2-p 221  

Further comments on attempts to suppress Maori culture.

Summer solstice at Warwick, New York (2 pp) J. H. Bradner  8/2-p 221

The author reports on a possible megalithic calendar site.

Basque Membership in the Epigraphic Society (1 p) Barry Fell 8/2-p 222 

Fell speaks of the activities of Basque member Augusto Aboitiz of Buenos Aires (which led to the involvement of Basque philologist Imanole Agire with the work of the Society)  He mentions a recent work on ancient Basques by J. M. Barandiaran. Member Jo Arriza of Denver finds parallels between Basque vocabulary and several other languages including Sumerian, Polynesian, and Amerindian.

The Science of Ancient Egypt - Presented by a Scientist for Scientists (1 p) John Anthony West 8/2-p 223

An ad for Serpent in the Sky, the High Wisdom of Ancient Egypt by John Anthony West, Harper & Row, NY, New York.

Harvard Map Collection Acquires Major Gifts of East Asian Maps (1 p) Barry Fell 8/2-p 224  

A gift from the Rübel Asiatic Research Collection includes maps drawn by Europeans compiled from information received from travelers and explorers knowledgeable of East Asia. as well as topographic maps provided by the US Defense Mapping Agency Library. The latter were made 1919-1948 by Chinese and Japanese.

Houghton Library Acquires Irish Manuscripts (1 p) Barry Fell 8/2-p 224

The Library has obtained an early Irish manuscript (a page from the Vetus Latina, an early Latin translation of the Bible which predates the Vulgate) as well as poems and letters by William Butler Yeats.

Carvings Installed in Maori Studies House (2 pp) Sidney M. Mead 8/2-p 225

Developments in Maori studies at Victoria University of Wellington (New Zealand). The carvings on the Studies building are heavily symbolic. Photo of author, a Professor and Head of Maori Studies.

An Artifact Found at Edisto Island (2 pp) Dail R. Worthem 8/2-p 227

A strange artifact of copper and meteoric iron has been found 20 miles south of Charleston, South Carolina (photo available).

Some Kentucky Inscriptions (5 pp) Vernon J. Calhoun 8/2-p 229

Reports on a site between the Beech and Rolling forks of the Salt river (the markings resemble the Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania inscriptions). Illustrated by Annette E. Calhoun.

Moonwatching — Part I (7 pp) Charles C. Fulton 8/2-p 234  

This begins a series on Archaeoastronomy.

A Grave inscription in Vowel-less Ogam from Lycia, Western Anatolia (2 pp) Bruce A. MacDonald 8/2-p 241

This alleged Ogam Consaine inscription is from an excavation at Karatas-Semayuk, in Lycia, contemporary with Early Bronze II-IIIA. Barry Fell adds a comment that in all probability the inscription should be assigned to Galatian Celts.

On the Cover

An Ancient Coin of Osunoba.


Epigraphic Society Occasional Publications

Table of Contents,Vol. 9/1, 1981

Society of Basque Studies and the Anglo-American Basque Studies Society (1 p) 9/1-p 8

These societies have recently been organized at Indian University and at the University of Nevada. A list of scholars from 28 different institutions of higher learning who recommend the societies is given.

Earlier Than You Think (1 p) George F. Carter 9/1-p 13

An ad for Carter's new book on the prehistory of man in the Americas. Biographic information on Carter is given.

Archeology and Epigraphy In America (8 pp) Norman Totten 9/1-p 15

Totten introduces the theme for discussion by a panel of scholars in the following article.

Discussion (14 pp) Stephen Williams, Marshall McKusick, Imanol Agiré, Gordon Willey, Thomas Webster, Robert Marx, Linus Brunner, Barry Fell, Clifford M. Gordon, Chief ShupShe, Robert Vincent, Peter Frawley, Ruth Hale Oliver, C. Lamberg-Karlovsky, Aurelio Tio, Fernando Espinosa, Jenifer Marx, Dean Snow, Geraldine Caballero, Stephen Laurent, Robert Logan, Glyn Daniel, John Carlson, Pennar Davies, Elizabeth R. Sunderland, Alexander Thom, Clemencia Plazas, Ana Maria Falchwtti de Saenz, Edgar Ephren Torres Mosquera, Jacques Touchet, & Linsay Beamer 9/1-p 23

The above panel of scholars discuss the pros and cons of ancient Old World contact with the New World.

The Origin of Writing and of Language (19 pp) Imanol Agiré 9/1-p 37

He concludes that cave paintings were by paleo Basques and that the "Iberic" script is a variety of an ancient Basque syllabary.

Rediscovering the Rhaetic Language (6 pp) Linus Brunner 9/1-p 56

The language of some ancient peoples of the Swiss and Austrian Tirol may contain very ancient words.

Statistical Analysis In Decipherment Procedures (5 pp) A. T. Potjer 9/1-p 62

An analysis of Fell's decipherment of Linear A.

Georgian Language and Lexicography (4 pp) Eugene E. Pantzer 9/1-p 67 

An introduction to the history of the language of the Georgian SSR.

Epigraphic Research in America: Reply to Archeologists’ Denunciations (45 pp) Norman Totten 9/1-p 71

Totten gives a reasoned consideration and rebuttal of claims of archaeologists who deny the reality of New World epigraphy.

On the Cover

A graphic of the Seal of the Society is shown. The title of the volume is given: Archaeology and Epigraphy - Confrontation in America.

Epigraphic Society Occasional Publications

Table of Contents, Vol. 9/2, 1981

Archaeologic Maize in Colombia? (6 pp) Edgard E. Torres 9/2-p 121

An investigation of the origin of corn.

An Inscribed Tablet from Newberry, Michigan (5 pp) Henriette Mertz             9/2-p127  

The tablet was found in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan and is now missing. It is one of numerous inscribed artifacts allegedly discovered in Michigan.

Decipherment and Translation of the Newberry Tablet from Northern Michigan (5 pp) Barry Fell 9/2-p 132  

Fell describes it as an omens text which invites comparison with Cherokee, Hittite, Cypro-Minoan and the language of the Phaistos Disk. A graphic of the inscription is shown and Fell offers a decipherment.

Potsherds from Mogador, Morocco VIIc BC-IVc BC (11 pp) Gertrude Johnson & James P. Whittall  9/2-p 137

Mogador is an island off the coast of Morocco. It held Phoenician- Carthaginian settlements.

Reminiscences (7 pp) Robert Logan 9/2-p 148  

The author gives his experiences in WWI and talks of his continuing study of the Cree culture and language.

Was Bel a God in Ilios? (2 pp) Bruce Macdonald 9/2-p155

A small terra cotta object excavated by Schliemann appears to bear B-L in Ogam (read right to left). A graphic of the artifact is shown.

Elephant Mound in Iowa (1 p) Robert Moline 9/2-p 156

The author recommends that we see p. 45 of The Iowa Effigy Mound Manifestation: An Interpretive Model by R. Clark Mallam.

They came in Ships (2 pp) Gloria Farley 9/2-p157

A reprint of the author's article in Oklahoma Today.

Moonwatching (Part 2) (16 pp) Charles C. Fulton 9/2-p 159

This ends a series on Archaeoastronomy.

A Celtic Frontier Site in Colorado (3 pp) Phillip M. Leonard & James L. Glenn 9/2-p 175

An ogam inscription on a rock overhang. A graphic of the inscription is shown. Barry Fell deciphers it using Old Irish.

0gam on the Susquehanna (2 pp) Gail & Steven Strake 9/2-p 178

A report on two inscribed stones at the Eschelman site in Lancaster Co., PA; also a similar stone at the Pennsylvania State Museum.

An Asturian Celtic Glossary (4 pp) Jesus Lopez Pacios 9/2-p 180

A glossary of Galician and Gaulish words with English equivalents.

A Preliminary Decipherment of the Glozel Inscriptions (23 pp) Donal Buchanan 9/2-p 184

A history of the discovery of the site and the author's suggested decipherment of the inscriptions using Semitic language.

The Dilmun Civilization – Evidence of the Seals on Trade and Economy (7 pp) Ali-Akbar H. Bushiri 9/2-p 207

A discussion of the evidence for Dilmun including seal inscriptions.

Animals on the Seals of Dilmun (7 pp) Ali-Akbar H. Bushiri & Gertrude Johnson 9/2-p 216

It is suggested that the seals provide "an encyclopedia of the history of Dilmun." He analyzes the seals in detail. Illustrated by Johnson.

On the Cover

A graphic of the Seal of the Society is shown. The title of the volume is given: Glozel and Other Decipherments.


 Epigraphic Society Occasional Publications

Table of Contents, Vol. 10/1, 1982

Rhaetic Inscriptions (4 pp) Linus Brunner 10/1-p 9

He believes Rhaetic is related to Semitic. Here he uses Semitic to translate Rhaetic inscriptions.

New Epigraphic Finds in Oklahoma and Colorado, Utah and Wyoming (4 pp) Gloria Farley 10/1-p 13

Reports on Ogam in western America and also the Wyoming Tablet (Fell deciphered the latter as Cypriot script and language).

The Bohuslän Culture (Bronze Age Norse) in North America  (13 pp) Barry Fell 10/1-p 17

Characteristic petroglyphs shared by Scandinavia and North America.

Roman Amphoras Discovered Near Rio de Janeiro (2 pp) Walter Sullivan 10/1-p 30

Sullivan,of the New York Times, writes of a discovery by diver Jose Roberto Texeira as reported by Robert F. & Jennifer Marx   .

Stone Discs from North of England (5 pp) Lionel H. Atkinson 10/1-p 32

Examination of several hundred discs suggesting possible uses.

Addendum: Stone Discs at North American Archaeological Sites (1 p) Barry Fell 10/1-p 36

Some have ogam markings; one is shown and deciphered.

The Magic Flute – Birdstones Reconsidered (8 pp) Norman Totten 10/1-p 37

He suggests a ritualistic symbolic use of the birdstones.

Rhaetic Inscriptions in the Tyrol (3 pp) Linus Brunner 10/1-p 45

He suggests that the Rhaetic peoples borrowed Indo-European words.

Ogam – A Precursor of Written Language? (4 pp) David Barron 10/1-p 48

A specialist in speech pathology and language development examines the problem of a Megalithic written language.

The Elephant Mounds of Wisconsin (5 pp) David M. Radloff 10/1-p 52

Notes a reference to a camel mound in Wisconsin as well as elephants and mastodons.

Map of North America Petroglyph (1 p) Ruth Tipton & Bill McGlone 10/1-p 56

Authors suggest withdrawal of support for the petroglyph as a map; Fell concurs.

The Los Lunas Inscription (11 pp) L. Lyle Underwood 10/1-p 57

A history and description of the inscription with graphics from a photo by the author. Gives a script comparison and suggested translation.    

The Los Lunas Stone (6 pp) Donald Cline 10/1-p 68

            Another look at the site's description and history. A transliteration of the inscription is given.          

A Decipherment of the Los Lunas Decalogue Inscription (8 pp) Jay Stonebraker 10/1-p 74

Transcription, transliteration and translation of the inscription by the author.

World Maps of Piris Reis (1513 AD), Oronteus Finaeus (1531 AD), and Gerardus Mercator (1538 AD) (4 pp) Gordon R. Freeman 10/1-p 82

Attempts to resolve problems in their interpretation.

Ptolemaic Finds in Australia  (1 p) Rex Gilroy 10/1-p 85

Australasian Post, 24 Dec 1981 and 28 Jan 1982 reports on Gilroy's finding of the heads of Mithras and Demeter as well as a ship glyph and a Ptolemaic coin.

Notes to Brunner's *SER-1 (5 pp) Marge E. Landsberg 10/1-p 86

Discusses the Indo-European root *ser-1 and cognates in Semitic, Malayo-Polynesian and Austronesian.

The Lost Manila Galleons (3 pp) Orville L. Hope 10/1-p 91

One Manila treasure galleon was wrecked off San Miguel Island, California, and another off Nahalem Spit, Oregon.

Petromantic Ogam of Conestoga, Pennsylvania (3 pp) Patrick M. McSherry 10/1-p 94

Natural "pseudo-ogam" deciphered by Fell: "to the libation bowl" or "make a libation bowl."

An Inscribed Boulder in the University of British Columbia Research Forest, Haney, British Columbia (2 pp) Bruce A. Macdonald 10/1-p 97

Fell suggests that the script is North Iberic and reads it using Semitic.

A Norse Runic Inscription from Dundee Creek, Maryland  (4 pp) Barry Fell 10/1-p 99

Fell reads the inscription as naming a "fishing place" -- appropriate for its locale.

A Norse Runic Inscription from Chesapeake Bay Area (4 pp) Brad O’Keefe 10/1-p 103

            This inscription isread as: "Ferry."        

Short Reports and Letters to the Editor (9 pp) 10/1-p 107  

Charles Darwin and the Patagonian Stones (1 p) Marvin S. Wasser 10/1-p 107

Darwin noted heaps of stones on a mountain top in Uruguay similar to those seen in Wales.

Stephens County, Texas –An Ogam Cave Inscription (2 pp) Mike Kingston 10/1-p 107

Info from Mike Kingston of the Dallas Morning News. A graphic of the inscription is shown and Fell's decipherment given.

Saga America: The Map of North America (2 pp) L. J. Dewald 10/1-p 109

            Investigationof the site d            etermines that the "map"shown on the cover ofSaga Americais not a map at all; Fell agrees.    

An Ogam Consaine Inscribed Artifact from Windmill Hill, Wiltshire, England (2 pp) Charles Dailey & Barry Fell 10/1-p 110

Dailey brings the artifact to Fell's attention. Fell deciphers it using Celtic: B-YA-N M-T D-N D-M = Byanu mat, dion diom = "Good mother -goddess, a protection for me."

Choctaw and Cherokee Medical Touchstones (5 pp) John Moore & Barry Fell 10/1-p 111

Moore provided what appear to be two Amerindian touchstones bearing inscriptions. There is a long inscription on one and a shorter inscription on the other. Graphics of both are shown. Fell offers his translations of the inscriptions.

Rock Shelter Inscription, Jackson County, Kentucky, Engraved in Basque-Cree Syllabic Script, Shawnee Language (1 p) Larry Dean 10/1-p 114

Inscription shown and translated by Fell.

An Ogam-Inscribed Birdstone (1 p) Barry Fell 10/1-p 115

Found in Clarence H. Webb's account of artifacts excavated from Poverty Point, Louisiana; Fell translation given.

An Ogam-inscribed Pictograph in Carrizo Canyon, San Diego County (1 p) Barry Fell 10/1-p 116

The inscription shown (a poor photo) and Fell's decipherment given.

Two Inscribed Stones Found Near Shamokin, Pennsylvania, by Salathiel Derk (1 p) Barry Fell 10/1-p 117

Photographed by Larry Mulligan (no photo shown, but graphics are available). Fell offers a decipherment.

On the Cover

A graphic of the Seal of the Society is shown. The title of the volume is given: America's Links with Bronze Age Europe.


Epigraphic Society Occasional Publications

Table of Contents, Vol. 10/2, 1982

Malayo-Polynesian Vocabulary with Semitic and Indo-European Roots  (132 pp) Linus Brunner 10/2-p 1

This is an important Lexicon representing many years of work by the author.

On the Cover

A graphic of the Seal of the Society is shown. The title of the volume is given: Malayo-Polynesian Vocabulary with Semitic and Indo-European Roots.


Epigraphic Society Occasional Publications

Table of Contents, Vol. 11/1, 1983

Cup-and-ring glyphs (1 p) Lionel Atkinson & Bart Henson 11/1-p 9  

British stones associated with Beaker graves c. 2200 BC.

Petroglyph Articles Stir Worldwide Interest (2 pp) Arnout Hyde Jr., Robert Meyer, Warren Cook, et al 11/1-p 10

Communications from scholars praising Fell's work on the Wyoming County, West Virginia, petroglyph.

The Dunan of Stoer (2 pp) Barry Fell 11/1-p 12  

Pictures of a Celtic broch seen and photographed by Fell in Assynt, Sutherland, Scotland.

Did a Roman Ship reach Brazil in Antiquity?  (8 pp) Robert F. Marx 11/1-p 14  

Three Roman Amphorae were found in the Baia de Guanabara by José Roberto Teixeira in June 1976.

Ogam Discoveries in West Virginia (1 p) Arnout Hyde Jr. 11/1-p 22  

Fell cites Arnout Hyde Jr. as Associate Editor for this issue and for his fine photography and editing in Wonderful West Virginia magazine.

A Message from the Past (6 pp) Robert L. Pyle 11/1-p 23  

Strange carvings and inscriptions found in West Virginia and Ohio (the Wyoming County, West Virginia, petroglyph, the Grave Creek Stone, the Decalogue Tablet). Biographic material is provided on Robert Pyle.

Light Dawns on West Virginia History (8 pp) Ida Jane Gallagher 11/1-p 29  

More on the Wyoming County, West Virginia, inscription. Biographic material on Ida Jane Gallagher is provided.

Old Irish Rock Inscriptions from West Virginia (17 pp) Barry Fell 11/1-p 37  

Fell's decipherment of inscriptions from Wyoming and Boone Counties in West Virginia.

Paradigm Shifts (3 pp) James M. Peters 11/1-p 54  

An excellent examination of the structure of belief and the reasons it is difficult to change existing opinion.

The Ogam boar of Castulo (1 p) Barry Fell 11/1-p 56  

The symbol of the city of Castulo (used on coins) bears an ogam inscription: C-S-T.

Commentary (2 pp) David M. Radloff 11/1-p 57  

Radloff comments on the quality of criticism received by Dr. Fell (critics quoting critics, etc.).

Foulis Wester (4 pp) Barry Fell 11/1-p 58  

Standing stones located on a moor in Perthshire, Scotland.

A Gadelic Word List (16 pp) Burrell Dawson 11/1-p 62  

Lists of Celtic words illustrating Goidelic roots compiled from papers in ESOP and other writings by Dr. Fell.

The Naiman Tribes of the Kutchin (25 pp) Ethel G. Stewart 11/1-p 78  

Maintains that most of the Kutchin (Dene) tribes came from the Uighur Kingdom of Turfan in present-day Sinkiang.

A Hieroglyphic Bill of Account (4 pp) David Radloff & Barry Fell 11/1-p 102

An Indian blacksmith in Wisconsin submitted a bill using hieroglyphs over a hundred years ago.

On the Cover

A graphic of the Seal of the Society is shown. The title of the volume is given: Celts of West Virginia.


Epigraphic Society Occasional Publications

Table of Contents, Vol. 11/2, 1983

In Memoriam: Harold Gladwin, Imanol Agiré, and Jay Stonebraker  (1 p) 11/2-p  112  

Announcing the deaths of Harold Sterling Gladwin, Imanol Agiré, and Jay Stonebraker.

Mediterranean Motifs in Bronze Age Sweden (3 pp) Glenn A.Gentry 11/2-p 113  

Cultural interactions between Scandinavia and the peoples of North Africa and the Mediterranean.

The Runamo Inscription, Blekinge (4 pp) Jon Galster 11/2-p 116  

The author's personal investigation of the Runamo inscription.

Primstav - Old Norse Hieroglyphic Calendar (9 pp) Barry Fell 11/2-p 120  

Primstavs were used by the Norse to record feast days and masses.

The Vikings (32 pp) Ditlev Thyssen 11/2-p 129  

A commentary on Viking history (as told in the Sagas) as well as on Viking visits to the New World.

A Precolumbian Wool Industry in North America – Some Puzzling Aspects (3 pp) Herbert L. Minshall 11/2-p 161  

The author questions the identification of "wool-bearing" animals depicted in petroglyphs read by Fell.

Ancient Artists and the Horned Beasts (3 pp) Gloria Farley 11/2-p 164  

Examples of horned animals from US sites and from Old World sites and artifacts.

Skandinavische Urschrift in Amerika (1 p) Linus Brunner 11/2-p 166  

Clipping dated 28 Oct 1982. It appeared in Sankt Gallen Tagblatt and other newspapers.

American Bighorn or Old World Imports? (3 pp) Barry Fell 11/2-p 167  

Proves that the inscribed "Bighorns" depict native, not exotic, animals.

A Tifinag Inscribed Stalactite in Texas (1 p) Barry Fell 11/2-p 170  

James Guthrie reports on an inscription in Ancient Libyan on an inscribed stalactite in a cave in Edwards County, Texas, photographed in 1959 by his colleague Ephraim A. Cuevas (a poor version of the photo is shown). According to Fell, the inscription reads: S-R-N-I = Sawarin, the Arabic and Berber word for a columnar stalactite.

Kokopelli Bluff (20 pp) Norman Totten 11/2-p 171  

A report on a 4-week investigation of petroglyphs from Georgia to Colorado (20 sites in all).

Prodromes of Writing (13 pp) Marge E. Landsberg 11/2-p 191

An examination of the Azilian pebbles, perhaps man's first attempt to communicate graphically.

Medical Inscriptions from Tripolitania (5 pp) Barry Fell 11/2-p 204  

Inscriptions from Libyan tombs of 3rd & 4th centuries AD (included is a 2nd century Greek text).

A Colorado Dolmen Inscribed with Ogam (2 pp) Judy Morehouse 11/2-p 209  

Ogam is found inscribed on a dolmen in Western Colorado. Fell's reading is given. He calls it "Arabic Ogam"

Koranic Ogam on a Colorado Capstone (1 p) Barry Fell 11/2-p 210  

This is a detailed breakdown of the decipherment given in the paper by Judy Morehouse.

Ogam - An Alternate Communication System (4 pp) Jean H. Gaulden 11/2-p 212  

An examination of the history of the development of Ogam and possibilites for its use by mentally handicapped persons.

The Crespi Collection of Cuenca, Ecuador (15 pp) Warren L. Cook 11/2-p 216  

The author's experiences and conclusions after examining the controversial Crespi artifacts.

Rock Art on Postage Stamps (2 pp) 11/2-pp 230-231  

Examples shown from Scandinavia, Australia, and New Zealand.

Ancient Writing from Etowah Mounds  (1 p) Gloria Farley 11/2-p 232  

The author describes her visit to the Etowah Mounds and Museum and an ancient inscribed gorget seen there.

Decipherment of the Ancient Writing from Etowah Mounds (2 pp) Barry Fell 11/2-p 233  

The author details his decipherment of the inscribed gorget reported by Gloria Farley. Fell identifies the script as Tifinag and the language as Berber-Arabic. According to him, the artifact is a religious object. A poor graphic of the artifact is shown.

Inscribed Rocks in South Central Alabama (2 pp) Bart Henson & Barry Fell 11/2-p 235  

A glyph site in Alabama consisting of a large steatite boulder and smaller adjacent rocks with man-made markings. Fell reads the markings as Iberic and deciphers them using Arabic.

A Navigation Grid or Stick Chart (Rebbelib) from the Marshall Islands, Micronesia (4 pp) Barry Fell 11/2-p 237  

A wooden star chart used by ancient seafarers to navigate among the Pacific islands.

Tifinag in Irish Megalithic Rock Engravings (4 pp) Warren W. Dexter & Barry Fell 11/2-p 241  

Tifinag script seen on boulders at Lough Crew, County Meath, Ireland. Fell offers his decipherments.

A Polynesian Artifact Engraved with Libyan Script (6 pp) Barry Fell & Jon Polansky 11/2-p 245  

Jon Polansky purchased a Polynesian artifact from an antique store in San Francisco. It turned out to have an inscription on it in an alphabet very similar to Libyan. The language appears to be a dialect of the Tuamotuan language similar to Maori. It is a charm for fishing.

Apparent Islamic Influence at Runamo (5 pp) Barry Fell 11/2-p 251 

Fell finds Kufi runes among the inscriptions at Runamo, Sweden. He takes issue with Magnuson's readings.

An Ogam Inscription from Bainbridge Island, Washington (2 pp) John H. Rudolph & Barry Fell 11/2-p 256

Fell translates "rake ogam" sent to him by Rudolph from the site in Washington state.

On the Cover

A thousand years ago the Norse king Haraldr Sigurdsson included snow-skiing, together with singing verses to the harp, reading good books and other pastimes, among nine skills of which he was master. But in this ancient petroglyph of 4000 years ago an early BronzeAge Scandinavian who lived near Rödöy, in the Nordland of Norway, demonstrates the antiquity of the art of skiing. Norway placed the design on postage stamps in 1966 on the occasion of a world championship meeting of skiers.

Epigraphic Society Occasional Publications

Table of Contents, Vol. 12/1, 1984

The Petroglyphs of Prado da Rodela, Portugal (4 pp) Joaquim Rodrigues dos Santos Jr. 12/1-p 9  

Reports on pre-Roman linear markings by a spring in Mogadouro, Tras- os-Montes Province (near Galicia), Portugal.

The Galician Ogam Consaine Inscription at Prado da Rodela, Northeast Portugal (6 pp) Barry Fell 12/1-p 13  

Fell translates the Ogam in Mogadouro. He cites a letter from Pliny the Younger.

Why Study Human Origins? (5 pp) Raymond Dart 12/1-p 19  

Dart's address to the Leakey Foundation on the fiftieth anniversary of his discovery of Australopithecus, 1974.

Ancient Petroglyphs of South Africa (5 pp) Credo Vusamazulu Mutwa 12/1-p 24  

A Letter from a noted Zulu scholar and witchdoctor to Brenda Sullivan, Society member in South Africa.

An Ancient Arabic Guide to Ogam on a Sacred Tablet from Zambia (3 pp) Barry Fell 12/1-p 29  

It depicts a complete consonantal sign system of Ogam including the vowels and dipthongs, with certain Egyptian signs.

An Ogam Phallus from Britain (1 p) Barry Fell 12/1-p 32  

Fell's decipherment of an inscription from Britain (provenance given elsewhere by James Whittall).

An Ogam Consaine Inscription from Kashiba, Nara Prefecture, Japan (6 pp) Masuhiro Yoneyama 12/1-p 33  

A possible incantation inscription written in Old Japanese.

Frontiers of Understanding (20 pp) Norman Totten 12/1-p 39  

A highly condensed statement of epistemology, intended to be an appendix to Totten's planned book, Before History.

Pre-Colombian America – Developing a Valid Model (6 pp) Norman Totten 12/1-p 59  

A challenge to the model of radical isolation currently guiding much archaeological research.

The Bronze Age Cult of Thunder Gods (6 pp) Barry Fell 12/1-p 65  

Ancient inscribed artifacts are deciphered by Fell. He identifies the scripts as pre-Italic perhaps Thraco-Illyrian or Phrygian in origin.

Etruscan Was Not Semitic (2 pp) Linus Brunner 12/1-p 71  

He defends Fell's view that Etruscan is an Indo-European language related to Hittite.

The Extent of Nabataean Sea Power (3 pp) Robert Lebling 12/1-p 73  

The Nabataean Arabs had a greater maritime capability than is generally realized.

A Fifteenth Century Recipe for Beer (9 pp) Donal Buchanan 12/1-p 76  

Translation of a marginal inscription found in the Book of Ballymote. Buchanan believes the language is either Scots Gaelic or a dialect of Irish close to that language.

A Stone Masonry Tunnel and Underground Chamber in Central Ohio  (6 pp) Victor & Beverly Moseley 12/1-p 85  

Discovered near Greer, Holmes Co., Ohio, it has many earmarks of Celtic engineering.

An Ogam-inscribed Artifact from New York State (3 pp) James L. & Robert G. Guthrie 12/1-p 91  

A hand-molded, weather-hardened clay object found in Keuka Park, New York. Fell called it a fisherman's votive tablet carved with right to left in Ogam and translated the Celtic as: "I pray for a trout, O Mabo!"

Ancient Celtic Water Cult: Its Significance in British History (4 pp) Alban Wall 12/1-p 94  

Special attention is given to a site in Holzhausen, Germany, dated to Celtic La Tène culture (c. -550 to -15 BC).

Celtic Augurs and Canada Geese (10 pp) Barry Fell 12/1-p 98  

A site on Milk River, Alberta, Canada, has hundreds of Ogam and other inscriptions.

In Memoriam - Jay Stonebraker (1 p) Donal Buchanan 12/1-p 107     

Announcement of the death of Jay Stonebraker, 27 Aug 1983, first President of what became the Mid-Atlantic Epigraphic Society.          

The Society’s Seal (1 p) Barry Fell 12/1-p 109  

Its central feature is the Colorado swan-ship discovered in 1978 by a group led by Gloria Farley.

An Ogam Consaine Inscription at Royalton, Vermont (7 pp) Elizabeth Sincerbeaux, Warren Dexter, & Barry Fell 12/1-p 110  

An inscribed stone discovered Dec 1982. Fell reads the Ogam Consaine inscription using Old Irish. 

The Ogam Coinage of the Gauls (1 p) Barry Fell 12/1-p 116

Shows a picture of a coin with an Ogam inscription, to be discussed in a forth-coming issue.

On the Cover

A graphic of the Seal of the Society is shown.

Epigraphic Society Occasional Publications

Table of Contents Vol. 12/2, 1984

Australian and Spanish Stamps Depicting Petroglyphs (3 pp) Brian Cashman & Warren Dexter 12/2-pp 119,208, 209, 219, 222 

Sheep Eaters (Desert Bighorn Petroglyphs) (1 p) John Lehman 12/2-p 120           

Lehman sent Fell the print of a slide taken of a petroglyph at a site on the Dolores River near Whiskey Mountain, Ring Lake and the Town of Dubois, Wyoming.

Desert Bighorn Wool and Some Aspects of Behavior (1 p) Michael P. Coffeen 12/2-p 121  

A wildlife biologist comments on the many petroglyphs of bighorn sheep.

Ogam in Nevada (1 p) Bill Chivvis & Barry Fell 12/2-p 122

Chivvis sent Fell a photo of petroglyphs showing apparent Ogam. One is seen by Fell as the Celtic word UI-S-G = uisge = "water."

Balance Rock (1 p) Kenneth E. Price 12/2-p 123

Possible megaliths in Lawrence Co., Pennsylvania, near the junction of Slippery Rock Creek and Connoquenessing Creek.

Petroglyphs from the Superstition Wilderness Area, Tonto National Forest, Arizona (4 pp) C. Earl Phillips & Barry Fell 12/2-p 124  

The writer illustrates his ideas about the meanings assigned to some of the petro- glyphs. In a postscript, Fell deciphers some of the petroglyphs reported by Mr. Phillips.

Herbs, Plants and Tribalism (4 pp) Robert B. McFarland 12/2-p 128  

The author speaks about Amerindian medicine, tribalism, and his preference for small governmental units.

The Kinderhook Plates (10 pp) Barry Fell 12/2-p 132

Fell proves that the plates found in Pike County Illinois are fakes made in 1843.  

The Centuripe Vase (7 pp) Donal Buchanan 12/2-p 142  

Decipherment of an inscribed vase found at Centuripe, Sicily, in 1824. Buchanan identifies the script as Iberic and identifies the language as a dialectical form of Vulgar Latin. He believes it to be a memorial to a Roman fallen in Iberia returned to his family as a token of esteem and memory.

Ancient Writing from Spiro Mounds (9 pp) Gloria Farley 12/2-p 149  

A Tanith-figure from Spiro bears an inscription deciphered by Dr. Fell. He identified the script as Numidian and the language as Libyan.

Mythology and Epigraphy (24 pp) Douglas G. Blizzard 12/2-p 158  

Comments on giants, dwarves, goblins and humanoid and animal monsters depicted graphically in various sites.

The Huntington Ring (3 pp) L. Lyle Underwood 12/2-p 182   

A very old and worn seal ring found at Huntingdon, Virginia (seeESOP8/2 p.218) is an early form ofa Mason's square.           

A Possible Calendar Inscription (5 pp) Paul H. Chapman 12/2-p 185  

A pictograph found in a prehistoric California cave may have been used to calibrate a calendar.

Egyptian Signs in the Hawaiian Islands (12 pp) Ruth Knudsen 12/2-p 190  

Three sites in Hawaii have petroglyphs which appear to be hiero- glyphic.

An Inscribed Gold Plate from Peru (4 pp) Paul R. Cheesman 12/2-p 202

A gold plate from Lamboyeque, Northern Peru, is submitted to Fell.    

Decipherment of the Lamboyeque Gold Plate (2 pp) Barry Fell 12/2-p 206  

Fell relates the script to Common Cypriot and states that the plate is a "manipulative puzzle."

More Moonwatching: The Moon by Day (10 pp) Charles C. Fulton 12/2-p 210

Discourse on the meanings of representations of the crescent moon.

Some Comments on the Origin of the Pima-Papago language (3 pp) Phillip M. Leonard 12/2-p 220

Compares the language to Semitic.

North African Astronomical Petroglyphs in Utah (3 pp) Phillip M. Leonard & James L. Glenn 12/2-p 223

Petroglyphs from Dry Forks Canyon, north of Vernal, Utah, are deciphered.

On the Cover

Pre-Columbian Crab God, Northern Peru, Moche River area. See page 171 of  Douglas Blizzard's article on Mythology and Epigraphy, in this issue.


Epigraphic Society Occasional Publications

Table of Contents Vol. 12/3, 1984

An ESOP Special Publication: Reprint of the 1937 edition

Reproduced from a copy in Barry Fell's personal library.

Dictionary of Pidgin English

of New Guinea


"Maski Mike"

This is a reprint of a small dictionary published in Britain in 1937.

On the Cover

A graphic of the Seal of the Society is shown. The title of the volume is given: Dictionary of Pidgin English of New Guinea


Epigraphic Society Occasional Papers

Table of Contents, Vol. 13, 1985

A Sumerian Inscription of the Fuente Magna, La Paz, Bolivia (5 pp) Alberto Marini 13-p 9

Inscription on a large font or libation bowl, reported by a leading authority on Sumerian (bio. of author given).

Newly Identified Raetic Inscriptions (8 pp) Linus Brunner 13-p 14  

The author translates Raetic inscriptions using Semitic language.

Algonkian Signatures on a Treaty of A.D. 1681 (5 pp) Barry Fell 13-p 22  

The earliest known deed transaction in the Sutton, Massachusetts, area, reprinted by permission of the Sutton Historical Society.

An Inscribed Stone Club in Syke Museum, Germany (1 p) Barry Fell 13-p 26  

Fell translates Thai syllables on a club in the collection of the Kreis- museum in Syke, Germany. The script appears to reflect the Thai syllabary and probably could be translated as "Let the club strike." The style of the script suggests that the artifact is no more than 1,000 years old.

A Comment on the St. Patrick Legend (1 p) Glenn A. Gentry 13-p 27  

Refers to the organized destruction of stone phalli in Ireland by the early Christian missionaries.

Virgil in Iberic Script (2 pp) Barry Fell 13-p 28  

ARMAVIVMQVECANOTROIAEQVI PRIMVSABORISITALIAM- FATOPROFVGVS LAVINIAQVE = "Of Arms and the man I sing..." by an early Iberic schoolboy c. 99 AD in an early uncial Latin script.

Mogul Coin found in Massachusetts (2 pp) Barry Fell 13-p 30  

Lorraine Passovoy brought to Fell's attention a coin which had been found in 1843 on the banks of the Connecticut river near Gill, Massachusetts. Fell identified it as a Mogul coin dating to the 17th century with a tri- lingual inscription in Bengali, Brahmi, and Urdu (the last in Arabic script).

Epigraphers Gather at Los Lunas (Photographs) (2 pp) 13-p 32  

Two pages of photos of members of the Society visiting the Los Lunas Inscription in New Mexico: Rollin Gillespie, June & Phillip Leonard, George Morehouse, Bill McGlone, Rene Fell, Donal Buchanan, Barry Fell, Don Schockey, and Ruth Knudsen (along with others unidentified). Photos by J. Lawrence Williams, William R. McGlone, Don Shockey, and Rene Fell.

Los Lunas Attracts Epigraphers (1 p) The Editors 13-p 34 

Dr. Gunther Nollau of West Germany visited the Los Lunas site. He also met with Barry Fell, Gloria Farley and members of the Western Epigraphic Society to discuss the site.. 

Ancient Punctuation and the Los Lunas Text (9 pp) Barry Fell 13-p 35  

Fell proves that the punctuation used in the text of the inscription is ancient.

In Memoriam: L. Lyle Underwood (2 pp) Bill McGlone 13-p 42  

A memorial to a great epigrapher and good friend who worked on the Los Lunas inscription. Photo shown. The text of the Las Lunas Decalogue as transcribed by Underwood is also shown.

A Carthaginian Mosaic Depicting the Goddess Tanith (1 p) The Editors 13-p 43 

 Photo by Ella Footman of the mosaic taken in Sardinia in 1982.

The Los Lunas Inscriptions – A Geological Study (7 pp) George E. Morehouse 13-p 44  

A geologist (photo shown) looks at the site and concludes it is ancient. A Hebrew inscription at the top of the mesa is revealed.

New York's Perch Lake Mounds (1 p) David De Laubenfels 13-p 51

He says that  as many as 200 mounds are known, but their function is unknown. They seem to have been constructed over a span of 600 years.

An Inscribed Brass Casket of Dutch Origin (3 pp) Barry Fell 13-p 51  

Found in a refuse pile on the site of Miles Standish's property, Prescott, Connecticut. James Whittall provided the Society with a tracing of the inscription in 1984. Since the inscription was in Dutch, Fell had it trans- lated by a colleague in Antwerp. The translation is given, along with a roughly drawn graphic of the inscription.

Norwegian Rock Carvings (8 pp) Anders Hagen 13-p 54  

From an official pamphlet of the Norwegian Information Service. It is based on the author's book, Rock Carvings in Norway.

George Earl Phillips 1911-1984 (1 p) The Editors 13-p 61) 

A memorial to a member from Tempe, Arizona. 

Los Milagros – What Are They? (1 p) Barry Fell 13-p62  

These little tin pendants in the form of parts of human body are dedicatory artifacts.

Documentary Evidence for Writing in the Pre-Inca Andes (4 pp) Norman Totten 13-p 63   

17th century Spanish documents indicate the presence of writing in pre-Inca times.

Egyptian signs in the Hawaiian Islands - Part II (29 pp) Ruth Knudsen 13-p 67  

Boulders in Luahiwa, Lanai, Hawaii, display symbols that appear to be similar to Egyptian hieroglyphs.

From the Nevada Elders (2 pp) Vivian Olds 13-p 96

The author, resident in Nevada, provides a statement by Indian tribal elders who are concerned about the present and future of their people. They urge a life in harmony with nature.

Deciphering American Indian Pictography (11 pp) Carol Patterson 13-p 98 

The author demonstrates how rock writing symbols were used and repeated. She shows how the symbols tie in to Indian sign language. [Carol later married John Rudolph and became Carol Patterson-Rudolph. She wrote an excellent book: Petroglyphs & Pueblo Myths of the Rio Grande.]

Animal Images and Zoolatry (7 pp) J. R. Dos Santos Jr. 13-p 109   

This article is in Portuguese. It cites Fell's decipherment of an inscription from northeast Portugal reported in Bronze Age America.

Asturian Celts (1 p) Jesus Lopez Pacios 13-p 116 

The author congratulates Fell and Dos Santos on their discoveries relating to northeast Portugal and points out that a long Ogam consaine inscription deciphered by Fell as being in a Celtic language allied to Gaelic was located in a part of the territory formerly occupied by Asturian Celts.

Teutonic Shields and Yule bread (17 pp) Henning Fikentscher 13-p 117  

The author explains ancient Teutonic shield designs and the the shaping of Yule bread and relates them to pre-Christian beliefs. Biographic information on the author is given.

The Han Tribes of the Dene (6 pp) Ethel G. Stewart 13-p 134 

She identifies the Han and Na-Hane of America with the Hon or Han of the Ta-tung-ho Valley in East Asia.

Petroglyphs of Ulanqab, Inner Mongolia (5 pp) Gai Shanlin 13-p 140 

Prehistoric inscriptions of the area are described and depicted.

The Decipherment of Late Iberic, Part I (30 pp) Donal Buchanan 13-p 145  

Twenty ancient inscriptions from Spain written in Iberic script are described and deciphered. Sound-value categories are established and explained. The language, once thought to be Semitic, proves to be Indo European: a local dialect of Latin moving towards Spanish. The article will be continued in volume 14.

The Newport Round Church (5 pp) Clyde Keeler 13-p 175 

Keeler discusses the old, possibly Norse structure and two inscriptions on it (one found by him in 1975). A photo of the author is shown.

The Languages of Pictland (3 pp) Paul Karlsson Johnstone 13-p 180  

The author suggests that Pictish is composed of three languages: Q-Celt, P-Celt, and Norse. He refers to the so-called "Pictish Ogam" inscriptions.

Curious Notation Marks at Polished Stone Sites in the Western Transvaal (11 pp) A. B. Page 13-p 183 

The author suggests that the marks may have a bearing on the recording of events and rituals unknown.

Methods Available to the Ancients for Establishing the Meridian (9 pp) Charles C. Fulton 13-p 194 

Sun-methods, solstiticial and equinoctal methods, and star methods are discussed.

The Petroglyphs of Anatolia (3 pp) Aysen Akpinar 13-p 203 

An article by a Turkish professor reprinted from Aramco World, Vol. 35, #2, March 1984.

The Adena Tablets (4 pp) Robert F. Lenhart 13-p 206 

The author discusses tablets inscribed with intricate designs found at Adena sites.

 On the Cover

Ancient Hebrew Decalogue at Hidden Mountain, Los Lunas, New Mexico. Photo by William R. McGlone.

Epigraphic Society Occasional Publications

Table of Contents, Vol. 14,  1985

In Memoriam—Harold Sterling Gladwin (6 pp) George F. Carter 14-p 9

A biography and a list of his publications as well as an introductory note by Fell to a facsimile of a Gladwin letter re Flora Vista tablets.

The Flora Vista Tablets (7 pp) Harold S. Gladwin 14-p 15

Facsimile of a June 1975 letter from Gladwin to Fell: all he knew of the history of the Flora Vista tablets.

Decipherment of the Flora Vista Tablets (6 pp) Barry Fell 14-p 22 

Fell states that the tablets must have come from Indonesia or the Carolines and are probably magical talismans.

A New Bronze Age Alphabet from Denmark (3 pp) Barry Fell 14-p 28

Fell translates a cryptic wreath inscribed on a bronze-age cyst (Gentofte, Denmark) showing a mating couple.

Table of Sacrifice (1 p) Ella Footman 14-p 30

A photo by the author of an artifact remarkably similar to the "Altar Table" at Mystery Hill, New Hampshire.

History on the Rocks (1 p) Ida Jane Gallagher 14-p 31

A review of a video documentary depicting the solar sites at Anubis Caves, Crack Cave, and Picture Canyon. “A visual classic of Southwestern epigraphy and archaeoastronomy.”

The Anubis Caves (1 p) Gloria Farley 14-p 32

The author introduces us to the discussions to follow on this remarkable site in Western Oklahoma (a photo of the author on a visit to Egypt accompanies the article; the photo is by Warren Dexter).

The Archaeoastronomy of the Anubis Caves (12 pp) Rollin W. Gillespie, Phillip M. Leonard, William R. McGlone & Jon R. Polansky 14-p 33 

A preliminary report on the astronomical features of the Anubis caves in Western Oklahoma. “The individuals responsible for these petroglyphs showed a considerable knowledge of astronomy (and associated calendrical events) and demonstrated an exceptional ability to incorporate this knowledge into the physical features of the caves.”

Parietal Inscriptions of the Anubis Caves (16 pp) Barry Fell 14-p 45

The decipherment of Ogam inscriptions at the Anubis Caves in Western Oklahoma. The inscriptions appear to be related to the Equinox.

The Anubis Caves: Oklahoma’s Ancient Equinox Site (7 pp) Gloria Farley 14-p 61 

A description of the Anubis Caves site, putting it into a historical perspective. The petroglyphs appear to show both North African and Celtic gods.

The Anubis Panel: Mythological Themes and Correlations (23 pp) Clyde Keeler, Gloria Farley 14-p 68

The author suggests that the site was created by an Egypto-Libyan priest who worshipped the sun.

History on the Rocks (1 p) Scott Monahan 14-p 91

An introduction to Scott's video relating the marvelous inscription discoveries in the Southwest.

Anubis­-Lord of the Equinox, Keeper of the Balance (3 pp) Barry Fell 14-p 92 

Fell explains the inscription's reference to "the balance of the days."

Norse Tifinag on an Iron Age Bracteate (1 p) Barry Fell 14-p 95

Fell translates the inscription on a Norse bracteate.

Ogam Consaine Coinage of the Ancient Gauls (2 pp) Barry Fell 14-p 96

Fell deciphers Ogam inscriptions on Gaulish coins dating to about 200 BC.

Old Norse Mathematical Symbols (4 pp) Richard Nielsen 14-p 98 

Nielsen points out the resemblance of the Tifinag script to Norse and Anglo-Saxon mathematical symbols.

Tifinag on a Dublin Viking Coin (1 p) Richard Nielsen 14-p 101

Fell and Nielsen agree that the name Knud can be seen on a Viking coin found in Dublin.

The Tifinag Coinage of King Offa of Kent (2 pp) Barry Fell 14-p 102

English coins seized and taken to Denmark by Vikings show Tifinag script.

Irish Inscriptions Confirmed by Archaeoastronomy (3 pp) Ida Jane Gallagher 

14-p 104

An examination of engraved stones set at entrance to tomb of Ollamh Fodhla, County Meath, Ireland.

West Virginia Petroglyphs are Ogham Says Scholar (2 pp) Robert T. Meyer 14-p 107

Prof. Robert T. Meyer of Catholic University in Washington, DC (40 years expertise as a leader in the field of Celtic studies) and other scholars are quoted on public television broadcast about an epigraphic site in West Virginia.

America B.C. A Rubbish Book (3 pp) Glyn Daniel 14-p 108

So says reviewer Glyn Daniel: this is reprinted from Antiquity, March 1984.

Glozel Inscriptions—Archaeopornography (1 p) Glyn Daniel 14-p 109

Daniel accuses Donal Buchanan (in the process mis-spelling his name) of pornography for translating the inscriptions on patently sexual devices existant among the Glozel artifacts.

Biography: Rollin W. Gillespie (1 p) Barry Fell 14-p 111

Ex-rocket scientist Rollin Gillespie is deeply involved in actively testing and reporting upon the results of epigraphy (photo available).

Bronze Age America by Barry Fell (in Irish) (3 pp) Sanford Etheridge 14-p 112

A review in the Irish language of Fell's second sequel to America BC (from Gaeltacht, Vol. 10, part 9, Tulane University).

An Ogam-Inscribed Teton Dakota Artifact (1 p) Ida Jane Gailagher 14-p 115

A Dakota Ice-glider on display at the Museum of the American Indian, in New York City appears to bear an Ogam inscription.

Comalcalco, the Brick City of the Mayas (2 pp) Neil Steede 14-p 116

The author describes the excavation of inscribed bricks at a unique Mayan site.

Inscribed Bricks from Comalcalco, Mexico (8 pp) Barry Fell 14-p 118

Fell recognizes numerous non-Indian scripts in the inscriptions on the bricks.

An Inscription from Tonga (1 p) Russell Swanson 14-p 126

Fell identifies it as an old Tongan fishing charm from pagan times.

Photo: Society's Expedition to Egypt, 1980 (1 p) Warren Dexter 14-p 127

The expedition was led by Norman Totten. The photo of the participants is by Warren Dexter.

Commendation from the National Science Foundation (1 p) 14-p 127

The NSF lauds the Society for contributing to increasing the awareness and understanding of science and technology.

A South Iberian Inscription in Esmeralda County, Nevada (1 p) Burrell C. Dawson 14-p 128

This gives Fell's translation of a Berber-Arabic inscription seen on a slab of gneiss found in Nevada.

Deciphering the Esmeralda Stone (1 p) Barry Fell 14-p 129

Fell explains the process by which he arrived at his decipherment.

The Atlatl Rock Comet – A Portent of Death (2 pp) Barry Fell 14-p 130

Fell explains the rebus designs used by Arabic calligraphers and notes that some have been found at American sites.

Amphoras on the Brazilian Continental Shelf (2 pp) Robert Marx & Harold Edgerton 14-p 132

The Government of Brazil frustrates attempts to investigate a possible Roman shipwreck.

King Offa and Betty Martin (1 p) Barry Fell 14-p 133

Fell replies to Glyn Daniel's comment about the presence of Tifinag in Britain: "All my eye and Betty Martin too."

Tifinag Legends on Hiberno-Danish Coins (2 pp) Barry Fell 14-p 134

Tifinag appears on coins issued by the Hiberno-Danish Kings of Dublin, c. 1000 AD.

Ogam Consaine in Western Scotland (4 pp) Barry Fell 14-p 135

Ogam Consaine occurs in Northern Ireland (Castle Dearg in the Foyle Valley), in the Western Isles of Scotland, and in Argyle. Its distribution thus coincides with that of the Dal Riada who came originally from Northern Ireland.

Photos of Ogam Breige (1 p) Phillip Potter 14-p 139

Potter provided photos to Fell of Ogam-like markings seen in South Dakota. Fell feels that they are Amerindian copies of Ogam (ie, Ogam Breige or Pseudo Ogam) in an effort to attract Celtic traders.

Ogam-Inscribed Stone Pendants from Nova Scotia (2 pp) Barry Fell 14-p 140

Stone pendants of the Micmac Indians bear very clear Ogam consaine inscriptions. Fell provides his decipherments of them.

An Ogam Bricren Inscription to the Horse-Goddess (6 pp) Barry Fell 14-p 142

A petroglyph of the Celtic Horse Goddess seen at the Anubis Caves site bears an inscription in Ogam Bricren script and rendered as Ogam Consaine (that is, with no vowels).

Sagres, Is It a European Medicine Wheel? (6 pp) Walter Stender & Barry Fell 14-p 148

Letter: It compares a site in Portugal to Amerindian medicine wheels.

Tollard House Site, Scotland (1 p) Ida Jane Gallagher 14-p 154

An unexcavated prehistoric cemetery near Tollard House, an inn on the Argyll Peninsula.

Reservations (1 p) Barry Fell 14-p 154

Harold Gladwin's reputation was harmed as a result of his espousal of diffusionist ideas. Likewise, the Epigraphic Society’s association with Gladwin has caused a distrust of the Society by established scholars. You just can’t win!

Preliminary Studies at Tollard House Ogam Cave, Argyll, Scotland (5 pp) Jon Polansky 14-p 155

The author (photo available) discusses the investigation of an Ogam inscription site in Scotland.

An Arabic Moslem Text on an Anglo-Saxon Coin (2 pp) Barry Fell 14-p 160

King Offa struck coins in England based on Moslem originals.

Red River Canyon, Kentucky (4 pp) Barry Fell  et al 14-p 162

The Midwestern Epigraphic Society makes an investigatory trip to a site in Kentucky bearing an Ogam inscription. Fell’s decipher- ment is shown (photos available).

The Decipherment of Late lberic, Part 2 (20 pp) Donal Buchanan 14-p 166

This continues the article begun in Volume 13.

Neolithic Petroglyphs of Southern Yunnan Province, China (5 pp) Cheng Xiang 14-p 186

Primitive drawings on rocks show village scenes, hunts, animal drawings, and horn motifs.

Ancient Coins Discovered in Maryland (1 p) Brad O'Keefe 14-p 190

A hoard of 62 ancient coins were found in the vicinity of an inland waterway in Maryland by a person using a metal detector. The hoard proved to be made up of ancient Greek, Roman, and Arabic coins. Their provenance is uncertain. O’Keefe was also present at the discovery of an earlier cache of 37 ancient coins.

Two Cyrillic Inscriptions (2 pp) Burrell C. Dawson 14-p 191

Inscriptions found near Lida, Nevada, can perhaps be dated to the early 19th century.

Photo: Cup-and-ring Petroglyph (1 p) Edward & Bobbie Smith 14-p 193

This photo is of a petroglyph located on Sprayberry Rock in Cobb County, Georgia.

Lloyd’s of Llandudno (1 p) Barry Fell 14-p 193

Fell replies to a criticism by Glyn Daniel.

History on the Rocks - An Archaeologist Comments (1 p) Herb Minshall 14-p 194

A professional archaeologist praises the video and the efforts of the Western Epigraphic Society to publicize it. He deplores the lack of response or follow-up by his colleagues. He found the video to be well-done and convincing.

Some Proof of Martineau’s Pictograph System (2 pp) Burrell C. Dawson 14-p 195

The late Burrell Dawson used Martineau’s methods to decipher a petroglyph in Hunter Canyon in Salina Valley, Inyo County, California. This data was made available by his wife, Margaret Dawson.

A Possible Calendar Inscription from Santa Barbara, California (4 pp) Paul H. Chapman 14-p 196

A pictograph in a prehistoric California cave is believed to be calendric.

Inscription from La Plata Mountains, Colorado (2 pp) Louis L'Amour 14-p 200

Fell deciphers a Spanish inscription sent to him by the famous author of Western stories.

Plagiarism of ESOP Articles in New York Publication (1 p) Barry Fell 14-p 201

Lyall Watson, in his book Lightning Bird has used ESOP material without permission.

The Inyo, California, Zodiac (3 pp) L. J. Dewald 14-p 202

An inscription referred to in Paper #179, Vol. 8, of ESOP, found and correctly transcribed (it was incorrectly rendered in the original report).

The Origin of Our Time System (2 pp) Charles C. Fulton 14-p 204

This article answers the question: "Why do days start after midnight?"

Decipherers' Fate (2 pp) Linus Brunner 14-p 206

The destiny of all great discoverers is to be calumniated by scholars.

Bubonic Plague in the Southwest (2 pp) L. Lyle Underwood 14-p 207

Early contacts with the Old World may have brought plague to the American Southwest.

The Horton Creek Site (2 pp) Burrell C. Dawson and Vincent S. Yoder 14-p 209

An Ogam inscription suggests the traveler go to a nearby valley where it will be less cold.

On the Cover

Inscribed tablet from Flora Vista, New Mexico, discussed in articles in this issue. Photo: Arizona State University, Tucson.



Epigraphic Society Occasional Publications

Table of Contents, Vol. 15,  1986


Fell’s Ogam Decipherments Proved Correct (1 p) 15-p 9

Ancient Celtic America (1983) by William McGlone and Phillip Leonard contains a report which validates Barry Fell’s decipherment of Ogam inscriptions in West Virginia. On the other hand, in 1975 the National Geographic sent slides of Fell’s work on Ogam to an expert in Britain who stated that his approach was “…unscientific. Not a single syllable of his interpretation or translation – has any validity whatever.” Another professor came to a similar conclusion. None approached had ever studied Ogam Consaine. In recent years Celtic scholars in Wales and America have supported Fell’s translations while other British professors have fallen silent.

Forum: Letters from far and wide  (29 pp) 15-p 10

The individual letters are discussed below.

Forum: A Micmac Disaster, 1746 (1 p) A.W. Cavins 15-p 10

Almost the entire Indian Micmac tribe was destroyed in Nova Scotia in 1746 by using infected blankets and other detritus left behind by a departing French naval squadron. This revealed by an essay by one James Lind published in 1774 and quoted by Ralph H. Major in 1932.

Forum: Oak Island Tifinag (2 pp) L.J. Dewald 15-p 10

He suggests that, in light of recent discoveries, the Oak Island inscription, rather than being in Libyan, might be in Irish or Old Norse. Fell agrees and shows examples of the use of Tifinag in modern North Africa.

Forum: How Old is the Basque Syllabary? (1 p) Alan McCone 15-p 12

McCone writes on behalf of a Spanish friend, Josemaria Montesinos, a Mathematics Professor at the University of Saragoza who makes a study of Basque inscriptions found in Iberia. He desires photocopies and locations of Basque inscriptions reported by Fell and support for Fell’s theory that the Basque syllabary predates Roman times. Fell provides the information, citing publications and locations.

Forum: Ancient Egyptian Mnemonics (1 p) Russell B. Stafford 15-p 12

Stafford is writing a book on the use of mnemonic devices by Ancient Egyptians. So far he has completed about 700 pages. He thanks Fell for the stimulus he has provided and for his efforts. He seeks to join the Society.

Forum: Serpentine Solstice Markers in Ohio  (2 pp) M. & C. Creager 15-p 12

Serpent effigies (one 75 feet long and the other 150 feet long) at a 1200 BP site in Ohio turn out to be Solstice markers. These, known as the Kern Effigies, were excavated by John R. White of Youngstown State University. Photos are on exhibit at the Ohio Historical Center in Columbus.

Forum: North America’s Egyptian River Names (1 p) Bill Ainley 15-p 13

At least two river names found in several areas of North America (Saugatuck and Wabash), thought to be Algonquin, prove to derive from Coptic and ancient Egyptian.

Forum: Dating of Petroglypghs (2 pp) Ruth Knudsen 15-p 14

The author brings the Society’s attention to a new method of dating petroglyphs being developed by Dr. Ronald Dorn of California. Fell refers her to a paper by Dorn and Whitley appearing in the Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 74 (2) pp. 308-322, 1984. The Society’s copy was provided by William McGlone.

Forum: Ancient Hindu Contact with Mayans (1 p) V. S. Wakankar 15-p 14

An Indian scholar thanks Fell for the information he has provided concerning ancient Hindu contact with the Mayan civilization. He would like to introduce it into a museum exhibition “India’s Contribution to the World.”

Forum: Amerind Blood Types (1 p) ShupShe 15-p 14

The author expresses his appreciation for and support of the work of Fell and the Society. He particularly cites his interest in the work being done which shows that blood types O and A were present in the Americas before 1500. In many ways ShupShe feels more like a Celt than an Amerind. He signs the letter using his native script. ShupShe is a Pottawatomie, his wife is a Cherokee, but both are of partial Celtic extraction.

Forum: An Assiniboine Comment (1 p) Alan A. Huemer 15-p 15

The author reports that a Ken Ryan, an official in the Poplar Bureau of Indian Affairs Office and a traditional Assiniboine has read Fell’s work. Ryan pointed out that the Assiniboines, a division of the Sioux mostly living in Canada, have an origin tale about transoceanic migration. The Assiniboine word for writing, Okami, appears to match the Celtic word Ogam.

Forum: British Fakery (1 p) Jay Ellis Ransom 15-p 15

The author comments on Fell’s book, Saga America. He calls it “completely unscientific in every aspect … a mish-mash of impossibilities and improbabilities … this book comes across as idiotic.” He pushes his own book, Fossils in America which he says contains examples of how students plant fakes for gullible professors. He adds that “The British have a long tradition of fakery” and cites Piltdown Man which was faked by Oxford students to be discovered by a professor they hated.

Forum: Ancient Lamps in America (1 p) Stanley A. Long 15-p 15

Long cites the Roman or Italian oil lamps discovered in Connecticut and Alabama and mentioned in Saga America. He draws attention to an article on Italian lamps by Cleo Rickman Fitch printed in the December 1982 issue of Scientific American.

Forum: Biologist – Linguists (1 p) Howard H. Hillemann 15-p 15

The author, an Emeritus Professor of Zoology at Oregon State University, describes his background and training, including linguistics, as paralleling that of Fell. He congratulates Fell on “an amazing piece of work.”

Forum: Navajo Knowledge of Pacific (1p) Bill Ainley 15-p 15

The author encloses copies of four pages  from a Navajo biography titled Hosteen Klah which refers to an ancient migration by the Navajo people across the North Pacific from an ancient homeland in the West.

Forum: Tifinag Letters on Coins of the Ancient Britons (1 p) Lionel H. Atkinson, Barry Fell 15-p 16

The author cites the ESOP reports of Tifinag characters on stone monuments in Ireland and on the coinage of Anglo-Saxon kings. He draws attention to the possible existence of Tifinag letters on coins of pre-Roman Britain. He encloses graphics (shown). Fell calls this an “important new area of epigraphic research.” He finds that the letters are indeed Tifinag and spell Gaulish words appropriate for the coins on which they are found.

Forum: Origin of Copper in Bronze Artifacts (1 p) Aasmund Sandland 15-p 17

The author, a Norwegian, was introduced to Fell’s work by his friends Alexander Thom and his son Archibald. He finds Fell’s book, Bronze Age America, very interesting. He sends graphics (shown) of fleets of ships depicted in Bronze Age carvings in Norway. He also suggests that bronze tools in the Americas and in Europe be analyzed to establish whether the origin of the copper used is European or American.

Forum: Petroglyphs of Cattle in South Dakota Evoke British Comment (2 pp) Gary Licking & John B. V. Jump 15-p 18

A British cattle breeder, John B. V. Jump, suggests that cattle shown in the Ludlow Cave petroglyph with a "double hump" are depicted just after parturition.

Forum: New Sumerian Dictionary (1 p) Robert H. Dyson Jr. 15-p 19

The first volume of the Pennsylvania University Museum of Archaeology’s Sumerian Dictionary is about to go to press. It has been in production for over 25 years.

Forum: Variant Forms and Promiscuous Uses of Runes (1 p) Barry Fell 15-p 20

Two tables showing variant forms and pronunciations of runes.

Forum: Runic Inscription in Ludlow Cave South Dakota (2 p) Barry Fell 15-p 21

Runic letters seen among petroglyphs in Ludlow Cave: M-L-T = malta = mjalta = giving milk or milking.

Forum: Spanish Celts Still Use Ogam (1 p) Barry Fell 15-p 22

In reply to Glenn Isaac of Cambridge, Fell points out the use of Ogam on a publication of the Asturian Celtic League (graphic shown).

Forum: Spanish Celts’ Ogam Heritage (1 p) Xesus L. Pacios 15-p 22

A Spanish scholar agrees that ancient Asturian Celts used Ogam script.

Forum: Columbus Celebration (1 p) Hördur Helgason & Thor Heyerdahl 15-p 23

The 500th anniversary of Columbus' voyage will be ignored by the UN because of objections by former colonial subjects. While a great admirer of Columbus, Heyerdahl does not feel he deserves a global celebration day over other explorers (the Norsement, for instance, who got there many years earlier).

Forum: Crack in the Façade? (2 pp) Eric Pawley 15-p 23

The author Cites Goddard & Fitzhugh’s (Smithsonian) block condemnation of Fell, then cites Smithsonian Director Lowe in rebuttal.

Forum: A Phoenician Odyssey to Canada? (1 p) Christine Pellech 15-p 24

A European ethnologist lauds Bronze Age America and cites her own book: Die Odyssee - Eine Antike Weltumsegelung (The Odyssey – An Ancient Circumnavigation of the World). [Buchanan comment: Dr. Pellech went on to found an excellent quarterly publication in 1999: Migration and Diffusion.]

Forum: Celtic or Keltic (2 pp) Barry Fell 15-p 24

Fell elucidates the linguistic rules that demand that the word ‘Celt’ be pronounced with a soft 'C.'

Forum: Georgia’s Ancient Visitors from the Old World (1 p) Barry Fell 15-p 25

The author review's Dr. Joseph B. Mahan's publication: Columbus: Georgia's Fall Line 'Trading Town.' He calls it a well-written and beautifully illustrated work that will be certain to please epigraphers. Ancient Punic coinage and inscribed rocks found in Georgia and in the neighborhood of Columbus are illustrated and explained.

Forum: Hebrew Inscriptions in America (1 p) Cinaid Bunche 15-p 25

He cites an unnamed Harvard middle eastern scholar who agrees Los Lunas is in old Hebrew; and Stephen Williams who disputes it.

Forum: Kannada/Telegu in Mexico? (1 p) S. Venugopalacharya 15-p 25

He refers to bi-lingual inscriptions in Mexico he believes Fell cited, but Fell replies he has no knowledge of them.

Forum: Proto-Celtic [and Tifinag] at Lascaux (2 pp) Barry Fell 15-p 26

Fell reads an inscription next to a bull's head as GH-N L-GH L = ghin loegh lu = "calf-begetter" Old Gadelic Celtic.

Forum: Inscribed Jar from 280 Fathoms (3 pp) Weldon W. Stout, Barry Fell, British Naval Experts J. D. Brown & R. D. Ridding 15-p 28

An inscribed Jar was found by a fisherman at 280 fathoms off mouth of Klamath river in California. Drawings of the inscribed jar were sent to Fell saw an ‘RN’ in the inscription and thought it might be similar to those used on navel containers. He contacted the Royal Naval Historical Office which could not identify it with known Royal Navy containers, but expressed great interest in the find.

Forum: The Megaliths of Luneburg Heath (1 p) Helmut Krock 15-p 30

The author calls attention to the Hunengraber (Giant’s Graves) mounds, for most part now gone, found in a lowland area of northern Germany.

Forum: Bahrain Subscribes (1 p) State of Bahrain Ministry of Information 15-p 30

Asks for a list of publications and an application for membership.

Forum: How Old is the Cree Syllabary? H. C. Meyer 15-p 30

The author cites a Cree elder who claims the syllabary given by ancient ancestor long before the arrival of whites.

Forum: Modern Gauls Still Use Ogam (1 p) Barry Fell 15-p 31

Continuing to refute Dr. Glenn Isaac of Cambridge, Fell cites Le Triscele, a publication by French descendants of Gauls (graphic shown).

Forum: Andean Links with Sumeria (1 p) Alberto Marini 15-p 32

The author writes in Spanish, citing an article by Dr. Francisco Matas about a Sumerian inscription in Bolivia in a previous ESOP. Fell states that further info will be made available in ESOP 16.

Forum: A Lakota Teacher Writes (1 p) Pahizi Wawoyaka 15-p 32

Rev. John Gibbons (Pahizi) claims that there is a Lakota tradition of visits by European visitors in ancient times.

Forum: Makah Taught in School (2 pp) Howard Hellmann 15-p 32

The ancient tongue of the Olympic peninsula and Vancouver Island is to be taught in local school on the Olympic Peninsula. Written Makah has an alphabet of 44 characters.

Forum: Written Language Before Dictionaries (1 p) Paul A. Elias 15-p 33

The ancients had no dictionaries, therefore spelling varied.

Forum: Cherokee Tradition of Pygmies (1 p) Jerry King 15-p 33

The author cites old Cherokee tales of the Little People, called Nunnihi, dwarves said to live in the Southern Appalachians.

Forum: Windmill Hill Amulets (3 pp) Ida Jane Gallagher, Barry Fell 15-p 34

Gallagher reports on artifacts in the Avebury Museum (w/pics). Fell comments on his translation of the inscribed artifacts.

Forum: Ancient Basques in France (1 p) Frank Bourdier p 36

The author cites two of his papers relating to the Euskera syllabary: "The Basque People & Mining Prospectors [in] the Copper Age" & "Prehistory and Typonomy, Bascoid Sources in France." Fell wants him to prepare a summary of them to be published in translation in ESOP.

Forum: An Ogam-Inscribed Atlatl-Weight from Stillwater, New York (2 pp) William H. Bunce & Barry Fell 15-p 37

The writer found an artifact in a plowed field that shows marking similar to Ogam. Fell, however, does not think artifact has anything to do with Celts since no meaningful connection with Celtic roots can be made. It is possible that an Amerindian language could be present but the use of an apparent ‘O’ character causes difficulty as most Ogam found in North America is consonantal and vowel-less.

Forum: “Gaelic-Speaking Indians” in New York (1 p) Sam Rosenberg 15-pp 38, 46

The author cites an account in the History of the Town of Flushing, Long Island, New York by Henry D. Waller. Fell responds (on p 46) that our founding ancestors regarded Amerindian and Celtic languages as mutually unintelligible just as the Greeks thought all foreigners spoke ‘Barbarian’.

Translinguistics  (1 p) Marge E. Landsberg 15-p 39

A review of Materials for a Bibliography of Translinguistic Studies a paper prepared by the Indiana University Linguistics Club.

Ancient Celtic America (1 p) William R. McGlone & Phillip M. Leonard 15-p 40

This is basically an ad which extols their book about recent extensive discoveries of ancient Ogam/Gaelic inscriptions in the western United States. It tells a bit about the contents and shows graphics of an Ogam inscription from Colorado, the Tunnel Rock Ogam, deciphered by Fell. Rollin Gillespie wrote an appendix to their book.

Fantastic Archaeology: Alternate Views of the Past (1 p) Barry Fell 15-p 41

A review of a malicious attack on Barry Fell, Norman Totten, Donal Buchanan, George Carter, et al, issued by a Harvard professor, Stephen Williams.

Report of the Gadelic Committee (5 pp) Burrell C. Dawson, Robert T. Meyer, Proinseas Ni Chathain, Linus Brunner 15-p 42

The report deals with remarks made by a critical Irish scholar and includes a tabulated etymology of the vocabulary of the West Virginia inscriptions.

Pre-Columbian Tobacco in India (1 p) Jaweed Ashraf 15-p 46

Research by Dr. Jaweed Ashraf shows the use of tobacco (Hindi: tambaku) in India 150 years before Columbus.

The Arabic Numbering System on the Kensington Rune Stone (15 pp) Richard Nielsen 15-p 47

Nielsen's research has uncovered facts in support of Robert Hall's opinions on the authenticity of the runestone.

The Walls of Cuzco  (4 pp) Carol Patterson 15-p 62           

This is a photo essay illustrating Inca mortarless stone work.

Evidence of Links Between Ancient India and Mexico (3 pp) S. Subramonia Iyer & K. V. Ramesh 15-p 66

Indian scholars comment favorably on work by Barry Fell and Neil Steede on material from Tihosuco and Comalcalco.

Gene Frequency Distributions in Epigraphic Research: Possible Indic Influences on the Tewa of New Mexico (8 pp) James Guthrie 15-p 69

Blood group data can aid epigraphic research by supporting or denying Old-World/New World linkage.

Letter: Warm Greetings from India  (1 p) B. Ch. Chhabra 15-p 77

The Universities of India where Epigraphy is taught are requesting full runs of ESOP.

Letter: Ogam Discovery in Wyoming (1 p) Robert E. Walker 15-p 77

A large rock panel in Cedar Canyon, northeast of Rock Springs, Wyoming, has an Ogam inscription: "Byanu Mother-Goddess."

Letter: Libyan Sea Captain's Amulet Excavated in Azores (1 p) Guenther Nollau 15-p 77

An inscribed amulet has been found invoking the aid of Allah to protect and guide a ship. The script is Old Libyan. The language is Berber-Arabic.

Letter: Lead Disk from Adams Co., Ohio (1 p) Daniel N. Rolph 15-p 77

An Iberic traveler's amulet has been found with a small cache of Amerind artifacts in a cave in Ohio.

News in Brief: Bronze Age America (1 p) Barry Fell 15-p 78

Complaints have been received that the volume is hard to obtain. Fell investigated with the publisher and found that between 6,000 and 7,000 unsold copies held by publisher have mysteriously disappeared. Fell received no royalties on those copies.

Letter: Cuzco Stele (1 p) Joachim G. Liehr 15-p 78

A stele in the Cuzco museum may bear medieval Indic. Scholars in India and Indonesia are examining photos. Details will be published in a later ESOP.

Stick Charts of the Marshall Islands (1 p) K. O. Emery 15-p 78

This article, reviewing all known specimens of such charts, will appear in volume 16 of ESOP.

Indian Treaties and Land Grants (1 p) Ida Jane Gallagher, Ellen M. Manganaro, & David Muga 15-p 78

Photos of signatures & details of purchase prices of lands in Connecticut and Pennsylvania obtained were obtained by Gallagher and Manganaro. They are to be in ESOP, volume 16, together with information on Indian stone-marking provided by Muga.

Midwestern Epigraphic Society (1 p) Barry Fell 15-p 78

Members of the MES have located more Ogam panels in Kentucky. They may be published in ESOP, volume 16.

Ancient Coins Discovered (1 p) Barry Fell 15-p 78

More reports of the discovery of ancient coins: the Midwestern Epigraphic Society reports a bronze coin from Ohio. There are also reports of two Ptolemaic coins being found in New Zealand.

Letter: Linguistic Enigma Solved (1 p) Gerhard Kraus 15-p 78

The ‘discovery’ of a surviving stone age people, the Tasaday, on Mindanao, in the Philippines, is determined to be a hoax.

Old World Contacts with America  (8 pp) Norman Totten 15-p 79

A broad examination by the Vice President of the Epigraphic Society of the proofs for Old World-New World contacts.

Ad: History on the Rocks (1 pp) Scott Monahan 15-p 86

A video by Scott Monahan: History or Mystery? is available from the producer for $55. It deals with equinoctal inscriptions found in the Oklahoma panhandle and Southeastern Colorado.

Etymology of Etruscan (2 pp) Linus Brunner 15-p 87

Brunner backs up Fell's claim that Etruscan belongs in the Indo-European linguistic family group.

Mediterranean Mythology in Traditional Pima Chants (19 pp) Barry Fell 15-p 89

Fell’s decipherments of Chants: Noah, Icaros, Persephone, the Creation, some of Aesop's fables. Fell comments on George Stuart's 1979 criticism.

Dates Dividing the Seasons 1986  (1 p) Rollin W. Gillespie 15-p 108

The author relates material from the Astronomical Almanac for 1986 to the data from Anubis Cave.

Prehistoric Zoolatry (4 pp) Joaquim Rodrigues dos Santos Jr. 15-p 109

A discussion of the Berroes (Boar-worshipping?) culture of Trás-os-Montes, Portugal.

Illustration: Stone Circle in Northern Quebec (1 p) 15-p 112

Made known by the late Prof. Thomas Lee in his field work, it is located in Ungava, Northern Quebec, Canada.

The Thunderbird of the Dene and Na-Dene  (4 pp) Ethel Stewart 15-p 113

The Thunderbird motif is found in both cultures and also in East Central Asia and South Asia.

A Sumerian Inscription of the Fuente Magna, La Paz, Bolivia (Part 2: The Third Column) (2 pp) Alberto Marini 15-p 117

The first part of this article appeared in volume 13 of ESOP. It deals with a Sumerian Cuneiform inscription seen in a large bowl found in South America. It is to be continued in a future issue.

The Epigraphic Controversy  (14 pp) William McGlone & Phillip M. Leonard 15-p 119           

The authors discuss the criticism and critics of Fell and delineate their own positions in the controversy.

An Old Norse Translation of the Heavener runes (9 pp) Richard Nielsen 15-p 133

Nielsen discusses and deciphers the Heavener Runestone inscription.

Ten Commandments in the New Mexico Desert (3 pp) Guenther Nollau & Iuris Ultriusque 15-p 142

The author discusses the Los Lunas Inscription. He holds that it is an authentic inscription and not a hoax.

Forty Years Ago (1 p) The Editors 15-p 144

An early paper by Fell: “The Pictographic Art of the Ancient Maori of New Zealand” (graphic shown) is discussed. It was published in 1941 in Man by the Royal Anthropological Institute.

The Decipherment of Late Iberic Part III (8 pp) Donal Buchanan 15-p 145

The author’s paper is continued from volume 14, p. 185. Buchanan is a  Fellow of the Epigraphic Society.

El Sacerdociu los Druides (2 pp) Xesus Lopez Pacios 15-p 153

A Spanish language discussion of the Druids and their function in the Celtic culture.

Astronomers Complain "Archaeologists dragging their feet" (1 p) George Reed 15-p 154

The author sends an extract from an article in Astronomy, Jan. 1986: Archaeologists are reluctant to accept astronomers views re Stonehenge.

Archaeologists Found Wanting (2 pp) Rollin W. Gillespie 15-p 155

The author, a retired NASA astronomer, writes an angry protest against the views expressed by two archaeologists in the video History or Mystery.

A Summer Solstice Sunset at the Compass Cave (3 pp) Scott Monahan 15-p 157

The author examines a 5 x 10 inch inscription, northernmost of all the Ogam inscriptions in the Anubis Cave complex.

Money Cowries and the Midewiwin Society (10 pp) George F. Carter 15-p 160

The use of the cowry is memorialized in Winnebago and Ojibway texts, as well as Algonquin ritual practices.

In Honor of Elliot Smith & William James Perry, Founders of Diffusionist Theory (17 pp) Gerhard Kraus 15-p 170

A leading diffusionist discusses Grafton Elliot Smith and William James Perry, whose theories were roundly criticized by Glyn Daniels. Biographic information on the author, with C. E. Joel a founder of the New Diffusionist, is given (with a photograph).

Grafton Elliot Smith (1872-1937) (2 pp) Gerhard Kraus 15-p 187

Biographic material on Smith with some discussion of his theories.

William James Perry (1887-1949) (1 p) Gerhard Kraus 15-p 188

Biographic material on Perry, including some of his publications and his views on worldwide interrelationships.

Diffusionism in the Doldrums (1935-1970) (1 p) Gerhard Kraus 15-p 189

The author discusses the fact that the diffusionism of Grafton Elliot Smith and William James Perry and the scholars they inspired which attained world-wide renown in 1922 and subsequent years later suffered almost total eclipse. The death of its leaders all but killed the diffusionist movement.

European Dugout Canoe Excavated in Maine (1 p) Richard Swete 15-p 189

A nautical archaeologist reports that a 21-foot dugout canoe of European type has been excavated in Southern Maine.

In Memoriam: Henriette Mertz (1896-1985) (2 pp) Gloria Farley 15-p 190

An obituary notice for a diffusionist author: (Pale Ink, The Nephtali, The Wine Dark Sea, Atlantis, Mystic Symbol). A photograph is shown.

Douglas Gilman Blizzard (1910-1986) (1 p) Mary Louise Blizzard 15-p 191

An obituary notice for the author of The Ruins of Great Ireland in New England.

Gertrude Johnson (1 p) Barry Fell 15-p 191

Notice of the death of the noted artist who served well as art editor of the Early Sites Research Society.

Medicine Wheel (1 p) James Graham 15-p 192

The author sends a graphic of a small medicine wheel located south of St. Lawrence, South Dakota and asks for comments on its use.

Need for artifacts (3 pp) William McGlone & Phillip M. Leonard 15-p 193

The authors see the archaeologists requirements for artifactual proof as too rigid.

Volcanic Eruption Destroys Armero Museum (1 p) Fernando Espinoza 15-p 196

Dr. Edgard Torres survives, but ESOP volumes in the museum were buried by volcano. The Society will replace them.

McKusick Versus Fell (1 p) Gerhard Kraus 15-p 197

While generally supporting the efforts of the Skeptical Inquirer, the author takes Marshall McKusick and J. R. Cole to task for their irresponsible criticism of Fell.

Dilmun Fashion in the Third Millenium B.C. (8 pp) Ali-Akbar Habib Bushiri 15-p 198

A discussion of the similar sartorial and tonsorial styles of Dilmun, Sumer and the Indus Valley.

La Escritura Vasca (13 pp) Imanol Agiré 15-p 206

A Portuguese language article by the late noted lexicographer and epigrapher on Basque, the language, its script and the resemblance of the script to Cree. The Basque syllabary according to Fell is given. The Boticario inscription is shown and deciphered. A photo of the author, with biographic information, is shown.

Enclosed Ogam Designs: Possible Explanations (7 pp) Gloria Farley 15-p 219

The author, a Fellow of the Epigraphic Society, discusses short Ogam inscriptions enclosed in ovals, circles or rectangles and gives suggestions for their meanings.

New Etymology of Hittite (8 pp) Linus Brunner 15-p 226

While Hittite seems to be an Indo-European language, nevertheless many words seem to derive from Semitic.

Script of the Maori Fishing Calendar (5 pp) Barry Fell 15-p 234

Signs on the calendar, previously thought to be Libyan, are actually Batak.

Ringerike, Home Base of a Bronze Age Expedition to Ontario  (9 pp) Walter Stender 15-p 239

The author discusses the inscriptions at Peterborough, Ontario, Canada, relating them to the Norwegian area of Ringerike.

Ideographic Inscriptions (2 pp) Burrell Dawson, Harry Martin, Nancy Martin & Barry Fell 15-p 248

The authors bring to Fell’s attention some inscribed panels (photos shown) found by Vince Yoder east of a Shoshone Cemetery, in Inyo, California. Fell replies that the panels are inscribed in an ideographic script used by many of the Plains and Western tribes. [Buchanan comment: I recognize these inscriptions as some of the same ones investigated and written about by the late Roberta Smith.]

Mide Scripts of the Algonkians (5 pp) ShupShe & Barry Fell 15-

p 250

First of two papers on Amerindian scripts by a scholar of the Midé Grand Medicine Lodge. With an introduction by Barry Fell.

On the Cover

Kensington Rune Stone, Minnesota. © Alexandria Chamber of Commerce.



Epigraphic Society Occasional Publications
Table of Contents, Vol. 16, 1987

The Heavener Runestone in 1963 (1 p) Photo by Robert Hill 16-p 9
Gloria Farley, with her sons Mark and Scott, is shown with the famous artifact in the State Park on Poteau Mountain, Oklahoma, in 1963

Dolmens: Who Were the Builders of America's Pre-Columbian Megaliths? (2 pp) Photos by John Imbrie, Joseph D. Germano, Malcolm D. Pearson, & Norman Totten 16-p 10
Dolmens in Ireland, Sweden, Massachusetts, and New York are described and depicted.

Forum 16-p 12

Letter: Mysterious Rock Towers (2 pp) Harry N. Martin, Vern Whipple, Mark Janzaruk 16-p 12
A report, with photos, about three towers made of stacked rocks, 8-10 feet high, located on a volcanic mound near Wellington, Nevada. A fourth tower, known to exist, was not shown.

Letter: Mysterious Medallion (1 p) Maurice Courmier 16-p 12
A report about a medallion, possibly based on Greek coinage, as well as a lead seal bearing an inscription (illustrated) and other artifacts including a possible belt buckle and a ring. All found together in Northeastern New Brunswick, Canada.

Letter: Latest Finds of Ancient Coins (1 p) Barry Fell, Victor Moseley, Beverley Moseley, & Doyle Ellis 16-p 14
A report on a coin of Micipsa (King of Numidia, 148-118 BC) found in an Indian mound in Ohio, and a coin of the Greek city of Amisos (in Asia minor, dated to c. 118-63 BC) found in Idaho.

Letter: From Idrisi -The Description of Magreb and Andalus (1 p) Fuad Raby 16-p 15
A correspondent from Valetta, Malta provides a translation from Arabic of passages dealing with Andalusian mariners who ventured (from Lisbon) far out into the Atlantic. From the description, it would appear that they achieved the Azores before being returned to the coast of Morocco.

Letter: Australian Rock Art Congress (1 p) Robert G. Bednarik 16-p 15
First Australian Rock Art Congress to be held at Darwin, 29 August to 2 September 1988.

Letter: New Israeli Language Review (1 p) ASJL, Haifa, Israel 16-p 15
Informs about the Jewish Language Review, annual publication of the Association for the Study of Jewish languages (ASJL).

Letter: CAA Conference – 1988 (1 p) Jon Driver 16-p 15
The Canadian Archaeological Association (CAA) will hold its annual meeting for 1988 at Whistler Mountain, BC (near Vancouver), 11-14 May 1988.

Letter: Old World Influence on the Cuna Culture (1 p) Clyde Keeler 16-p 16
Suggests connections between the Cuna (of the San Blas Islands of Eastern Panama), Peruvian cultures, and those of Sumeria, Egypt, Troy, Knossus, and the Indus Valley.

Letter: ISAC (1 p) Joseph Mahan 16-p 16
The Institute for the Study of American Cultures (ISAC) is described and its address is given.

An Ancient Star Map in Jersey (1 p) Lionel D. Atkinson, Barry Fell 16-p 17
Cupmarks found on a passage-grave stone known as La Hogue Bie on the Isle of Jersey may be a star map of Big Dipper.

An Ogam Stone from Connecticut (2 pp) Barry Fell 16-p 18
Fell gives his own decipherment of the inscription on a "ritual stone" (so described by James P. Whittall II) brought to David P. Barron, President of the Gungywamp Society, by Richard Eaton of Groton, Connecticut. The stone had been previously reported on (with a proposed decipherment by Donal B. Buchanan) in Volume 12, No. 1, p 19, of the Bulletin of the Early Sites Research Society (ESRS), December 1985. Buchanan suggested that it described a divination rite to reveal to a midwife the proper season for parturition. Fell suggested it was an amulet to protect against sickness and the evil eye (a notion supported by the depiction of an eye on the artifact). [The artifact, formerly in the hands of David Barron, as of 2001 was received and held for the Epigraphic Society by Donal Buchanan.]

Midwestern Epigraphic Society (1 p) Victor Moseley (Pres.), Beverley H. Moseley (Secy), & John W. Keller (Treas) 16-p 20
Describes an affiliate of the Epigraphic Society and lists its activities and officers (as above, plus William Dangler, Director of Field Operations for Ohio; John Payne, Director of Field Operations for Eastern Kentucky; and William and Marilyn Kreisle, co-Directors of Field Operations for Central Kentucky and Southern Indiana).

Epigraphic Society of Southern California (1 p) Wayne Kenaston Jr. 16-p 21
Announcement of founding of the affiliate Society with a description, activities and officers (in addition to Kenaston, Donald R. Swanson, Michael Thurman, and Randi Hawkins). Two photos of a library exhibit organized by members are shown (photos by Donald Swanson).

The Method in Deciphering and Explaining Unknown Languages (1 p) Linus Brunner 16-p 22
Discusses principles of how to get results in deciphering languages. Describes two recognized methods: combinatory and etymological. Barry Fell uses the etymological method.

Picassos of Ancient Celtberian Spain (1 p) Barry Fell 16-p 23
Line drawings of ancient Celtiberian coins which must have been almost incomprehensible to the Romans.

Detecting Fraudulent Inscriptions (1 p) Barry Fell 16-p 24
Fell states that the many artifacts from Michigan (described by Henriette Mertz in Mystic Symbol and exposed as fraudulent by James E. Talmage) and those allegedly found by Russell Burrows in Illinois ("Burrows Cave") are modern (or relatively modern) forgeries. He also mentions a forgery attempt (exposed by William McGlone and Phillip Leonard) at Los Lunas not involving the famous Decalogue Inscription, but modern additional inscriptions intended to be regarded as parallel in time to that artifact.

Ad: "To the Goddess Bianu" (1 p) MacConnection 16-p 25
Excellent photo of Warren Cook with mouse in hand as he studies epigraphy using his Macintosh computer. Describes of his (and Barry Fell’s) efforts to decipher Incan Topacus using Ogam and ancient Cypriot scripts.

A Tifinag Text at Tassili, Algeria (2 pp) Barry Fell 16-p 26
Gives Fell's translation of the text (reproduced on p. 26) which is inscribed in four vertical columns.

Stick Charts of the Marshall Islands (23 pp) K. O. Emery 16-p 28
Describes the use of stick-charts for navigation over long distances by native Marshall Islanders in sailing canoes.

Maurice Chatelain (1 p) Barry Fell 16-p 50
Photo and bio info of an Epigraphic Society supporter and author who lived in San Diego in 1987. A Frenchman, his writings had made the work of the Society known in France.

The Kensington Runestone: Part 2, Aberrant Letters (33 pp) Richard Nielsen 16-p 51
New evidence from Greenland, Iceland, and Scandinavia proves the authenticity of the Kensington Runestone.

Ancient Astrology in a Cave of West Irian, New Guinea (7 pp) Barry Fell 16-p 84
A Heptagram superimposed on a circle and surrounded in part by planetary symbols found in a cave in West Irian is related to a Greek astrological motif. Fell suggests that the makers of the pictograph may have been Egyptian or Arab-Egyptian travelers.

Roman Coin Discovered in Ohio (1 p) Victor Moseley 16-p 90
Found 8" deep on the bank of a river north of Columbus, Ohio; an Anton-inianus dated to 253-268 AD.

Oklahoma Runestones (5 pp) Paul H. Chapman 16-p 91
The author (photo and bio info given) expresses some conclusions about the Heavener, Poteau, and Shawnee runestones.

Idiographic Inscriptions at Inyo California (1 p) Roberta Smith 16-p 95
The puzzling inscriptions at Inyo reported in ESOP 15 are examined in a paper available from the author.

First American Poem in Ogam Script (2 pp) Barry Fell & Gloria Farley 16-p 96
A chant to the sun-god Mabo pleading for crop fertility.

The Merry Monks of Ireland (3 pp) Barry Fell 16-p 98
Fell reports on Ogam marginalia in the Codex Sangallensis, originally deciphered by Rudolf Thurneysen et al.

Schaghticoke Deed to New Fairfield, Connecticut (4 pp) Ida Jane Gallagher 16-p 101
Cree indian signatures to an historic deed dated 1729.

Signatures on Pennsylvania Deeds (1 p) Ellen M. Manganaro 16-p 104
Indian signatures on a Pennsylvania deed dated 1685.

Dating the Basque Inscriptions on Rocks of the Susquehanna Valley (4 pp) Barry Fell 16-p 105
Fell suggests correspondences between the symbols on the so-called "Mechanicsburg Stones" and Cree-Ojibway syllabaries. Further, he presents evidence that at least some of the stones may have been boundary markers.

Discovery Day? (1 p) Bill Ickes 16-p 108
Suggests that since so many people discovered America, Columbus Day should be replaced by Discovery Day.

Petroglyphs Excavated at Gauayanilla, Puerto Rico, Circa 1880 (1 p) Aurelio Tio 16-p 109
About 1880, Catholic priest in Puerto Rico excavated over 800 petroglyphs which he felt were similar to Chaldaic-Hebrew script.

Anglo-Saxons and Their Monetary System (15 pp) Barry Fell 16-p 110
Early coin issues of the Anglo-Saxon Kings of England were lettered in runes.

The Lewis Creek Mound – An Observation (2 pp) Angela Andrews 16-p 125
A description of a burial mound located near Verona, Virginia, including a sandstone slab marked with incised parallel lines. The mound is believed to date between 1110 and 1170 AD.

An Ogam Consaine Inscribed Stone from Lewis Creek Mound, Virginia (3 pp) Barry Fell 16-p 127
Decipherment of an incised sandstone stone slab recovered from the Lewis Creek burial mound.

Two Romano-British Inscriptions (6pp) Barry Fell 16-p 130
Clay sherd from Yorkshire and a lead lamina from London bearing inscriptions in a cursive script are deciphered by Fell.

The Swastika in Celtic Britain and North America (6 pp) Barry Fell 16-p 136
Simultaneous appearance in both areas of copper and bronze swastika ornaments at the onset of Christian era. The Swastika also appears on the Newton Stone (in Scotland) and at least one other known Ogham stone. Fell offers his decipherment of the inscription on the controversial Newton Stone.

The Tihosuco Inscription Retranslated as Spanish (4 pp) Carl H. Johannessen, Diego Gonzales, Simone Ottonello, Perry Powers, Anne Parker, Jaweed Ashraf, Barry Fell & William Loy 16-p 142
When the Tihosuco stone in Yucatan was turned upside down it was found that the inscription could be read as Medieval South Indian script.

Cabrilho's Grave Stone of 1543 Recognized and Deciphered (2pp) Barry Fell 16-p 146
Cabrilho’s gravestone found in 1901 on Santa Rosa Island, California. The stone is now in the Lowie Museum, University of California, Berkeley.

Ogam Inscription from Cimarron South Shelter (2 pp) Gloria Farley 16-p 148
One of the longest apparently Ogam inscriptions in the American Southwest contains at least two rebus drawings.

Bar Creek No. 2, Clay County, Kentucky (1 p) John Payne & Barry Fell 16-p 150
An Ogam panel 32 inches long is partially deciphered by Fell.

Celtic Rebus Figures from the Upper Mississippi Valley (3 pp) David Radloff & Barry Fell 16-p 151
Figures appearing in caves, rock shelters and fissures (recorded in Appleton's Annual Cyclopedia.. of 1889) appear to contain Ogham. Fell suggests some decipherments.

Un Drole de Micmac (6 pp) Maurice Chatelain 16-p 154
An article in French discussing Egyptian connections with Micmac.

Pre-Columbian Diffusion: New Lights and Old – The General Scene (13 pp) Paul Tesla 16-p 160
A review of Nigel Davies' Voyages to the New World (William Morrow, 1979).

What does The Spirit Pond Map Stone Say? (11 pp) Albert G. Hahn 16-p 172
Hahn sees runic cryptography on the stone and ties it to Bishop Henrikus.

Homeric Troy and the Sea Peoples (1 p) Cyclone Covey 16-p 182
Ad for Covey’s new book. He says the Achaian siege of Troy followed the fall of Ugarit, Carkemish and Khatti by a decade.

Western Epigraphic Society (1 p) Carol B. Patterson, Secy; Dan E. Rohrer, Treasurer 16-p 182
Information on the activities and officers of an affiliate society.

The Runestones of Oklahoma (13 pp) Richard Nielsen 16-p 183
Nielsen offers his decipherment of the Heavener and Poteau inscriptions.

Nos Ancêtres Celtiques (5 pp) Maurice Chatelain 16-p 196
A discussion in French of Celts and Ogham.

San Francisco & Bay Area Epigraphic Society (1 p) Russell Swanson, Pres.; Ella Footman, Secy 16-p 200
Information on the activities and officers of an affiliate society.

The Celtic Horse Goddess on All Hallows Eve (4 pp) Gloria Farley & Jon Polansky 16-p 201
Discusses a bricren Ogam inscription under a depiction of the goddess Epona at Anubis Cave.

A Gadelic-English Dictionary (70 pp) Burrell C. Dawson 16-p 205
A dictionary of cognates of the Gadelic dialects compiled from inscriptions found in the New World (Gadelic-English section).

Tartan Ogam (6 pp) Frank McGaugh 16-p 274
The author holds that Scottish tartans hide Ogham inscriptions which show the clans' ancient names.

Fantastic Archaeology at Harvard (6 pp) George F. Carter 16-p 280
Discusses the course offered at Harvard by Prof. Stephen Williams (who refers to Carter as a Crank Personality). Carter replies to Williams’ criticisms.

British Columbia Rock Art (5 pp) Eva McCallum & Elizabeth Flood 16-p 285
Pictographs found in Southern British Columbia (sites originally recorded by John Corner – here illustrated with drawings made by the late Ken McCallum).

Nos Ancêtres Chinois (11 pp) Maurice Chatelain 16-p 290
An article in French ties certain Indian tribes to China.

Ogam Consainein County Tyrone – Castlederg Cromlech Revisited (3 pp) Barry Fell 16-p 301
Ogam on the upper surface of the "Druid’s Altar" is deciphered by Fell.

First Discovery of an Ogam Panel in Wyoming. (2 pp) Robert E. Walker 16-p 304
A rebus/ogam panel discovered in 1986 (note: the photo was erroneously printed upside down).

From the Gaelic (1 p) Barry Fell 16-p 306
Fell's translation of a lovely Celtic poem.

An Aztec Hieroglyphic Paternoster (3 pp) Barry Fell 16-p 307
A pictographic rendition of a Nahuatl paternoster, deciphered by Fell, is illustrated and discussed.

The Lamina of Alcoy – Background and Current Proposals (12 pp) Barry Fell, Alan McCone, Jon Polansky & Ernie Bloom 16-p 310
An alleged shipping contract between a Greek merchant and a skipper from Cadiz is discussed in three parts. Fell's work sheets for his decipherment of the Alcoy inscription are shown.

Inscribed Stone Artifacts from Guayanilla, Puerto Rico (1 p) Barry Fell 16-p 322
Artifacts discovered in 1880 by Father Nazario are discussed and deciphered by Fell.

On the Cover
Dolmen at North Salem, New York. Photo by Malcom Pearson.


Epigraphic Society Occasional Publications
Table of Contents, Vol. 17, 1988

In Memoriam: Prof. Dr. Linus Brunner (2 pp) Barry Fell 17-p 9
Photo, biographic information on and bibliography of Dr. Linus Brunner, who died on 3 Dec 1987. He was a substantial contributor to epigraphic research.

In Memoriam: Dr. Robert T. Meyer (1 p) Ida Jane Gallagher  17-p 11
Photo and biographic information on Dr. Robert T. Meyer, of Catholic University, who died in Swansea, Wales, on 3 October 1987. He was a prominent scholar of Celtic studies who confirmed Dr. Fell’s Old Irish translation of a West Virginia petroglyph.

Forum (6 pp) 17-p 12

Letter: An Ancient Greek Inscription (1 p) James N. Lamb 17-p 12
Sent a photo of a Greek inscription from the Villa d'Este near Rome. Fell read it as a Greek motto in an uncial script: GNOTHI S'AUTON = "Know thyself."

Letter: Memorial Volume to Alexander Thom (1 p) Archie S. Thom 17-p 12
Alexander Thom’s son writes announcing a memorial volume to his father, late Prof. Emeritus, Oxford University: Records in Stone: Papers in Memory of Alexander Thom; published by the Cambridge University Press.

Letter: Celtic and the Dene dialects (1 p) Ethel G. Stewart 17-p 12
The author comments on the origin of the Celtic element in Dene dialects; believes it came from the Italo-Celtic Tokharian B dialect of the Northern Tarim Oases and the Sino-Tibetan border of Kansu, reaching America via the Pacific.

European Viewpoint (1 p) Heinz B. Maas 17-p 13
A visitor from West Germany comments on the Newport Tower, the Upton Chamber, Mystery Hill, Petroglyph Park (Peterborough, Ontario, Canada), Warren Cook's exhibition at Castleton College Library and the "Fell Controversy." He says: "Don't give up… You are certainly on the right track."

Letter: A Tennessee Gorget (1 p) Myrle A. Kirk 17-p 13
The author encloses a photo of a shell gorget donated to the Ventura County, California Historical Museum in 1936. It is supposed to have originated from the Great Serpent Mounds in Tennessee. Fell notes its resemblance to another gorget from Tennessee now in the Rochester Museum of Arts and Science.

Letter: A Request (1 p) Sun Bear 17-p 14
Sun Bear is an Ojibwa Medicine Man and Chief of the Bear Tribe Medicine Society located in Spokane, Washington. He is the author of 5 books and is doing research on a sixth dealing with Native American petroglyphs. He requests information and photos as well as names of persons he can contact.

Letter: A mysterious wall (1 p) Robert J. Petrelli 17-p 14
Describes the remains of an "enormous stone wall" near South Windsor, Connecticut. It is anchored deeply into the river bank on the east side and runs into the river all the way across to the west bank. It is straight and constructed of the red river shale common in the area. There was a large Indian village site on the east bank near the wall.

Letter: A Hopi Tablet (2 pp) Ron Anjard 17-p 14
Two sides of a sacred Hopi Fire Clan Tablet are shown. It was inscribed on both sides with ideograms at least one of which probably stands for the Great Spirit (Masaw in Hopi). It also bears the swastika (see The Book of the Hopi by Frank Walters).

Letter: World Cultures of Ancient America Conference (1 p) Diane Sundberg 17-p 15
Inauguaral meeting held at the University of California, San Francisco, Laurel Heights Conference Center, 4-7 June 1988. It was attended by investigators in archeology, geology, linguistics, epigraphy, anthropology and astronomy who documented evidence of links between the Old and New Worlds. A "Retrospective" of meeting is being prepared. Sundberg was the Conference Coordinator.

Letter: Burrows Cave Artifacts (1 p) Charles W. Bailey 17-p 16
Bailey strongly doubts the authenticity of the claims for the site and for the artifacts and gives cogent reasons for his views. He particularly mentions the crude and amateur artwork that seems to draw its inspiration from many known originals in Old World sites. Bailey, after 30 years of research, is very familiar with ancient art forms.

Letter: Burrows Cave Artifacts (2 pp) Warren Dexter 17-p 16
Dexter, a professional photographer, strongly believes in the integrity "of a majority" of the artifacts from the alleged cave. He claims that he was personally taken to the cave in Illinois by the founder, but was not allowed to enter it. [DB Note: It was pointed out to him that what he was shown fit the description of a rock shelter, not a cave.]

Review: Kiln Sites in China (1 p) Institute of Archeology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Peking 17-p 17
Reviews Kiln Sites in China, by Rewy Alley, a New Zealander who worked in China for the past 58 years acquiring a deep interest in Chinese history and archeology, especially relating to ceramics. He has produced a book on various ceramic centers, old kiln sites, and modern factories in China.

Letter: Oklahoma Runestone (1 p) Paul H. Chapman 17-p 17
He defends his decipherment of the Heavener Runestone: "To invite barter." While he differs with Nielsen, he nevertheless lauds his work.

The Cup-and-Ring Motif in the Rock Art of the British Isles and in America (13 pp) Ronald W. B. Morris 17-p 18
Bio info given on author, a Scot, with photo (currently vice president, of the UK’s Ancient Monuments Society). His article compares the cup-and-ring motif as carved in the British isles with examples of the same motif found in America. It is illustrated with many photos.

A Decipherment of the Chichicastenango Stone (22 pp) John S. Carroll 17-p 31
The language of the inscription is Quiche Maya. The script is partly pictographic, partly ideographic, partly homophonic (rebus). It records battles, cities and enemies defeated, and tribute gained apparently by a king named Tohil (Fate).

Stephen Laurent (Atian Lolo), Lexicographer of the Abenaki (4 pp) Stephen Laurent 17-p 53
An autobiographical sketch (with a color photo). He is an expert on Amer-indian linguistics and the son of an Abenaki chief, Joseph Laurent.

Javier Cabrera (1 p) Michael Skupin 17-p 56
Skupin comments on Peruvian physician Javier Cabrera Darquea's collection of stones with controversial pictures carved or etched on them (some of the subjects of the pictures are supposed to have been long extinct).

Living in Total Harmony with Stupidity (3 pp) Marshall D. Payn 17-p 57
Marshall takes on Barry's critics and tells them to go straight to Fell.

Deciphering Inca Textiles Using Computer Graphics (5 pp) Warren L. Cook 17-p 60
Peruvian (Inca) textile designs are analyzed using a Macintosh computer to determine if they hide alphabetic symbols representing the fourteen sound values postulated by Fell as comprising the Tocapu alphabet.

On Norse Importation of Domestic Animals into North America (2 pp) George F. Carter 17-p 65
Comments as a result of the discovery of a Runic inscription accompanying the portrayal of a cow in Ludlow Cave, South Dakota.

Stonehenge and the Calendar of Coligny (34 pp) Alban Wall 17-p 67
Presents evidence that Goidelic Celts built Stonehenge and wrote in Ogam (Ogham) Consaine. Gives biographic information on Alban Wall (w/photo). There is a graphic of the reassembled Celtic Coligny Calendar. He discusses the contents and reading of the Coligny Calendar in depth and compares the results to the structure and usage of Stonehenge.

Tanith with Two Scripts from South Africa (2 pp) Barry Fell, Warren Dexter & Gloria Farley 17-p 101
An effigy of the North African goddess, Tanith, found in South Africa, bears inscriptions in two scripts, Ogam and Libyan. Fell deciphers both.

Letter: The Westford Knight and his Coat of Arms (1 p) Herbert E. Robinson 17-p 103
Corrects a mistake concerning the Gunn arms seen on the Knight-inscription from Westford, Massachusetts as published in Fell’s book, Saga America.

Letter: Ogam Rock in Ventura County (1 p) Myrle A. Kirk 17-p 103
A stone bearing man-made linear markings similar to Ogam was excavated in Ventura County, California, in 1974. Working from a photo (shown), Fell suggests a decipherment.

Contribution to Modern Potawatomi Vocabulary (3 pp) ShupShe (Howard La Hurreau) 17-p 104
A glossary of Potawatomi terms for flora and fauna, the natural world, the body, etc.

Foreign Influences on the Priesthood and Nobility in pre-Columbian America (16 pp) Lawrence F. Athy Jr. 17-p 106
Discusses evidence that the elite classes in Meso-America were influenced by foreignors and sometimes included foreignors.

Photo: Table Rock, Near Wheeling, West Virginia (1 p) Cyril C. Bruhn 17-p 121
Photo of Bruhn standing in front of Table Rock, a natural formation in Ohio County, West Virginia. It stands on the summit of a 400 ft. hill on private property.

An Ethnologist looks at the Odyssey (2 pp) Fred Tromel 17-p 122
He suggests that most of the Odyssey had little if anything to do with Odysseus, but reflected earlier sagas and voyages by Phoenicians. He reviews Dr. Christine Pellech's book "The Odyssey - An Antique Circumnavigation of the World," published in 1983 in Berlin.

The Kensington Stone Part 3: Linguistic Evidence for Its Authenticity (55 pp) Richard Nielsen 17-p 124
He strongly supports Robert A. Hall Jr.'s thesis that the Kensington Runestone is genuine.

The Cross of the Inca (8 pp) Walter Stender 17-p 179
Discusses the use of the "square cross" (like the Red Cross symbol) by the Inca, which he maintains was a continuance from preceding cultures.

Melanesians in Panama (8 pp) John Spencer Carroll 17-p 187
Reports on the unexpected presence of blacks in Panama in the 16th century as reported by one Italian and five Spaniards.

An Elephant Petroglyph (2 pp) Joan Camp 17-p 195
Petroglyph of an apparent elephant found in Northeastern New Mexico by Joan Camp. Illustration from a cast of the inscription made by Gloria Farley.

Christian Symbols of the Pre-Columbian Maya (1 p) Walter F. Morris 17-p 196
Many of the Catholic rituals taught to the Maya were already familiar to them, according to Walter F. Morris in his book Living Maya (1987).

The Eight Cousins from Lisbon (3 pp) John Spencer Carroll 17-p 197
Eight men from Lisbon, all first cousins, loaded a ship c. 1100, and ventured into the Atlantic. They seem to have reached the Azores, Madeira, the Canaries or Cape Verde islands, where they noted that Arabic was known.

Timeless Threads in the Fabric of Cuna Indian Culture (1 p) Roberta C. Smith 17-p 199
Review’s Clyde Keeler’s book (title as above) which can be obtained from either Keeler or herself.

Reworking Early Glottochronologies (6 pp) E. Morgan Kelley 17-p 200
Glottochronology refers to the dating of language and linguistic change. Jürgen Spanuth, Velikovsky and Fell show us that our traditional notions need changing.

An Epigraphic Hoax on Trial in New Mexico (14 pp) Phillip M. Leonard & William R. McGlone 17-p 206
Stones found in New Mexico bearing inscriptions purportedly written before the time of Christ, are revealed to be hoaxes based on the Las Lunas inscription (which itself is believed not a hoax); the hoaxers were tried and convicted and the authors were witnesses at the trial.

An English-Gadelic Dictionary (36 pp) Burrell C. Dawson 17-p 220
A dictionary of cognates in the Gadelic (Goidelic) dialects, drawn from an Old Irish Dictionary by Thurneysen and a study of Takelne by Barry Fell (A-H, to be continued in Volume 18); photo and bio of Dawson given.

Rome and Greenland A.D. 1206-1492 (12 pp) Barry Fell 17-p 255
Russell Swanson, President, of the San Francisco and Bay Counties Epigraphic Society, found correspondence between at least three popes and the church in Greenland in a rare book, Pre-Columbian Historical Treasures 1000-1492, published by the Norroena Society in 1906; facsimiles and translations of three letters are shown.

An Unusual Medieval Inscription from Externstein, NW-Germany (4 pp) Ulrich Niedhorn 17-p 267
An enigmatic inscription discovered high on the wall of a grotto in NW Germany is examined. He concludes it is a fraud by an unknown monk who wanted to make false claims about the site.

A Pioneer Amerind Explorer of North America (3 pp) Antoine Simon Le Page du Pratz 17-p 271
Fell publishes an account by the author of a journey by an Amerind across the prairies and Rockies c 1700-1710.

Susquehanna Petroglyphs Observed in 1820 (1 p) Barry Fell 17-p 273
A manuscript by Joel J. Carter (Prehistoric Pictorial Rocks Near Bald Friar Ferry on the Susquehanna River), discovered in the Delaware Museum, reveals that cup-and-ring marks and apparent Phoenician lettering were seen on stones in the Susquehanna as early as 1820 or 1830.

Bronze Age Nordic Traders in Canada (New Light on Peterborough) (2 pp) Barry Fell 17-p 274
The Peterborough site was visited by famous Danish historian Dr. Jon Galster (photo by Dean W. Monahan) in the Summer of 1983. He confirmed and expanded on Fell's work there.

Inscribed Bricks from Comalcalco (7 pp) Neil Steede 17-p 276
Sets out the circumstances that make Comalcalco different from other Mayan sites.

A Christian North African Inscription from Comalcalco (2 pp) Barry Fell 17-p 283
Fell holds that some of the tablets at Comalcalco are definitely foreign or by foreign inscribers. In the case of tablet AP-480, he says it shows a North African influence or origin.

A Punic Calendar from Comalcalco (3 pp) Barry Fell 17-p 284
Fell deciphers Tablet T1-2280 as a Punic calendar bearing inscribed letters showing the initial letters of the names of Phoenician and/or Hebrew months, reading in sequence from right to left.

The Michigan "Relics" (32 pp) James E. Talmage 17-p 287
Fell agrees with Talmage and other scholars that the Michigan finds are a modern hoax.

The Holly Oak Mammoth (1 p) Barry Fell 17-p 319
A shell pendant engraved with a mammoth supposedly found in Delaware in 1864 is proven to be a hoax.

Preface to Pale Ink (2 pp) Michael Skupin 17-p 319
The author reviews the book by Henriette Mertz about an early exploration of America by Chinese.

On the Cover
Stonehenge at Sunrise. Photo courtesy of English Heritage.


Epigraphic Society Occasional Publications

Table of Contents Volume 18 1989

In Memoriam: Victor Conway Moseley, Warren Laurence Cook, and Raymond Dart (1 p) Barry Fell 18-p 9

Most of the page deals with Victor Moseley (with a photo), who passed away on 30 October 1989. One paragraph reports the death of Warren Cook on 7 December 1989 and the final paragraph deals with the death of Raymond Dart.

Forum (11 pp) 18-p 10

Pre-Columbian Voyages to America (1 p) H. E. Robinson 18-p 10

Points out Donald H. Keith's comment in Ships and Shipwrecks in the Americas that "some early maps...show coastal profiles of New World lands that, according to conventional history, had not yet been visited by Europeans."

Did Denmark Import Bronze-Age Copper from America? (2 pp) Stig Wiene 18-p 10

Reports the find of a Scandinavian-type bronze axe near Peterborough, Ontario, and suggests that bronze-age Scandinavians imported copper from the New World.

Holly Oak Mammoth (1 p) Peter J. Dawson 18-p 12

Suggests that the shell bearing a depiction of a mammoth may not be fraudulent since mammoths may have existed in New World longer than thought.

Cooperation with the USSR Valeri I. Guliaev 18-p 12

Agrees to an exchange of publications.

Michigan Stone Circle (2 pp) Brad Vincent 18-p 12

A 1,000 year old stone circle was found in 1985 on Beaver Island in Lake Michigan. It may have been used as a calendar. Smaller circles (medicine wheels?) were also found near the site.

Pre-Columbian  Greenland Settlements (1 p) W. R. Anderson 18-p 13

Draws attention to Documenta Selecta by J. C. Heywood, issued by the Vatican Press in 1893, giving authenticated sources for the history of Norse Christianity in America before Columbus.

Adena Tablets (1 p) Elizabeth H. Stewart 18-p 14

Notes the existence of a "carved Adena tablet" and wonders if it might contain writing.

Prehistoric Petroglyphs in North Bavaria (2 pp) Walter Stender 18-p 14

Stones reported in 1985 bear enigmatic linear markings (photo). They are exhibited in the Pfalz Museum in Forchheim, Bavaria.

From H. R. H. The Prince de Condé (1 p) Condé 18-p 16

Praise for the Society's publication of evidence of Mediterranean and North African infusions into Amerindian and Pacific cultures.

Arabic and Pima (2 pp) Alan S. Kaye 18-p 16

A professor of Linguistics comments on and criticizes Fell's Pima/Arabic comparisons. He also criticizes Fell's Alcoy translation and points out mispellings in the article re Alcoy in volume 16.

Reply (1 p) Ernest Bloom & Jon Polansky 18-p 17

Dr. Ernest Bloom and Dr. Jon Polansky make a brief reply to Alan Kaye's criticisms of Fell.

Cooperation with China (1 p) Cai Yuniang 18-p 18

The Deputy Director of the Serials Department, China National Publications, Beijing, China, expresses an interest in receiving ESOP publications.

Paimusk Creek  Rock Art (2 pp) Raymond M. Beaumont 18-p 18

Forwards photos and tracings of rock paintings (illustrations p. 19) found at Paimusk Creek near Molson Lake, northeast of Norway House, Manitoba, Canada. The author tells of native Cree (at Norway House) interest in the Society's work on the origins of their script.

Mide Characters in the Walam Olum (1 pp) Peter J. Dawson 18-p 20

Backs Fell's and ShupShe's work on the Mide script showing a relationship with Ancient Egyptian and Kufi (illustration below letter on the same page).

Cultural Trails Across the Pacific (9 pp) George F. Carter 18-p 21

A noted archaeologist investigates the proposal that there were outside influences from the Pacific on North and South American cultures (reprinted from The Johns Hopkins Magazine, 1957).

The Origin, Development and History of the Ogam Script: Facts and Conjectures (5 pp) Brendan 0 Hehir 18-p 30

Abstract handout sheets from the Ridgecrest Meeting of the American Rock Art Research Association 1988 Symposium in Ridgecress, California. His paper held that Ogam was not an independent invention, but a cipher based upon the Roman alphabet of the second half of the first century BC--designed specifically for the transposition of archaic Old Irish. "The study of Ogams cannot be separated from the study of Old Irish. The 'Old Gaelic' proposed by Fell and others has no linguistic standing. So-called American ogams do not look like genuine Ogams and their purported transliterations are forced and their translations ignorant gibberish. The purported Ogam alphabet said to be used in America is a disingenuous fraud."

The Origin  and History of Ogam—An Interview with Barry Fell (17 pp) Marshall Payn & Barry Fell 18-p 35

Fell's response to Brendan O' Hehir's attack concerning Fell's decipher- ment of Ogam Consaine.

Tanith, Patron Saint of Carthaginian Sailors (4 pp) E. Morgan Kelley 18-p 52

Examines the goddess Tanith, her history, symbols and mythological connections, particularly the spread of her cult by means of Carthaginian sailors even to the shores of North America.

The Forgotten Army Of the Dilmun Culture (16 pp) Ali-Akbar H. Bushiri 18-p 56

The author holds that Dilmun was not merely a trading center, but a military power with a very impressive collection of weapons in a large number of styles--observable not just from archeological finds, but also on the seals (as seen in over 700 photos in his own collection).

Pyramid Update, How and Why They Were Built (13 pp) Marshall Payn 18-p 72

Since bronze had yet to be discovered, how did the Egyptians manage to cut and trim the stones for the pyramids? Payn examines Joseph Davidovits theory of the Egyptians' use of a kind of concrete. He also looks at the works of Dr. Kurt Mendelssohn and Peter Tomkins. Payn suggests that the Pyramids were intended to represent model Kas--specifically mirroring the Ka of the Sun God Ra (and/or the Ka of the Earth). He points out that the Egyptian hieroglyph for "exalted one" (God?) is a profile of the first of the great pyramids (a step pyramid).

A Guide to Babel (1 p) Michael Skupin 18-p 84

A favorable review of Writing Systems of the World: Alphabets, Syllabaries, Pictograms, by Akita Nakanishi (published by Charles E. Tuttle). Although not perfect, Skupin feels the book is a must for anyone interested in language.

Salute to Frederick J. Pohl, Centenarian (1 p) Gloria Farley 18-p 85

Outlining the accomplishments and publications of author Frederick Pohl.

Caroline Islands Script Before the European Contact (4 pp) Barry Fell 18-p 86

Disputes the Smithsonian's 1960 allegation that the Caroline Islands script was developed in 1907 from an alphabet given the islanders in 1905 by a missionary. Fell shows an example of the script which dates from 1697. At the bottom of the page is a short biography of Fell.

A Note on The Elephant in America (1 p) George F. Carter 18-p 90

The author examines evidence for the recent extinction of the elephant in the Americas. Evidence from a mastodon kill site in Ecuador suggests that its death occurred no earlier than 3,000 BC and possibly later. Information from Indians and eskimos in North America also suggest a very recent extinction.

Gothic Inscriptions in Spain (1 p) Lawrence F. Athy 18-p 91

The author draws our attention to Documentacion Goda en Pizarra (Gothic Documents on Slate-shale) by Manuel Gomez-Moreno of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid (1966). The slates were primarily found in the Province of Salamanca. He assigns the inscriptions to the Gothic period (c. 400-800 AD). He compares them to wooden tablets carved in Tunisia c. 500 AD. Two types of inscriptions: 1. numbers 2. cursive letters. The numeric system appears similar to the Roman. The cursive letters appear to be the miniscule cursive alphabet used in the western part of the Roman empire. Many translations are given in the book.

The Apache and Other Tribes Whose Ancestors Came from Khotan (9 pp) Ethel G. Stewart 18-p 92

The author holds that ancestry of the Apaches and other Dene Indian tribes can be traced back to the Khotan area of the Tarim Basin (below the Gobi, below Lake Bai-kal) during the early 13th century AD.

Bat Creek Update (1 p) Michael Skupin 18-p 100

The author recommends the article by J. Huston McCulloch "The Bat Creek Inscription: Cherokee or Hebrew" in vol. xiii, #2 of The Tennessee Anthropologist (Fall 1988). He calls it a "polished, meticulous and comprehensive examination of the issue. The circumstances of the discovery, a history of the controversy, and the present state of the question are given." He praises McCulloch for his "solid work."

The Astronomy of Hidden Mountain (4 pp) Richard F. Lynch 18-p 101

Discusses the Las Lunas inscription and the stone ruins and zodiac inscription found on Hidden Mountain (arrived at by a trail leading up the mountain from the Las Lunas inscription). The author concludes that the "Zodiac Stone" is nothing more than a collection of Indian petroglyphs similar to many others found along the mesa. He does not feel that the site marks an eclipse. He believes that David Deal's work on the site is flawed.

Observations on the Willow Gulch Petroglyphs, Utah. (3 pp) Manton L. Botsford 18-p 105

Two mammoth petroglyphs reported in BLM, Utah Cultural Series #4, were field-checked to determine if the original proposed association with Paleo Indian artists is credible or if any indication may be present to imply their having been produced by another culture group. Observations are presented regarding the site of the petroglyphs and general character of the sites with which they are associated.

Was Queen Guinevere buried in  Scotland? (2 pp) David MacLean Eaton & Tom Strider 18-p 108

Among the Pictish stones displayed at the Meigle Museum in Meigle Scotland (NNE of Perth; NW of Dundee) is one alleged to be the burial marker for the tomb of Guinevere. The author delineates Scotland's connection with the Arthurian legend. In this version, while a captive of the Picts (who were at war with Arthur) Guinevere had an affair with Mordred, a Pictish prince. Arthur won and, for her adultery, put his queen to death. She was buried in Meigle. Tom Strider came across this tale when the author's wife, Eileen Eaton, was introducing him to the Meigle Museum. She persuaded her husband to write it up for ESOP.

The Kensington Runestone Part 3: Linguistic Evidence For Its Authenticity (23 pp) R. Nielsen 18-p 110

Nielsen continues his exhaustive examination of the Kensington Runeston inscription, replying to the arguments of the critics and strongly bolstering arguments for the authenticity of the inscription.

The Ohio Runestone (1 p) Gloria Farley 18-p 133

Describes the finding and subsequent investigation of the Ohio Runestone. A photo of the inscription is shown.

Arabic/Islamic presence in America before Columbus: Indisputable Proof Based Upon the Power and Placement of M (3 pp) Louis D. Buff Parry 18-p 134

The sharing of a unique rule-ordering procedure, the placement of the 'm' sound and/or symbol, in the phonology and grammar of Semitic, Egyptian and North American languages is offered as proof of an early contact between the cultures.

The People of the Ankh: Deciphering Tribal Names (9 pp) E. Morgan Kelley 18-p 137

Expanding on Joseph Campbell's The Masks of God, the author expounds on probable or possible contacts between Old World and New World cultures as revealed by their vocabularies when examined using sound-shift rules. One suggestion made is that the biblical Joseph may be identical with a known Egyptian Apa'ankh (or Ip'ankh).

Cappadocia's Caves Embrace a Legacy of Christian Art (7 pp) Ida Jane Gallagher 18-p 146

Describes the cave dwellings and underground towns of Cappadocia, occupied by monks and others since at least 373 AD. It is well illustrated and mentions the Maltese Cross Inscriptions. There is a picture of Clyde Keeler, who apparently accompanied the author.

Archaeology and Oblomovism (1 p) Michael Skupin 18-p 152

A review of Archaeology and Language by Colin Renfrew (Cambridge University Press, 1988). Skupin pans the book as "a pastiche of the opinions of his circle, a survey. Renfrew finds everyone wanting, which makes the book increasingly morose, autumnal. ...Aside from period interest, Archaeology and Language has nothing of value."

Others Discover America Before Columbus (1 p) Tom Strider 18-p 153

An introduction to ESOP and the books of Barry Fell. He notes that a Spanish language edition of America BC is issued under the title: America A.C. Los Primeros Colonizadores del Nuevo Mundo.

Las Antiguas Inscripciones del Paraguay (6 pp) Jim Woodman 18-p 154

The author discusses apparent Ogham and Iberic inscriptions found in Paraguay. The article is in Spanish.

Tulan Zuiva = Comalcalco (7 pp) Lawrence F. Athy Jr. 18-p 160

The author states that the site now known as Comalcalco is probably identical with a Mayan religious and educational center called Tulàn Zuiva (in the area once called Nonoalco).

Review: Nu Sun by Gunnar Thompson (1 p) Marshall Payn 18-p 166

Thompson shows that there was a diffusion of at least thirteen Asian symbols to the Maya about 300 BC, nicely complementing the theories expressed by Alexamder Von Wuthenau and Paul Shao.

The Anubis Cave is a Celtic Calendar (1 p) Gloria Farley 18-p 167

Farley demonstrates that the various inscriptions and symbols illustrate festivals occurring throughout the Celtic religious year.

Inscriptions of the Xauen Region, Morocco  (2 pp) Prince de Condé 18-p 168

The author found Neo Punic inscriptions on a cliff in the area of Xauen, Morocco. Barry Fell translated one of them as reading "Lion."

The Case of the Purloined Letters (1 p) Bill Rudersdorf 18-p 170

The author reports on Ogham-like inscriptions found in the vicinity of "Inscription Rock" at El Morro National Monument, near Grants, New Mexico. He investigated the site in 1988 with the aid of Larry Athy and found several previously unnoticed apparently Ogham inscriptions.

Unusual Irish Ogams, Some on the Stone Face, Some without Vowels  (8 pp) Lawrence F. Athy Jr. 18-p 171

Athy does an excellent job of proving that Og(h)ams in Ireland were not always carved on the edge of the stoneÑand did not always contain vowels.

A Conversation with Nobuhiro Yoshida (1 p) Michael Skupin 18-p 179

Skupin interviews a noted Japanese pictographer and epigrapher. Yoshida remarked that most of his work was centered around Fukuoka and Kyushu since his funding comes from the Fukuoka Board of Education. Yoshida believes he has found Sumerian inscriptions in Japan.

A Sumerian Inscription of the Fuente Magna, La Paz, Bolivia - Part 3 Archaic Aymara Script Combined with Sumerian Script (4 pp) Alberto Marini 18-p 180

This is a continuation of the reports given in Volumes 13 and 15 of ESOP. The author is a leading authority on Sumerian language and cuneiform inscriptions.

The Mobilian Jargon - Trade Language – And Its Contribution to the Hopewellian Culture (2 pp) ShupShewana (Howard L. La Hurreau) 18-p 183

The Mobilian Jargon was a trade language made up of several very different tribal languages from the area around the Gulf of Mexico. This article is from a paper read before the Ancient World Cultures in America conference in San Francisco, June 1988.

Notes on a Footnote (1 p) Michael Skupin 18-p 184

Skupin points to Footnote 29 on page 466 of The Chinese Heritage by K. C. Wu (Crown, 1982) which contains a detailed discussion of internal confirm- ation of ancient texts by archaeoastronomy as well as a plea by Wu for an expert willing to investigate the matter.

Deciphering the Easter Island Tablets - Part 1 (26 pp) Barry Fell 18-p 185

The author deciphers the Easter Island rongorongo inscriptions with the aid of New Zealand cave inscriptions, signatures of Maori chieftains on the Treaty of Waitangi, and spoken passages recorded more than a century ago by Bishop Tepano Jaussen from the dictation of an Easter Island chief named Metoro. Passages cover the early discovery and settlement of Easter Island and sequences of formulae for use as protective charms. A vocabulary of the words encountered is included.

An Overview of the Petrograph News, Japan  (1 p) Michael Skupin 18-p 211

The Author gives a rundown of items published by the West Japan Petro- graph Society (Nobuhiro Yoshida, Editor, Toshiro Inadomi, President) from July 1986 through March 1989.

Fraudulent Ogam Sites in Eastern Kentucky (1 p) John V. Payne 18-p 212

This was a paper read at the June 1989 conference of ISAC in Columbus, Georgia. The author describes how he was taken in by a faker and the steps taken that proved the inscriptions were fraudulent.

The Mammoth in American Epigraphy (2 pp) George F. Carter 18-p 213

The author discusses various depictions of mammoths and elephants found in North America.

Dates of Christian Irish in North America: Two Icelandic Sources (2 pp) John Spencer Carroll 18-p 214

The author discusses evidence found in the Landnámabók and the Flateyjarbók as well as in various sagas.

Ancient Longitudes, A possible technique (4 pp) Wyn Stuckey 18-p 216

A possible technique for finding longitude on land using simple equipment and arithmetic. The stellar sphere rotates at a different rate to that of the sun as seen by an observer on earth. The proposed method fractionates this daily differential to determine intermediate longitudes around the earth.

The History of a Heresy  (1 p) Michael Skupin 18-p 219

A favorable review of John Michell's Secrets of the Stones: the Story of Astro-Archaeology (Penguin, 1977). Michell takes modern scientists to task for too often assuming that because they are distant in the past, our fore- fathers were naught but illiterate, unthinking savages.

The Geometry of Stonehenge (9 pp) Alban Wall 18-p 220

Wall discusses Alexander Thom's Megalithic Yard as appled to Stone- henge.

An English-Gadelic Dictionary, Part 2 (20 pp) Burrell Dawson 18-p 229

I through R of the author's dictionary, begun in Volume 17 of ESOP.

The Los Lunas Errata (4 pp) Michael Skupin 18-p 249

The author investigates the spelling anomalies in the Los Lunas inscriptions and concludes that the inscription, whatever its true provenance, was inscribed by someone more familiar with spoken Hebrew and Greek rather than classical written Hebrew.

"Mooring Stones," An Enigma Deserving More Attention (3 pp) John J. Olson 18-p 253

The author urges more investigation into the so-called "mooring stones" found at various sites in North America.

China's "Pyramids" (2 pp) Hao Xin-hua 18-p 256

The author describes his trip to the Mao Tombs of the Emperor of the Western Han dynasty. The tombs are pyramidal in shape and have a number of similarities to the pyramids found in Mexico.

A Mexican Ogam? (1 p) Walter Stender 18-p 257

In a letter to Barry Fell, the author speaks (and sends a rather poor picture) of an Ogam-like inscription seen in a cave on Marina in Mexico. He received this information from his friend, Pedro Hendrichs.

Ogam and Runes from Central Oregon (1 p) Richard M. Smith 18-p 258

The author reports on inscriptions from Oregon (shown) which appear to contain both Ogam and Runic-like symbols.

Tanith in North Carolina (1 p) R. B. Myers 18-p 259

In a letter to Barry Fell, the author enclosed photographs of alphabetic petroglyphs found in the region as well as a symbol that appears to be a Tanith. Fell suggested that the alphabetic symbols were Cherokee and unrelated to the Tanith.

The Shawnee Creek Stone of Oklahoma (2 pp) Gloria Farley 18-p 260

The author discusses an inscribed stone brought to her attention in April 1989. She provided a copy of the inscription to Barry Fell who suggested the motif shown resembled seals found at the site of Dilmun, an ancient site on the island of Bahrain in the Persian Gulf. Photos of artifact shown. Also a photo of the Hearn Cuneiform Tablet (found in Georgia, USA) and graphics illustrating motifs from Dilmun, Alabama, and Oklahoma (Spiro Mound).

Pre-Spanish Crosses in Yucatan and Mexico (9 pp) John S. Carroll 18-p 262

The author discusses the evidence for the use of the Christian cross symbol in the New World before the Spanish discovery of America.

The Reconstructive Writing System of the Dilmun Culture (28 pp) Ali Akbar H. Bushiri 18-p 271

The author disputes the argument that ancient Dilmun was devoid of a written language. He calls it a "reconstructive writing system" derived from Sumerian pictographic ideograms and used only on the seals of Dilmun.

Qulu Writing, The Ancient Finger Language of Sun Worshippers (2 pp) Beryl Page 18-p 298 

The author shows the close resemblance of Qulu finger language to Ogam.

Three Maya Inscribed Bricks from Comalcalco (3 pp) Nancy Kelly Owen 18-p 300

The author discusses the decipherment of three bricks given her by Neil Steede.

Egyptian and Hmong Clues to a Western American Petroglyph Group (8 pp) Paul R. Cheesman & David L. Tomlinson 18-p 303

Cheesman, a Fellow of the Epigraphic Society, presented this paper to the World Cultures of Ancient America Congress of the Epigraphic Society, 5 June 1988, in San Francisco, California. 12 American sites are discussed and claims that the sites (which appear to contain Egyptian hieroglyphs) were inscribed by Hmong Asians are examined. These sites have been studied by, among others, Roberta (Bobbie) Smith. Two other sites are mentioned, but not included in the paper, which is well-illustrated.

Bull Worship in Central Asia (1 p) Raya Rechaim 18-p 311

This was reported by Marshall Payn. Evidence of a prehistoric bull cult has been discovered in the Altai Mountains of the USSR.

The Newport Tower (2 pp) Paul H. Chapman 18-p 312

The author discusses a purported Runic inscription found on a stone built into the Newport Tower.

The Discovery of Ancient Coins in Ohio Continues (1 p) Barry Fell 18-p 313

Gordon Eggers of Hubbard, Ohio, found a brass sestertius of Nero (AD 54-68) (illustrated).

A Petroglyph of the Court of Antiquity (2 pp) Brent Summers 18-p 314

A petroglyph translated by Dr. Fell and published in Saga America, known previously only from line drawings, has been located, photographed, and preserved by tracings. It is found at the "Court of Antiquity" site in Washoe County, Nevada. It is here described, complete with additional markings not recorded previously, to encourage further attempts at translation. Fell said it was an instruction on how to find the area of a circle, which derived an approximation for Pi of 3.

Kai-hua Temple Stele in Yuan-shi County (3 pp) Cai Mei-biao 18-p 316

The stele dates from the Yuan Dynasty. It is in Yuan-shi County in He-bei Province (Hopei in the old system). It is inscribed bilingually in both Mongolian Posba and Chinese Regular script.

An Inscribed Stone from the Genesee River Bed (1 p) Barry Fell & Don Eckler 18-p 319

The author reports the finding of a stone inscribed with apparent Iberic characters. An excellent photo of the stone is included, along with a map showing the general area where it was found.

An Iberic Trader’s Token from New York (1 p) Barry Fell 18-p 320

Barry Fell tackles the inscription reported by Eckler and says that the stone was an Iberic trader's token.

A Punic Inscription on An Atlatl weight from Georgia (5 pp) Barry Fell 18-p 321

Fell reports on his decipherment of an inscribed atlatl weight found in the state of Georgia (illustrated on page 323). The inscription appears to read: "Javelin caster." Michael Skupin supports his reading.

Susquehanna Petroglyphs (1 p) Russell H. Jensen 18-p 325

Jensen writes to point out that a manuscript referred to on page 273 of vol. 17 of ESOP was a gift from him personally to the Society and had at no time been the property of the Delaware Museum. Fell notes that the MS shows that the Susquehanna petroglyphs were already known a century before they were reported from Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania.

A Fraudulent Tablet (Burrows Cave, Illinois) (1 pp) Russell E. Burrows 18-p 326

In volume 16 of ESOP, p. 24, Barry Fell discussed a tablet alleged to be from Burrows Cave which he determined to be fraudulent (it carried a version of the Cuenca Elephant from Ecuador and duplicated an error Fell himself had made in recording the artifact). In a letter dated 8 Dec 1989, Burrows, then living at 512 N. Fair St., Olney, IL 62450, stated that he had investigated and concluded that the artifact in question was indeed fraudulent, having been done by the deceased nephew of the deceased landowner.

The Tugalo Stone of Stephens Co., Georgia (2 pp) Barry Fell & Joseph B. Mahan 18-p 326

Fell reports on his translation of one of the inscriptions on theToccoa Stone (later called the Tugalo Stone). In August 1980 he was given a latex impression made by Gloria Farley, Donal Buchanan, and Earl and Peg Syversen (Fell mistakenly put Clyde Keeler and Roberta Smith there, but they weren't). Fell believed that the Ogham-like markings on the stone had to do with a Yuchi-Cherokee treaty. Additional Information on the Tugalo Stone is provided by Joseph B. Mahan who gives historical facts unknown to Fell which bolster his translation. The inscription is well-illustrated.

The Discovery and Decipherment of the Turkish Runes (4 pp) Edward D. Rockstein 18-p 328

Describes the discovery of the existence of the Turkic "runic" script 300 years ago and their decipherment by Vilhelm Thomsen in 1893. A character map of the script is provided.

Archaeologists in Amber (1 p) Michael Skupin 18-p 331

A review of Discovering Our Past: A Brief Introduction to Archaeology by Wendy Ashmore and Robert J. Sharer. Skupin regards the book as "more valedictory than introductory."

Inscribed Stone Artifacts from Guayanilla, Puerto Rico, Part 2 (9 pp) Barry Fell 18-p 332

Continued from ESOP Vol. 16, p. 334. A character map of the Taina sylla- bary is given. It looks very much like Cree and appears to be a variant of that language. Fell translates a number of the inscriptions as invocations to the gods (a mother goddess and a father god).

Megalith-Builder Language Identified (2 pp) Jean Hunt 18-p 341

Hunt identifies Shelta as the language of the Megalith builders.

Shelta Language on a Pictish Stele (2 pp) Barry Fell 18-p 342

Fell translates a so-called "Pictish Ogham" inscription from Scotland (illustrated on p. 43 of this volume as 5A). He reads it as referring to the death of a Pictish King, Nehto(n). He says the remaining letters, TRZB have no meaning in Gaelic, but could be a form of the Shelta Tarsp "to die; dead; death." Fell refers to a letter from Jean Hunt. [Buchanan comment: This Ogham inscription is from Keiss Bay in Caithness. It actually transliterates as NEHTETRI which can be broken down as NEHT ETRI. I suggest it could be Gaelic neachd edor-i = tribal enclosure (mausoleum? cemetery?).]

On the Cover

An Easter Island Statue (Photo by Barry Fell). Volume title: Deciphering the Easter Island Tablets. ___________________________________________________________

Epigraphic Society Occasional Papers

Table of Contents Volume 19 1990

In Memoriam: Warren L. Cook (1 p) Warren W. Dexter & Gloria Farley 19-p 9

Warren Cook (photo shown), D. Litt, Ph.D, Prof. of History & Anthropology, a Fellow of the Epigraphic Society and strong advocate for diffusion, became ill on 5 Dec. 1989 while flying from New York to the home of his brother Charles in California. The plane landed in Omaha, Nebraska, to hospitalize him. He died there on 7 Dec. 1989. His influence will long continue.

In Memoriam: Burrell Dawson (1 p) René Fell 19-p 10

Byrle Charles (Burrell) Dawson (photo shown), a valued member and Fellow of the Epigraphic Society, passed away in his home in California on 31 July 1990. He wrote a Gadelic- English dictionary which was published by ESOP in Volume 16 and following volumes. He will be sadly missed.

Editorial: Ave Atque Vale (1 p) Barry Fell 19-p 11

Barry Fell announces his resignation from the editorship of ESOP and the appointment of his successors, Bill Rudersdorf and Michael Skupin. His final words as editor: "Lumen accipe et imperti" = Take the Light and pass it on.

Editorial: Our Muse (1 p) Bill Rudersdorf 19-p 11

Emphasizes the motto of the Society: Ex Epigraphia historia = From Epigraphy, history. Thus, the muse of the Society is history (known to the Greeks as Clio).

Editorial: Nostalgia for Condemned Buildings (2 pp) Michael Skupin 19-p 11

The Society's biggest challenge in the 90s will be "depigraphy" --that is, dealing with frauds and misinterpretations (citing as an example the "power-drill ogam" of Kentucky).

Editorial: 1992 And All That (1 p) Bill Rudersdorf 19-p 12

Hopes the Society will have a significant part to play in the quinicentennial of the 15th century discovery of the Americas by Iberians (i.e., the anniversary of Columbus' voyage in 1492).

Editorial: Our New Look (1 p) The Editors of ESOP: Bill Rudersdorf & Michael Skupin 19-p 12

Points out that they have slightly changed the look and organization of ESOP with the idea of making it easier to read. Also, instead of the title being "Epigraphic Society Occasional Publications," it is now "Epigraphic Society Occasional Papers." Content and policies will remain the same. Just aiming for a more polished look.

The Burrell and Margaret Dawson Building Fund (1 p) The Editors 19-p 12

An endowed fund has begun as a result of an initial bequest of $10,000 from Margaret Dawson in keeping with the wishes of her late husband, Burrell. It is to be a building fund, dedicated to projects for housing and maintaining books, records and artifacts of the Epigraphic Society.

Forum: Congratulations (1 p) 19-p 13

William A. Welch congratulates ESOP on E. Morgan Kelley's article which appeared in Volume 18 (Kelley had two items in 18, but the author did not mention which one he was commenting upon). Bruce, Prince de Conde of Morocco, thanks Barry for material he sent and wishes the ESOP well. Ernest Mayr, an old friend, tells Fell “I can believe it must be a great satisfaction to you that your work of so many years is finally being recognized.” R. T. Huntingdon congratulates Fell on the fact that he is beginning to receive the professional recognition he deserves. Cites article by E. Morgan Kelley (without specifying which of the two in volume 18 he meant: probably both). He also enjoyed Mike Skupin's "incisive review" of Kelley's article.

Forum: Comalcalco Bricks (1 p) Sherri Kline Smith 19-p 14

The writer is a director of the Foundation for Research on Ancient America which funded the photography of 4,600 inscribed bricks from Comalcalco by Fred Weddle and the late Steve Bryant, under the direction of Neil Steede, President  of the Sociedad Epigrafica de Mexico. The writer thanks Fell for publications sent and is gratified that the photographs are being used for research.

Forum: Irish (1 p) Sanford Etheridge 19-p 14

The writer, a Professor of Classical Languages at Tulane University, sends a item he wrote in Gaelic which was recently published in Gaeltacht, the only Irish language periodical outside of Ireland (published at Tulane). It mentions Barry Fell's recent hospitalization in a San Diego hospital for cardiac trouble (but now at home and recovering). “May all go well with you, Barry, and may God prosper your work.”

Forum: Easter Island (1 p) Gordon Hislop & Marshall Payn 19-p 14

Hislop, a Chief of the Maoris, congratulates Fell on the "news from Easter Island ... What a wonderful success..." Payn passes on a phone conversation he had with Petero Edmunds of Easter Island. Edmunds had met with the local Council of Elders and explained to them Barry's premises for the translation of the Rongorongo tablets. The Council members readily equated Barry's premises with Easter Island tradition concerning "reverse talking" --i.e., person A speaking to person B so that person C cannot understand the conversation. Reverse talking called for the using of words which, when spoken, sounded very close to the words they actually meant, but taken literally were gibberish. Payn says that Petero was quite optimistic about "the accuracy of your translation."

Forum: Secret Languages of Polynesia (1 p) Likeke McBride 19-p 15

Says that Fell's Easter Island hypothesis was upheld by none other than the late Mary Kawena Pukui (a co-author of the Hawaiian Dictionary). Over 20 years ago she told the author that "obscure talking" was an integral part of the game Loku. The author cites other cases of "secret languages" known to have been employed by Polynesians. [Buchanan note, July 2000: The Easter Islanders even have a special word pon-ko = "noun: a jargon by which the logical order of the syllables in a word is changed so as to talk without letting the rest learn of the subject discussed; as a transitive verb: to talk jargon." A US example would be "Pig Latin."]

Forum: Mississippian Dictionaries (1 p) Joseph P. Mahan 19-p 15

Mahan is pleased that Fell plans to publish papers on the Mississippian dictionaries and the MicMac hieroglyphs.

Forum: Dictionaries (2 pp) Elizabeth H. Stewart & The Editors 19-p 15

Suggests that dictionaries be published separately. Cites a friend who does not purchase ESOP because of the number of pages devoted to dictionaries --also suggests that such dictionaries would be easier to use if they were separate. Editors reply that the number of pages devoted to dictionary material amounts to about 7% and the cost of separate volumes would be prohibitive.

Forum: The Opposite Continent (1 p) G. G. Michaelyuk 19-p 16

The author, a Russian, learned of Fell through his colleague, Dr. V. Gulyeyev. The author has been a science historian for about 20 years. He has been dealing with ancient geography and came to the conclusion that Homer was the first European to describe the known world in its entirety, including both the Eastern and Western hemispheres. He believes that references to Hades and the Underworld are actually references to the Western Hemisphere. It was only later, he says, that the term came to denote a "sepulchral world." He identifies rivers and other place names with locales in the Americas.

Forum: A Missionary Story (2 pp) Don Eckler 19-p 16

In Oct 89, while attending church in Oneonta, NY, Eckler was listening to Dr. Byron and Mary Sheesly, two prospective missionaries to New Guinea, complain that their studies of the language were being held back by lack of materials. Eckler raised his hand and announced that he had a "Dictionary of New Guinea Pidgin English" (ESOP, Vol. 12, Part 3) in his car. He gave it to the thoroughly amazed, but profoundly greatful couple. Fell and the Society (besides replacing Don's copy) also gave the Sheesly's and the Wycliff Translators additional copies which were also greatly appreciated.

Forum: Natural Formation? (1 p) Michael Cohen 19-p 17

Disputes Fell's view that the "Old Man of the Mountain" is a natural formation.

Forum: Language and Modern History (1 p) David Radloff 19-p 17

Radloff praises English for its rich vocabulary which allows its users to conceptualize and express an unlimited range of subleties and meanings. He suggests that the limitations "built in" to some languages have had an influence on the course of human events: author has heard that Russian has no word for "compromise" --does this affect the way they negotiate? etc. A recipient of volume 18, he praises it.

Forum: An Icelandic Child (1 p) Edward T. Krumeich 19-p 17

The author cites an Apr 1990 New Yorker article by John McPhee which states: “...an Icelandic child, Snorri Thorfinsson, was born on an island in the Delaware River, quite near the site of Philadelphia, in June AD 1002.” Barry Fell replies that the statement is based on the Eirikssaga wherein Thorfinn Karlsefni's wife, already pregnant when the Vikings were attacked by Indians somewhere south of their landing-spot in Vinland in the Autumn of a year said by some to be 1002, subsequently gave birth to a boy who was named Snorri. All the saga says is that they were camped at hop (Barry calls it “Hope Lake”). Where the reference to the Delaware River came from is unknown.

Forum: Farley’s Letter to ROA (1 p) Gloria Farley 19-p 18

On behalf of the Society, Farley expresses appreciation for the article published by the Review of Archaeology (vol. 11, No. 1, Spring 1990) by Dr. David H. Kelley: "Proto-Tifinag and Proto-Ogham in the Americas." She takes issue with Kelley, however, on his claim that Dr. Fell had distorted an Ogham inscription (the alleged Poem to Mabo). She pointed out that Fell had nothing to do with the copying of the inscription--she had made the tracings herself and was most careful. She points out that photos can and do produce mistaken readings and latex molds (which would settle the question) are frowned upon. Kelley himself rendered the transcription incorrectly. She hopes that Kelley can review the actual transliteration and photographic data and the grouping of strokes in the inscrip- tions to see if a reading closer to that of Dr. Fell can be justified.

Forum: Unusual Stones in Connecticut (2 pp) Lawrence Banks 19-p 18

Speaks of "stone circles and other stones" on an elevation near his home a high point north of Long Island Sound at about 820 feet altitude some 14 miles from the shore at Westport, Connecticut). He took John Williams (a founder of the Society) to see the site in 1988. Among the stones there is an egg-shaped boulder with a hole in its top which could have held a pole with a signal flag. On the western face of that boulder was inscribed three vertical lines over a horizontal line, resembling an Ogham "T."

Forum: Deal Replies to Lynch (2 pp) David A. Deal 19-p 19

Deal replies to Richard Lynch's article "The Astronomy of Hidden Mountain" (ESOP, Vol. 18, 1989, p. 101). He suggests that Lynch has made several errors in his criticism of Deal's interpretation of the Hidden Mountain petroglyph representing a datable solar eclipse. He points out that the suggestion that it might be a zodiac was Phil Leonard's, not his (Deal does not think it is a zodiac). He displays a graphic of the inscription overlaid by a computer-generated graphic of relevant con- stellations prepared by astronomer Charles Kleupfel.

Forum: Peterborough and Bohuslan – A German Scholar’s View (2 pp) Henning Fikentscher 19-p 20

The author suggests that the population in ancient times was heavily youthful (due to a heavy early death rate) and this affected the kind of mythology that grew up. The mentally adult population was quite small for most of history and pre-history.

Forum: Ogam, Tifinag, Futhark (1 p) G. R. Murray 19-p 21

The author, editor of the Midwestern Epigraphic Journal, suggests that an inscription seen on p. 15 of Barry Fell's Bronze Age America (Ogam and Tifinag) contains a hidden meaning in that the Ogam and Tifinag groups resemble runes from the Norse futhark.

Stay Tuned (1 p) Stuart M. Gross 19-p 21

The author is in contact with Ted Timerick to make a film relating Barry Fell's discoveries. He is also interested in Ethel Stewart's work on the Maiming tribes in Alaska and Canada.

Review: Out of Egypt (4 pp) Michael Skupin 19-p 22

“Proto-Tifinagh and Proto-Ogam in the Americas” by David H. Kelley appeared in the Review of Archaeology, Spring 1990. Skupin commented: "An intelligent critique of Fell's work is such a novelty that one is tempted to simply report it as a wonder..." The general tenor of Kelley's paper (which dealt in detail with Fell's work on the Peterborough inscriptions) is that Fell was right in general, but wrong in certain particulars. Kelley goes on to say: “The presence of a proto-Tifinagh alphabet at Peterborough seems to me certain.”  and “The iconography of the Peterborough site is thoroughly Bronze Age Scandinavian, particularly resembling materials from Bohuslan.” Dr. Kelley gives confirmation of the broad outlines of Fell's work in an important archaeological journal.

Review: A New Landmark (2 pp) Michael Skupin 19-p 25

The reviewed book is Pre-Columbian Contacts with the Americas Across the Oceans by John L. Sorenson and Martin H. Raish, Research Press, 1989. If ESOP had a Book of the Year, this would be Skupin's choice. The 5613 entries cover the entire range of conventional, unorthodox, and popular materials --evidences for and against transoceanic contacts, claims and critiques, theory and method. It draws from the literature of many scientific disciplines and descriptive abstracts of up to 1200 words are provided for most entries.

Review: A New Benchmark (1 p) Michael Skupin 19-p 26

The reviewed article is “The Newark Holy Stones: the History of an Archaeological Tragedy” by Robert W. Alrutz, Journal of the Scientific Laboratories, Denison University, 1980. Skupin says: “This superb study is a must for everybody...Dr. Alrutz' work is consistently excellent...his writing is so clear, so polished that "The Newark Holy Stones" could serve as a model for similar efforts.”

Review: Yearning for Ivory Towers (3 pp) Bill Rudersdorf 19-p 26

This review is of an unpublished typescript, a work-in-progress, by James Guthrie, Rollin Gillespie, Philip Leonard and William McGlone (add to that James Whittall of the Early Sites Research Society, who wrote the cover letter forwarding the 33-page document). The typescript is divided into 3 papers: Introduction: The Two Sides of the Epigraphic Controversy; The Confrontation of Science by Epigraphy: Basic Issues, Methodology and Impasse; and The Demand for Artifacts: Evidentiary Issues in the Case for American Epigraphy. Skupin takes the authors to task for “...page upon page of graffiti, starting with the authors quoting themselves, followed by a swarm of inflammatory quotations, often without context.”

Review: A “Family Portrait” (1 p) Michael Skupin 19-p 28

The reviewed volume is Exploring Rock Art by Donald L. Cyr, Stonehenge Viewpoint, 1989. Skupin calls it “...a very instructive introduction to the state of the 'rock art' question. Pictographic interpretation is included, but the emphasis is on the zestier question of Ogam.” Cyr included a variety of viewpoints both pro- and anti-Fell (leading the latter was Brendan O Hehir). He also included Fell's reply to O Hehir (to be seen in Vol. 18 of ESOP).

Review: Tabloid Epigraphy (3 pp) Michael Skupin 19-p 28

The volume reviewed is Dragon Treasures by Donald L. Cyr, Stonehenge Viewpoint, 1989. Skupin calls it "...a slapdash production...(It) cheapens the subject, and does the reader a disservice by its inadequacies. He decries Cyclone Covey's use of three different romanization systems to express Chinese ideograms. Skupin does find two articles in the volume as useful. One on the “iceblink” phenomenon (atmospheric conditions can reflect distant geographic features) and the other on Chinese geomancy. Skupin says “...by including Don Clifford's The Mongolian Connection, which belabors a posthumous Mertz book, The Mystic Symbol...” Cyr has done a further disservice. Henriette Mertz should be remembered for her classic Pale Ink, not for the embarrassing entanglement with the fraudulent “Detroit artifacts.”

Review: The Musical Parameter (1 p) Michael Skupin 19-p 30

The article “Geography and Human Song” by Graham Pont appeared in New Scientist, January 1990. It is a sequel to one by Denys Parsons in New Scientist for March 1977. The breadth of the subject becomes evident when we consider that a lifetime is not enough to master even one of its subdivisions. While uncertain as to how this research will be relevant to epigraphy, Skupin commends the researchers for undertaking a formidable task.

Review: Stone Spirits (1 p) Barry Fell 19-p 30

The volume Spirits on Stone – the Agawa Pictographs is by Thor and Julie Conway, Heritage Discoveries Publications #1. This 87 page soft-cover book deals with the 117 Indian petroglyphs to be seen on rocks at Agawa Bay, Lake Superior. The authors pay especially detailed attention to the surviving traditions of Ojibway shamans (one of whom was their guide and instructor). Throughout the text there is reverence for Indian lore and respect for the present-day Indian descendants of the shamans who created the site.

Review: More Rock Art (2 pp) Michael Skupin 19-p 30

This Colorado Archaeological Society Memoir #3, 1989, Rock Art of the Western Canyons was edited by Jane S. Day, Paul D. Friedman, and Marcia J. Tate. It is a collection of papers delivered in 1987 at a rock art symposium. In the main they cover the same ground as Donald Cyr's Exploring Rock Art, but more blandly. Skupin feels that the authors of the various articles failed to rise to the urgency and excitement of their subject. Of interest is that about a third of the space in the Memoir is given over to a discussion of Southeastern Colorado petroglyphs.

Review: Soap Opera Digest (2 pp) Michael Skupin 19-p 31

A review of Myth Makers: Epigraphic Illusion in America by James P. Whittall II, Early Sites Research Society, 1990. It stirs up the embers of the Burrows Cave hoax which “...has been debunked for some time now, except in the minds of perhaps a half-dozen unconvinceables...” with a focus on the sleaziness that has surrounded the affair. Skupin remarks that the publication is “...voluble about the soap opera aspects of this controversy, yet strangely tongue-tied on the decisive matter of the childish doodles on these artifacts.” Apart from Burrows Cave, it “dawdles over other subjects resolved years ago in ESOP...” He asks: “Are the organizers of Myth Makers the new epigraphy cops, or are they merely vigilantes...?”

Review: Better than the Movie (1 p) Michael Skupin 19-p 32

The reviewed book is Testament: The Bible and History by John Romer, Henry Holt, 1988. It is a “fresh, stimulating and well-written overview of a subject of interest to many of our readers. ...It deserves to be read.”

Review: Landscape/Mindscape (2 pp) Michael Skupin 19-p 32

The reviewed book is Manitou – the Sacred Landscape of New England’s Native Civilization by James W. Mavor Jr. and Byron E. Dix, Inner Traditions International, 1989. The book deals with archaeoastronomy and is “a handsome, well-written book, that sets new standards in the examination of the megaliths of New England.” Skupin, who is part Indian, did feel, however, that the book was “permeated with the misty sentimentality that our day attaches to the American Indian.”

Review: Objects of Wonder (1 p) Bill Rudersdorf 19-p 33

This volume reviewed is Symbols of Power at the Time of Stonehenge by D. V. Clarke, T. G. Cowie and Andrew Foxon, National Museum of Antiquities of Scotland, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1985. Skupin calls it “...a splendid presentation of artifacts which will help breathe life into this bygone epoch...” (the Neolithic).

Review: Required Reading (2 pp) Bill Rudersdorf 19-p 33

The reviewed softcover volume is Motel of the Mysteries by David Macaulay, Houghton Mifflin, 1979. It takes us on an “adventure into the 39th century, when antiquarians of that date are beginning to re-discover the 20th century and its marvels.” The conclusions drawn by the archaeologists are often hilarious, for instance, stripes on traces of super-highways seen from the air are thought to be planned as “landing strips for extra-terrestrial craft or as coded messages...to their many powerful gods.” The remains of a busy street lined with ads and signs is called “Monument Row.” It epitomizes “...the folly of interpretation without cultural context...” and “...of relying upon our preconceptions of the past by way of circular argument...”

Review: Measuring Up (1 p) Marshall Payn 19-p 34

The reviewed volume Ancient Metrology by Donald L. Lenzen, 1989, is available from the author. “Metrology is the science of measurement. ...Today metrological standards are defined by atomic clocks and wavelengths of light. The ancients used what was handy: so many grains of barley equals a shekel (Hebrew); a cubic foot equals the volume of an amphora, the liquid weight of which equals a talent (Roman); six handsbreadths equals a cubit (Assyrian).” Lenzen shows how the measures of various cultures mesh together. The book is well-illustrated and is “both a good introduction to this interesting field as well as making a number of original contributions.”

Review: Short Measure (1 p) Bill Rudersdorf 19-p 34

The reviewed paperback volume is Full Measure edited by Donald L. Cyr, Stonehenge Viewpoint, 1990. It deals with metrology, the science of measurement. Rudersdorf decries the fundamental lack of accuracy of authors who claim astonishingly close measurements for ancient artifacts (such as the Pyramids). “Measured from where?” he asks. He concludes: “Despite...shortcomings, much material is treated well in this useful volume, and many good questions are raised, as well as possibly answered.”

Etymology of thc Lower Mississippian Languages - Part I (13 pp) Barry Fell 19-p 35

After his return from Africa in 1978, Fell noticed that Algonquin words for certain activities show a remarkable correspondence to the words for the same activities in the languages of Egypt, notably Ptolemaic Greek, Coptic and Arabic. By 1981 his attention was drawn to an even more extraordinary correspondence between the vocabulary of the Indians of the Lower Mississippi and that of the peoples of the Nile Valley, specifically the speech of the Atakapa, Tunica and Chitimacha tribes. The article is illustrated with maps of the areas involved and the delineation of phonetic transforms that link them.

The Discovery of the Venus of Milo (4 pp) J. Fergusson Roxburgh 19-p 48

This is a little known account of the discovery and removal to France of the famous statue by Jules Sebastian Cesar Dumont D'Urville (1790-1842) in 1820. It was given to a meeting of the Hellenic Travelers' Club on 15 April 1930. It is here reprinted from the Club's Proceedings.

An Early Casualty (1 p) The Editors 19-p 51

Ali Akhbar Bushiri of Bahrain has reported that, following the August 1990 invasion of Kuwait by Iraq, the museum in Kuwait City was ransacked and, among other things reported missing, are antiquities including the Dilmun seals which Bushiri had been studying. Similarly, artifacts excavated from Troy were found to be among the many items missing from the Berlin Museum in 1945. Once again the past, as well as the present, is a casualty of war.

Sacred Albino Mice of Apollo Smintheus: a Touch of Troy Clyde Keeler 19-p 52

The story of how the author traced a simple gene, that of albinism, back 4,000 years in history to the time and place of the Trojan War.

Gal Tender and Private (1 p) Michael Skupin 19-p 53

Skupin discusses language oddities and points out that ambiguities and misunderstandings are common in language work. A radically different reading is often generated by extra jots and tittles ...or simply by not possessing all the necessary information. If a dollar bill is folded just so, you obtain the title of this item: This note is leGAL TENDER for all debts, public AND PRIVATE.

When is a Dolmen a Dolmen? – Tôlven, Dolmen, Dysse, and Dös (3 pp) Edward P. Roemer 19-p 54

The term 'dolmen' as used by archaeologists in the past century, has had different meanings at different times and places. The Breton word is used in France to designate what British call a 'cromlech.' 'Dolmen' may be a corruption of Cornish 'Tôlven' which denoted a boulder left naturally perched on humps of rocks. In Sweden, 'Dös' is the term used for 'dolmen.' The Tripod boulder is found across Northern Europe and Northern North America. When a structure is made up of dressed stones supporting a capstone and a mandatory body interred, it is NOT a dolmen.

Setting the Record Straight – The “Epigraphic Controversy” (3 pp) George F. Carter 19-p 57

A reply to the article by Bill McGlone and Philip Leonard in Vol. 15 of ESOP (1986). He accuses them of leaning over backwards “to nearly apologize for the lack of communication” with the critics of Epigraphy and Diffiusion. Carter cannot agree that the fault is on both sides. The epigraphers and diffusionists are willing to talk, but the opposition is not and batter away with ad hominum attacks and guilt by association remarks. They are the ones resisting dialogue.

A Revised Date for the Pontotoc Stele (3 pp) Barry Fell 19-p 60

Fell originally suggested a date of 800 BC for the stele. He now feels that it belongs to about the first century BC, although its religious content appears to be more appropriate for a much earlier era.

Monumental Errors (1 p) Bill Rudersdorf 19-p 63

The author quite rightly points out that the way the ancients actually wrote an inscription is not the way we often see them depicted in carefully typeset books. All too often ancient manuscripts and inscriptions were done in a variety of cursive and degenerate forms every bit as bad as some modern handwriting and with as many subtle and not so subtle variations.

Rock Art for the Birds—Interpreting in Cultural Context (2 pp) George F. Cartcr 19-p 64

Carter points out that bird harvesting and capturing activity seen in Spain may also have been used in Egypt and portrayed in Nefer-seshem-Ptah's tomb. He notes that understanding scenes in rock art and inscriptions may require cultural historical knowledge.

Canadian Hebrew (1 p) Michael Skupin 19-p 65

Skupin deciphers a modern inscription carved by a climber high up on a Canadian cliff. Written in modern Hebrew script (with vowel points), a person named Preston immortalized his ascent. This “Hebrew” inscription had stumped Barry Fell, who rightly pointed out that the inscription, as it appeared, made no sense in Hebrew. One is sometimes fooled by a familiar word (in this case, the name Preston) in an unfamiliar script.

Archaeoastronomy on the Rocks? --A Mere Mirage (1 p) Bill Rudersdorf 19-p 66

The author examines recent findings concerning positional variations in observations of the sun on the horizon (Refraction on the Horizon by Bradley Schaefer and William Liller, July 1990) and its effects on the findings of Alexander Thom. He takes issue with astronomer Gerald Hawkins' remark (cited by Peter Weiss in “Reflections on Refraction,” Science News, 12 Oct 1990): “The whole structure that [Thom] made has collapsed.” Rudersdorf points out that Hawkins was known to “oscillate between attacking and defending an astronomical interpretation of Stonehenge in successive books.” He concludes: “We now have a good idea of the accuracy of the position of the sun near the horizon as well as of the limits of the accuracy of an astronomer in evaluating the life's work of a fellow scientist.”

The Lost Princess - a Misidentified Stele (3 pp) Gloria Farley 19-p 67

The author describes the history of a boulder popularly known (erroneously) as the “Indian Princess.” The boulder is carved with what appears to be a figure of a round-headed human figure (some felt it to be a woman). The author saw the stone at the Columbus (Georgia) Museum and Dr. Joseph Mahan said it had been brought to the Georgia Dept. of Archives and History in Atlanta by someone from Carrolton. Records indicated it was found near a stone structure in Carroll County, Georgia. Orville Russell, however, did some research in the Smithsonian and found that the boulder, carved with what was considered to be an image of a “prehistoric god,” was found in 1909 in a wild area known as “Jack's Hills” near the top of a cliff 100 feet above a creek in Douglas County, Georgia, near Douglasville (bordering Carroll County). A 4 September 1909 clipping reporting the find is shown as well as a good Smithsonian photo of the artifact.

A Peterborough-style Rebus in Georgia (1 p) Michael Skupin 19-p 69

The author suggests that the Georgia “Jack's Hills” petroglyph contains an inscription using the Tifinag script which may echo an inscription found at the Peterborough site in Canada. He makes the point, however, that his readings are tentative, pending further investigation.

For the Finding: The Pennsylvania Story (3 pp) Jon D. Baughman 19-p 70

Discusses unusual sites in Pennsylvania which might reflect pre-Columbian visits by people from the Old World: the Susquehanna Stones (Semitic script, possible Basque language); a standing stone; the Indian Steps; mysterious stone walls; and the enigmatic (possibly Celtic) Fort Hill site.

Ogam Consaine in the Book of Ballymote (2 pp) Barry Fell & Marshall Payn 19-p 73

An interview with Barry Fell by Marshall Payn which originally appeared in Cabrillo #1, February 1990. This was in response to various charges and criticisms made by Brendan O Hehir at a conference of the American Rock Art Association on 28 May 1988 (reported by Donald Cyr in his publication, Exploring Rock Art. Fell points out that Brendan's comments result from Brendan's dependence on George Calder's publication of a the Ogam line in question which was faulty. Fell worked from a better original which was checked in Dublin by Philip Leonard with the librarian there on an original copy of the Book of Ballymote. Fell's reading was proven correct.

The Newark, Ohio Inscribed Head - a New Translation (5 pp) J. Huston McCulloch 19-p 75

Discusses in brief the five Newark “Holy Stones” calling them into question. He dwells in particular on the “Inscribed Head.” Robert W. Alrutz of Denison University has written an exhaustive article on these finds. Joseph Schenck (1982) has also compiled the complete text of many of the early documents relating to these finds. The author points out that all efforts to read the Hebrew letters as Hebrew have necessitating changing the reading of the actual script somewhat. He notes that, read as English, the letters read: J - H - Nicol. A Dr. John Nicol (or Nichols) and John Haines were two witnesses to the finding of the Decalogue Stone (one of the five above). More credit was given to Wyrick than Nichol. Annoyed, he fabricated two or more specimens to show how easily people could be deceived. Nichol said that the 2 were afterwards found.

Kit for a Model of the Johnson-Bradner Stone (2 pp) J. Huston McCulloch 19-p 79

Explains how to make a paper model of the Johnson-Bradner stone (one of the 5 “Holy Stones” found near Newark, Ohio).

Love Among the Runes: the Ohio Runestone (2 pp) J. Huston McCulloch 19-p 81

Points out the discrepancies in runic usage exemplified by the inscription and traces the inscription to its appearance in a novel by Nevil Shute, published in 1940: An Old Captivity. The stone is a fake.

North American Indian Tribal Names (9 pp) E. Morgan Kelley 19-p 83

Deals with the problem of proper classification of the many Amerindian languages. He suggests that certain morphemes connect various tribes and also show a connection to Old World languages. He makes a strong and interesting case.

The Petroglyphs at Tule Lake (4 pp) E. Morgan Kelley 19-p 92

The lake is located at the end of Lava Beds National Monument, not far from the border between California and Oregon almost directly northeast of Mt. Shasta. The author discusses motifs found in inscriptions on rocks by the lake, breaking them down into four groups: sun disk and cross and circle; snake-like forms; cross-hatch/rectangular grids; and shaman or thunderbird symbols.

Meatball Mines (1 p) Marshall Payn 19-p 96

The author addresses the question of the fraudulent Burrows Cave artifacts and bemoans the necessity to taking time over and over again to point out the massive discrepancies that prove the falsity of the artifacts --time that could be better used on more worthwhile controversies.

Russell Burrows Writes —Barry Fell Responds (1 p) Russell Burrows & Barry Fell 19-p 97

A letter from Russell Burrows to Dr. Fell threatening legal action if “any further slanderous, libelous and defaming remarks” are made. Fell's reply to Russell Burrows' letter is printed below the letter and Fell again calls the Burrows Cave inscriptions fraudulent.

Epigraphy of the Illinois Burrows Cave Tablets (2 pp) Barry Fell 19-p 98

Fell points out that one of the Burrows artifacts is a copy of an inscription he published in America BC which contained an error in transcription (later corrected). Burrows' artifact faith- fully replicates the error, further underlining the fraudulency of the Burrows Cave inscriptions.

The Burrows Cave Artifacts (7 pp) Charles W. Bailey 19-p 99

The author's study of the Burrows Cave artifacts convinces him that they are fraudulent. “It appears...that a prodigious effort has been made to manufacture a bunch of stuff to hoodwink the unwary.” Several pages of graphics of alleged inscribed artifacts from Burrows Cave are shown.

Peruvian Skulls (4 pp) James L. Guthrie 19-p 106

According to the author, data from cranial studies made in 1967 and 1979 “support postulates of Indus Valley, North African [Egyptian], and other Mediterranean presence in ancient Peru.”

In Memoriam: Orville L. Hope (1 p) Lynn Stewart & Ida Jane Gallagher 19-p 109

Obituary of Orville Hope who died 27 October 1989 in Gastonia, North Carolina. He was the author of 6000 Years of Seafaring and many published and unpublished articles. He was an ardent diffusionist.

The Celtic Imprint on Stonehenge (5 pp) Alban Wall 19-p 110

Wall concludes that Stonehenge was built by Celts. It reflects the Celtic calendar schemes found in the Coligny calendar and in later Celtic calendar systems.

Dating  the Calalus Texts (5 pp) Barry Fell & Marshall Payn 19-p 115

In an interview with Marshall Payn, Fell cites linguistic and epigraphic evidence that the Calalus inscriptions and artifacts are modern. The only “good” Latin in the inscriptions comes from heraldic mottoes of the nobility as well as known quotes from Virgil, Horace, etc. The rest is what Fell calls “ignorant dog-Latin” with grammatical errors and misspellings. He suggests that the Calalus objects may have been the regalia of some order of Freemasons with special interest in Hebrews. He believes, however, that neither the finder, Tom Bent, or his son, had any connection with any fraudulent plan to deceive. Cyclone Covey first showed Fell photographs of the artifacts in 1977 and Payn later arranged with Bent to let Fell study certain of the originals.

Calalus: a Hard Look (3 pp) Michael Skupin 19-p 120

Skupin concurs with Fell's findings concerning the "Tucson Artifacts," underscoring the many errors in the “dog-Latin.” He remarks that the Hebrew on the inscriptions also shows a modern and uninformed touch, that the Hebrew phrases were probably copied from a reference work of some kind. He concludes that the inscriptions are modern. Cyclone Covey had implied that faculty members of the Wake Forest University Classics Department had participated in the translation of the artifacts, but Skupin found no members of that Department had any desire to claim such credit and firmly disassociated themselves from the matter.

The Tucson ArtiFacts: A Fingerprint (1 p) Michael Skupin 19-p 122

Skupin suggests that one of the “dog-Latin” errors that makes no sense in Latin or in English translation would make sense if the author was a Spanish speaker. This clue to the origin of the artifacts should be taken into account.

The Tucson Artifacts: Starting from Scratch (1 p) Michael Skupin 19-p 123

Skupin, at the suggestion of George F. Carter, corresponded with Julian D. Hayden regarding the Tuscon artifacts. Hayden replied that he remembered when the finds were made and had kept up with the situation. He described how he believed the artifacts were inserted from the side under layers of undis- turbed caliche. He noted that there was little or no corrosion on the lead artifacts, but lead-sheathed phone cables placed in Tucson caliche tend to corrode badly even in a short period of time. Further, the caliche layer into which the objects were inserted dated to a period 9,000-24,000 years ago.

The Tucson Artifacts: A Rebuttal to Skupin (4 pp) Chris Hardaker 19-p 124

Hardaker was hired by ISAC to examine and summarize archaeological investigations of the Tucson artifacts. He points out that few participants in the discussion had read further than Covey's book, "Calalus," and thus few were arguing with a full grasp of the events that occurred. Skupin and the Epigraphic Society  had concluded that the artifacts were buried in the 19th century by some club or cult and they were not a hoax per se while most modern archaeologists believe it was a hoax. He scolds Skupin for “not doing his homework” and the “cynical, cocky overtone of his presentation.” Hardaker concludes that Skupin and Fell have “postulated the who and the why,” but “have not succeeded in putting it all together to explain how.”

On the Level with the Tucson Artifacts (17 pp) Bill Rudersclorf 19-p 128

The author discusses the symbols and inscriptions on the artifacts in some detail and relates them to Masonic symbols and practices. He points out that a possible connection with Spanish Freemasonry and, by extension, with Masonry as practiced in Mexico.

Comments on Criticism of Calalus (1 p) Cyclone Covey 19-p 145

Covey defends his portrayal of the Tucson site and artifacts in his book. He states that he and the colleagues he consulted were quite aware of the linguistic errors in the Tucson inscriptions. He states that he and the Bents welcome proof or disproof of the material equally.

If They were Aspirin: Questions About the Tucson Artifacts (1 p) Jane Eppinga 19-p 146

Jane Eppinga, a Freelance Writer living near Tucson, recommends a more thorough investigationof the artifacts and all the infromation available concerning their discovery.

The Origin of ESOP (1 p) Barry Fell 19-p 147

Fell describes the Society's founding on 4 July 1974 in Arlington Massachusetts (originally under the name: The Polynesian Epigraphic Society; but George Carter suggested dropping “Polynesian” from the title). The journal, originally called Epigraphic Society Occasional Publications [DB Note: sometimes Occasional Publications of the Epigraphic Society which was often shortened to OPES], modified its title in 1990 to ESOP: Epigraphic Society Occasional Papers. ESOP's history has been one of small beginnings followed by steady growth and increasing resources, both financial and scholarly.

American Ogam or Welsh Coelbren y Beirdd? (3 pp) Barry Fell & Marshall Payn 19-p 148

Fell replies to Alan Wilson's who suggests that many so-called Ogham (or Ogam) inscriptions in the US and the British Isles, as well as Etruscan and Phrygian inscriptions, are all in Old Welsh and in the ancient script of the Welsh bards known as Coelbren y Beirdd. Fell pointed out that the latter was not ancient, but a spurious alphabet probably invented by Edward Wilson in the late 18th or early 19th century. Although regarded as a fabricator and a forger, Wilson's brilliance as a scholar and Romantic poet was nevertheless recognized.

The Ancient Egyptian Pyramids—Concrete Or Rock? (8 pp) D.H. Campbell & R.L. Folk 19-p 151

A Principal Photographer of Construction Technology Laboratories, Skokie, Illinois (Campbell) and a Prof. Emeritus of Geology at the University of Texas (Folk) discuss “overwhelming evidence” that Davidovitz' theory that the Egyptian pyramids were constructed of a form of poured concrete rather than stone. The authors call the theory of cast-in-place origin “preposterous.”

Mexican Sellos: Writing in America (9 pp) George F. Carter 19-p 159

This is an edited and updated version of a paper originally published in Diffusion and Migration (1978), Univ. of Calgary. The author discusses the fact that cylinder seals (sellos) exist in Mesoamerica (mentions seals found in Costa Rica and Mexico). He mentions several American inscriptions which might be forms similar to seals. In a postscript, the author relates information gained from Julian Hayden of Tucson, Arizona, that his father found an Egyptian seal at a depth of about 5 feet near Mecca, California.

Libyan Alphabetic Script on a Mexican Cylinder Seal (1 p) Barry Fell 19-p 168

According to the author, a number of Mexican seals present Old World alphabetic or hieroglyphic scripts in the Libyan language. He highlights one inscription that bore the Libyan characters for Q-T-Z-L (Quetzal), a reference to the Quetzal bird. David Kelley comments on the inscription.

A request for Information on Hill figures (1 p) Pattie Lawler 19-p 168

The author asks for information on the Hill Figures of England. She is looking for correspondence with individuals with similar interests.

Beards In North America Before Columbus (7 pp) Lawrence F. Athy Jr. 19-p 169

The author discusses the pre-Columbian occurence of beards on Amerindian artifacts: of stone, clay, bone, wood, and metal; as well as in pictographs, and manuscripts. He makes the point that full beards and moustaches on Indians only occur in areas where advanced cultures existed.

The Mystery of the Székely Runes (8 pp) Edward D. Rockstein 19-p 176

The author discusses the Székely Runes (also known as “Hungarian Runes;” the Székels were a relatively isolated tribal group in Transylvania). The letters were dubbed “runes” because they vaguely resembled the Germanic script. The script also has elements that resemble the Italo-Celtic and Iberic scripts. The Hungarians call it “Notch Script.” There are 32 character --several with alternate forms. Comparisons are made to several other scripts including Turkic.

A Note on the Kuru-Bekiir Gorge “Turkish Runes” (1 p) Edward D. Rockstein 19-p 184

Dr. Rockstein presents and comments upon a paper by Russian colleagues which he received from Barry Fell. Rockstein states he is “no Turcologist, but rather a specialist in the languages of the more sedentary peoples of East Asia --the Chinese, Koreans and Japanese-- although I have dabbled in Kalkha Mongolian and Old Turkic and Uighur.” He tried his own hand at decipherment, but found there to be insufficient text and not enough help from the context.

Inscriptions and Petroglyphs of the Kuru-Bekiir (4 pp) Gorge Ch.D. Dzhumagulov et al. 19-p 184

The authors sent Barry Fell a short paper with attached graphics of inscriptions found in the Kuru-Bekiir mountain gorge by a Soviet expedition from the Institute of History and the Institute of Language and Literature of the Kirghiz SSR. The inscriptions appear to be in Old Turkic or Sogdian “Runes.” Edward D. Rockstein adds his own comments and suggestions concerning the interpretation of the inscriptions (starting on page 185).

Colloquial Carthaginian (14 pp) Michael Skupin 19-p 188

The author does an excellent job of facing up to the challenge of retrieving and explaining Punic words and phrases appearing in the text of an ancient play by Plautus called Poenulus (the Carthaginian) --especially since the text has passed through the hands of numerous non-Carthaginian scribes through the centuries.

Backstage Carthaginian (3 pp) Michael Skupin 19-p 202

The author gives us insight into the interpretation of part of Hanno's opening monologue in Plautus' play, Poenulus, illuminating ancient humorous references and customs.

Barracks Carthaginian (1 p) Michael Skupin 19-p 205

The author discusses a Punic word scratched onto a bowl found in a Roman outpost in Wales.

Redundant Carthaginian (1 p) Michael Skupin 19-p 206

Skupin discusses Carthaginian as revealed by Carthaginian writers who wrote in Latin.

Plagiarized Carthaginian (2 pp) Michael Skupin 19-p 207

Discusses Louis H. Gray's plagiarism of Paul Schršder's work on Plautin Punic.

In Memoriam: Frederick J. Pohl (1 p) Gloria Farley 19-p 208

Teacher, playwright, and diffusionist author, Pohl died at 101 on 21 Feb 1991. He was a recipient of ISAC's Root Cutter Award.

Gaelic Carthaginian (1 p) Michael Skupin 19-p 209

Discusses the attempts by Friederich Soltau and a certain Mr. O'Connor to relate Gaelic to Carthaginian.

GeseniusCarthaginian (1 p) Michael Skupin 19-p 210

Discusses the work on Phoenician and Carthaginian by the noted Hebrew Scholar William Gesenius.

Funeral Carthaginian (1 p) Michael Skupin 19-p 211

Skupin suggests an alternate translation for the Weka inscription (a bilingual from North Africa –see ESOP 1:9:43-- which shows connectiions to Maori). He suggests it may contain a formula similar to that in inscriptions Fell discusses in ESOP 3/2:76:4 (specifically the Grave Creek and Braxton Tablets from West Virginia).

An Ancient Egyptian Ship in Australia? (1 p) Charles Bailey 19-p 211

Bailey came upon an undated illustration in an Australian newspaper. It was the result of a computer analysis of a badly faded pictograph of a ship found on Booby Island off the coast of Australia. The ship appears to be clearly similar to those of the ancient Egyptians.

Photo Credit (1) 19-p 212

The color plate on this page (which goes with the following article) is printed by courtesy of the Midwestern Epigraphic Society.

Four Fraudulent Ogam Inscriptions (3 pp) from Kentucky Barry Fell 19-p 213

Fell discusses faked Ogam inscriptions inscriptions in Kentucky (he identified them as fake to Victor Moseley of the Midwestern Epigraphic Society as early as July 1988. He shows clearly that they were copied from his own publication of material from valid sites in West Virginia. On p. 212 is a large color picture showing three persons (unidentified, but probably from the Midwestern Epigraphic Society) recording one of the fraudulent inscriptions. [Buchanan note: Dr. John Payne of Kentucky subsequently gave an amusing talk to ISAC about how two “good ol' boys” took him in with these inscriptions.]

Epigraphs, Petroglyphs, Pictographs??? (13 pp) Raymond M. Beaumont 19-p 216

This is a reprint of a Teacher's Guide pamphlet prepared by the author for use at the Peterborough Site. The site displays markings which might reflect Old Scandinavian as well as North African scripts. The paper mistakenly calls Tifinag a “Nordic” script. Numerous examples of the script, with Fell's translations, are given.

Easter Island Traditions (5 pp) Petero Edmunds 19-p 229

Edmunds' response to a letter from Marshall Payn in which he replies to a series of questions on the history and traditions of Easter Island. “I strongly believe that the makers of the moai were not pleople from the Indus Valley, nor from the Inca Valley, nor from the Egyptian Valley, but were our tohunga (priests, wizards, skilled artisans). And our tohunga were Polynesian.” He recommends Englert and Routledge and Mulloy's writings on Easter Island. He praises the Epigraphic Society for the work it is doing, particularly for Fell's translations of the Easter Island script. He points out that the ancient war on Easter Island was not between the “short ears” and the “long ears” --this was a mistranslation. It was between the “short, stocky race” and the “tall, slender race.” Heyerdahl, unfortunately, perpetuated the mistranslation.

Easter Island: Unravelling Mysteries (3 pp) Marshall Payn 19-p 234

Marshall Payn undertook a visit to Easter Island where he met with Petero Edmunds.  He tackled the questions: “(a) Who built the Moai (the statues)? (b) What was their purpose? (c) How were they moved? (d) How were they erected on the ahu (the base, platform or altar)? (e) What was the origin and meaning of the hieroglyphs?” As for (a) and (e), Fell's translations show a Polynesian origin --the boards seem to translate as historical documents. Marshall tends to mostly agree with Heyerdahl about (d), but not necessarily about (c). Marshall relays the Islanders' version of the historical war. As for (b), the moai were repositories for the souls of past leaders and thus the ahus and the statues were sacred places, not to be disturbed. On the last page is a picture of Petero Edmunds and his wife.

Plants and Culture in the Origin of the Polynesians (9 pp) George F. Carter 19-p 237

Carter discusses the problem of accounting for the heavy Europoid element among the Polynesians (in addition to the Melanesian and Asian elements in their racial mixture). He holds that the evidence suggests repeated waves of people entering the area at different times from differing directions. There is a connection to the Uto-Aztecans in America noted through linguistic and cultural similarities. He cites David Kelly's work (as well as his own and that of Mary Ritchie Key) on trans-Pacific transfer of plants. He speaks of Heyerdahl's idea that people from the Mediterranean came to Peru and also cites the work of John Rowe and Stephen Jett. Carter sees overwhelming evidence for the presence of overwhelming influence of a Mediterranean presence in the Andes. Biological and cultural evidence definitely proves trans-oceanic contacts with Polynesia and the Americas.

Possible Ogam in the Paris Basin (3 pp) Paul Minault 19-p 246

He cites an illustration (shown) in Gilles Tassé's "Pétroglyphs du Bassin Parisien" which he says shows linear markings similar to the Ogam writing discovered in the US. Tassé noted that such petroglyphs were found by the thousands throughout the sandstone deposits of the Paris Basin and Northeastern France.

Mediaeval Elements in the Paris Basin Petroglyphs (1 p) Barry Fell 19-p 249

Fell agrees with Minault that the markings discussed in his article were not Neolithic, but later. Many could be mason's marks used as early as Roman times and into Medieval times.

Deciphering the Easter Island Tablets, Part 2 (27 pp) Barry Fell 19-p 250

This is a continuation of the article in Vol. 18 on the decipherment of the Kohau Rongorongo of Easter Island. He mentions letters of support from Petero Edmunds of the Easter Island Council of Elders and Likeke McBride of Hawaii as well as Maui Pomare, a leading Maori chief and scholar. He also heard from Gordon Hislop, an Otago chief. In this article, Fell gives a proposed reading of the opening passage of the Kohau known as Tahua using Thomas Bartel's transcription of the writing on the tablet published in 1958. A catalog of 270 Rapanui ideograms is given as well as the meanings of the phonoglyphs.

English Prosonomasia (1 p) Bill Rudersdorf 19-p 277

The author compares the type of word play detected by Fell in the Easter Island tablets to English examples as shown by the song “Mairzy Doats” (“Mares eat Oats”) and “Ladle Rat Rotten Hut” (a garbled version of “Little Red Riding Hood”).

A Polynesian Inscription from Tahiti (3 pp) Barry Fell 19-p 278

Fell deals here with Tahitian ideograms shown in a famous painting by Paul Gaugin (Merahi Metua no Tehamana) and shows their relation to the Easter Island script Again he makes his translations by finding appropriate words which are homo- phones or isophones of the root meanings of the symbols. One is exemplified by the first word of Gaugin's title: Merahi is probably intended to be M'Arahi = “the many.” Fell shows that the Tahitian script is a form of the Easter Island script and adds that a form of the script can be also found in the Caroline Islands (see Vol. 18, pp 86-89).

The Voyage of Tupac Inca Yupanqui, Part 1 (8 pp) John Spencer Carroll 19-p 281

A momentous voyage of discovery by a 15th century Incan ruler and conqueror which apparently penetrated deep into Polynesia and Micronesia and may have reached portions of Australia or Southeast Asia.

English-Gadelic Dictionary, Part 3 (10 pp) Burrell C. Dawson 19-p 289

This covers the words beginning with the letters "R" and "S." It will be continued.

The Comalcalco Bricks: Part 1—the Roman Phase (36 pp) Barry Fell 19-p 299

Fell concludes that visitors from North Africa were present at Comalcalco during the first three centuries of the Christian era. He considers the site to be a predecessor of Palenque. This paper is focuses on a study of the markings on the bricks from Comalcalco to bolster this deduction.

On the Cover

Paul Gaugin's Merahi metua no Tehamana,courtesy of the Art Institute of Chicago.



Epigraphic Society Occasional Papers

Table of Contents, Volume 20/1, 1991

In Memoriam: Dr. Jon Galster (1 p) Barry Fell 20/1-p 10

Dr. John Galster, 1915-1992, a Danish historian and linguist, best known for his books on Nordic history and archaeology, visited the Peterborough site and with Fell in California in 1982. He published a book in Danish in 1987, Hellerist- ningernes Tale …i Norden  og Amerika, which essentially confirmed Fell’s work in nearly every detail and adding some new insights based on Galster’s own observations in Scandinavia and Saxony.

In Memoriam: Francis J. Heyden, S. J. (1 p) Barry Fell 20/1-p 10

Francis J. Heyden, S.J., 1907-1991, an astronomer in Manila, the Philippines, was a Harvard man who joined the Society very early on. He was a close personal friend of Paul Mallery, the son of Arlington Mallery, the author of Lost America.

In Memoriam: Paul R. Cheesman (1 p) Norman Totten 20/1-p 11

Paul, 1921-1991 (photo available) was a good friend and colleague to many members of the Epigraphic Society. He was professor of Religious Education at Brigham Young University and Director of its Religious Studies and Ancient Scriptures Center. He served as a Navy Chaplain during the Korean War and was a corporate president for nine years. He made over 30 trips to Central and South America, wrote nine books, and made several short films on ancient American studies.

In Memoriam: Carl Wilhelm Sem-Jacobsen (1 p) Rene Fell 20/1-p 12

Born in Oslo, Norway, Sem-Jacobsen (1912-1991) graduated MD from that city’s university in 1941. During WW II he served in the Norwegian underground, transferring to the US Special Forces in 1944. He served as a Captain in the OSS Special Force Mission, receiving a citation from General Eisenhower and the Norwegian War Medal. After reading America BC, he became very interested in and enthusiastic about the inferences it contained. He devoted a great deal of time and effort in promoting Fell’s work and visited with Fell in his home many times. On one occasion he gave a presentation on the subject of early settlers in the New World before Columbus to a learned audience which included King Olav of Norway.

Editorial: Anger and Denial (1 p) Bill Rudersdorf 20/1-p 13

Notes that attacks on Fell by his critics are based heavily on anger and denial. They reveal their lack of proper study of the material and selective choice of texts to support their own views. He particularly cites Marshall McKusick (Davenport Conspiracy), Stephen Williams (Fantastic Archaeology) and Mainfort and Kwas (The Bat Creek Stone: Judeans in Tennessee?).

Editorial: Loose Lips (1 p) Michael Skupin 20/1-p 13

Urges that epigraphic sites should not be mentioned or described on television. The greatest threat to an inscription site is vandalism, which occurs far too often. Vandals cannot destroy what they cannot find.

Forum: Birthday Prosonomasia (1 p) Rene Fell  20/1-p 14

Rene received an amusing birthday card utilizing a Rebus (hippo birdie two ewe…).

Forum: Jacobites in Natchez (1 p) Norman Murphy 20/1-p 14

Notes the continued use by Scots descendants in the Carolina hills of themes on cap badges and brooches that memorialized the Stuart Risings of 1715 and 1745.

Forum: Vintage Prosonomasia (1 p) Elizabeth H. Stewart 20/1-p 15

A promotional ad for a wine which was –more or less—phonetically rendered.

Forum: The Four Horsemen of the Hypothesis (1 p) Russell B. Stafford 20/1-p 15

Supports Fell against his critics.

Forum: Stones of Contention (1 p) Richard C. Rauer Sr. 20/1-p 15

Takes issue with comments he attributes to Skupin (but were mostly by Fell) which were critical of the work of Henriette Mertz in her book Mystic Symbol.

Forum: Calalus Considered (1 p) Paul H. Chapman 20/1-p 16

Points out that Indians in Northern Mexico wore horned helmets and used iron (a la the Vikings –who, it turns out, did not as a rule wear horned helmets). There are also memories in Mexico of ‘Semitic types with beards’ known as Xue who con- quered Yucatan (he then remarks that the area where the Tucson Artifacts –possibly left by a Roman Jewish colony-- were found was once part of Mexico).

Forum: Portuguese Medicine Wheels (1 p) Walter Stendler 20/1-p 16

Presents an argument that such wheels date from Megalithic times.

Review: Omnnis Gallia (1 p) Michael Skupin 20/1-p 17

The Celts by V. Kruta et al, Rizzoli, 1991. “If ESOP had a book of the year, this would be my nomination.” A lavish book (1,100 fine illustrations; dozens of informative articles).

Review: Tunisian Glory (2 pp) Michael Skupin 20/1-p 17

Carthage: Uncovering the Mysteries and Splendors of Ancient Tunisia by David Soren et al, Simon and Schuster, 1990. This book is a Punic buff’s dream come true, the capstone of a renaissance in Punic studies that began in the early 70s.

Review: … and a Companion Volume (1 p) Michael Skupin 20/1-p 18

Carthage: A Mosaic of Ancient Tunisa by Aïcha Ben Abed Ben Khader & David Soren, American Museum of Natural History, 1987. The photos are excellent, imaginative, and numerous.

Review: Forgotten Evil (2 pp) Michael Skupin 20/1-p 18

Conquest of Eden, 1493-1515: Other Voyages of Columbus by Michael Paiewonsky, MAPes MONDEs Editore, 1991. An excellent introduction to the events that followed Columbus’ discovery of the New World. The book reveals the truth about the ugliness and horror Columbus visited upon the new world.

Review: Where Indeed? (2 pp) Donal B. Buchanan 20/1-p 19

Where Troy Once Stood by Iman Wilkens, St. Martin’s Press, NY, 1991. The author holds that the Trojan war took place in Northern Europe, specifically the British Isles. Whereas SOME of the place names in the Iliad may be found in Asia Minor, ALL of them can be found in Northern Europe along with the tribes that took part in the war. Far from being about Helen, the war was about a strategic material: tin  --control of which was a Bronze Age must. The known veneration of the horse in the British Isles matches well with the tale of the Trojan Horse.

Review: More Sooners (1 p) Ditlev Thyssen 20/1-p 20

Westward Before Columbus by Kåre Prytz, Oslo, 1990. It tells about Norse seamen’s journeys west and to the New World 1,000 years ago as told in the old sagas and other writings.

Review: Agitprop Matinee (1 p) Michael Skupin 20/1-p 21

Fantastic Archaeology – the Wild Side of North American Prehistory by Stephen Williams, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 1991. Skupin recommends comparison of Williams’ approach to the study of the Tucson artifacts with Fell’s (he directs the reader to Fell’s and others remarks about the artifacts in ESOP volume 19). Both Fell and Williams stated that the site was modern rather than ancient, but Williams’ method of treatment of anomalous sites like Tucson and Kensington is to give them a superficial and supercilious brush-off. He prefers to ignore data and indulge himself in ridicule of serious scholars interested in diffusion.

Review: A Diffusion Primer (1 p) Michael Skupin 20/1-p 22

The Diffusion Issue by Donald L. Cyr, Stonehenge Viewpoint, 1991. This is an excellent introductory overview that sums up the lines of investigation and captures the tone of the debate.

Review: An Epigrapher’s Companion (2 pp) Michael Skupin 20/1-p 22

The Rocks Begin to Speak by LaVan Martineau, KC Publications, 1987. This book, by a man who was raised by Utah Paiutes and lived and studied with other South-west Indians, discusses elements and combinations used in Indian inscriptions as only an insider could.

Review: Penelope’s Weaving (1 p) Michael Skupin 20/1-p 23

The Dead Sea Scrolls Deception by Michael Baigent and Richard Leigh, Summit, 1991. The authors present evidence that the cynical clique who for so many years were allowed to monopolize the study of the Scrolls were motivated by a desire to cover up texts that were potentially embarrassing to the religious (specifically Catholic) establishment.

Review: Grave’s Goods (2 pp) Michael Skupin 20/1-p 23

The Civilization of the Goddess by Marija Gimbutas, Harper, San Francisco, 1991. Skupin accuses Gimbutas of turning out a “coffee-table book” and expressing opinions that are presented “with the take-it-or-leave-it finality of a Black Jack deal.” He criticizes her “way of pontificating over inscriptions she admits she cannot read.”

Review: Click! (1 p) Michael Skupin 20/1-p 24

A Forest of Kings: The Untold Story of the Ancient Maya by Linda Schele and David Freidel, Morrow, 1990. Based on the most recent findings, the authors have written a comprehensive and integrated history. A beautifully written book.

Review: Columbian Kitsch (1 p) Michael Skupin 20/1-p 24

The Columbus Papers by Mauricio Obregón, NYW Publications, 1991. Another coffee-table book. Skupin regards the first half as a “waste of paper,” but recommends the second half since it contains a facsimile of Columbus’ 1493 letter as well as a transcription and meticulous translation of the same by Lucia Graves.

Review: Light on the Dark Continent (1 p) John J. White 20/1-p 25

Lightning Bird: The Story of One Man’s Journey into Africa by Lyall Watson, E.P. Dutton, 1982. This is a partial biography of anthropologist Adrian Boshier, a protégé of the great Raymond Dart. Nearly half the book summarizes the author’s know-ledge of the state of African Anthropology. The comments on ancient mining, rock drawings of Asiatic people, and the occurrence of Ogam writing should catch the attention of diffusionists.

Review: Adventure in Writing (2 pp) John J. White 20/1-p 25

The Ancient Inscriptions of Paraguay by Jim Woodman, Paraguay, 1989. This booklet summarizes the principal epigraphic discoveries in Paraguay. A total of 60 sites are mentioned. Iberic as well as Ogam-like writing appears to be present.

Review: A Mithraic Milestone (2 pp) Michael Skupin 20/1-p 26

The Origins of the Mithraic Mysteries: Cosmology and Salvation in the Ancient World by David Ulansey, Oxford University Press, 1989. The thesis of this excellent book is that astronomy is the key to the Mithraic religion. The author makes his point by uniting history, iconography, and numismatics. A must-read for those interested in archaeo-astronomy.

Review: A Trade Secret (2 pp) Michael Skupin 20/1-p 27

African Presence in Early Asia by Ivan Van Sertima and Runoko Rashidi, eds, Journal of African Civilizations, 1988. This is less a review of Van Sertima’s book than of one of the sources used in the writing of that book: Anacalypsis: An Attempt to Draw Aside the Veil of the Saitic Isis or an Inquiry into the Origin of Languages, Nations and Religions by George Higgins (1773-1833). Skupin feels that Van Sertima’s writers handled the source material badly, that Higgins work deserved better. Higgins’ work is “enormously stimulating, both for challenging ideas and as a repository for references that…have been swept under the academic rug.”

Review: Anacalypsis II (2 pp) Michael Skupin 20/1-p 28

Black Athena, Volumes I and II, by Martin Bernal, Rutgers University Press, 1987 and 1991. Its thesis: Classical studies have been hijacked by propagandists who have distorted our view of the ancient world. Bernal gives a history of how things got distorted in volume I and then proceeds to undistort them in volume II (citing archaeological evidence and the views of the ancients themselves).

Review: White Crow (2 pp) Michael Skupin 20/1-p 29

In Search of the Indo Europeans: Language, Archaeology and Myth by J. P. Mallory, Thames and Hudson, 1989. Mallory presents his ideas well and introduces new parameters. He also includes Russian scholarship in the mix, which is a first. Modern discoveries, however, tend to date Mallory’s book. It would appear that the horse was available at a much earlier date than previously thought so the Indo Europeans, rather than spreading slowly by foot, spread rapidly and farther than expected by horse.

Review: If Adventure Had a Name (1 p) Michael Skupin 20/1-p 30

In Quest of the Great White Gods by Robert F. Marx with Jenifer G. Marx, Crown, 1992. “Marx tells of tales of thievery, deceit and corruption that may diminish the reader’s admiration for many a fine museum collection.” Much of the book deals with Marx’s maritime experiences, both as a sailor and as a diver.

Review: nostra culpa! (1 p) Bill Rudersdorf 20/1-p 31

American Epigraphy At the Crossroads by James Guthrie, Rollin Gillespie, Phillip Leonard and William McGlone; James P. Whittall Jr., editor, Early Sites Research Society, 1990. “This work is a compendium of the authors’ views on all that is wrong with the present state of the epigraphic scene. They give a list of suggestions for improving things, tossing in some of their previously unpublished work just to show critics what the real stuff looks like.”

Review: Language (1 p) Bill Rudersdorf 20/1-p 31

The Mother Tongue: English and How It Got That Way by Bill Bryson; Our Language by Simeon Potter; The American Language: An Inquiry into the Development of English in the United States by H. L. Mencken. “For neophytes to the study of language … there is no better place to start than your first language.” For Rudersdorf these are “…three of my favorite books.”

Review: Bailey’s Beads? (3 pp) Michael Skupin 20/1-p 31

Latin for All Occasions by Henry Beard, Villard Books, 1990. Skupin calls this a “delightful phrase book … a major contribution to the humor section of Latinity …and that’s not bad.”

Review: One for the Ages (2 pp) Michael Skupin 20/1-p 33

The Great Sermon Handicap by P. G. Wodehouse, James Heineman, ed. James H. Heineman Inc. (3 volumes), 1989, 1990, 1991. A story by P. G. Wodehouse (1881-1975) is translated into many different languages, making a modern Rosetta Stone. The first volume includes Latin and its daughter languages; the second, Middle English and the continental Teutonic languages; and the third, Scandinavian. Other volumes covering Semitic and Oriental Languages are in the works.

Review: An Ally’s Monument (1 p) Michael Skupin 20/1-p 34

Vinculos de la lengua vasca con las lenguas de todo el mundo [Links of the Basque Language with the Languages of the World] by Imanol Agiŕe, La Gran Enciclopedia Vasca, 1980. This is a “big, difficult book, 629 meaty, energetic pages.” Agiŕe sets out his thesis in his introduction: that Basque is related to the Paleo-Siberian languages. He also provides background information on linguistics for the non-specialist and an overview of the state of Basque studies. The last third of the volume is a “briskly-paced history of the Basques and their language…” Agiŕe, an “expert writing for experts,” confirms Fell’s work with Basque “without any hedging or hand-wringing.”

Review: A Scholarly Stocking-Stuffer (2 pp) Bill Rudersdorf 20/1-p 34

The Rosetta Stone: Facsimile Drawing by Stephen Quirke and Carol Andrews, Abrams 1989. A British Museum publication, it includes a facsimile drawing, transliteration, translation, and commentary.

Review: Recalling a Renaissance (1 p) Michael Skupin 20/1-p 35

The Loom of Language by Frederick Bodmer, Norton, 1985. This book, with its lavishness and sheer bulk of material is a browser’s delight. It is recommended as a rich source of information about language and insights for linguistic do-it-your-selfers.

Review: A Wolf in Egghead’s Clothing (2 pp) Michael Skupin 20/1-p 35

Myth, Metaphor and Language Reconstruction by E. Morgan Kelley, Mellen, 1992. This book is important because “it shows us new ways to clarify obscure questions. It is a well-written collection of stimulating thought experiments and carefully considered arguments.”

Euge, Serve Bene et Fidelis (1 p) Barry Fell 20/1-p 36

Volume 20 is the second volume of ESOP edited by Bill Rudersdorf in association with Michael Skupin. Much to the regret of their colleagues (especially Barry and his wife) and for personal reasons, they have decided to withdraw from their editorial role.

The Karanovo Zodiac (6 pp) Richard D. Flavin 20/1-p 37

“The Karanovo ‘Stamp Seal’ is variously regarded as a series of chalcolithic Bulgarian decorations, ‘proto-writing,’ and ‘signs consisting of straight lines … incised between the cross arms of a quartered disk.” The characters are incised on a clay disk 6 cm in diameter and 2 cm thick with a handle 2 cm long. It was discovered in the remains of a house destroyed by fire. Scholars disagree about the date of the level at which the artifact was found. Some date it to between 2600-2300 BC and at least one scholar dated it to about 4800 BC. The author seeks to demonstrate that the inscribed characters are actually a map of the sky –the earliest European map of the constellations yet discovered.

Etymology of the Lower Mississippian Languages - Part 2 (48 pp) Barry Fell 20/1-p 43

This continues the paper started in Volume 19 of ESOP. It further investigates the correspondence between the vocabulary of the Indians of the Lower Mississippi and that of the peoples of the Nile Valley. The article is illustrated with copious tables illustrating the grammar and vocabulary involved.

Maize in Asia and Elephants in America (5 pp) George F. Carter 20/1-p 91

Carter reviews the evidence for pre-Columbian knowledge of maize in the Old World as well as the Amerindian knowledge of the elephant.

The Voyage of Tupac Inca Yupanqui, Part 2 (24 pp) John Spencer Carroll 20/1-p 96

The author continues his examination of the voyage of discovery by Tupac Inca Yupanqui, a 15th century Incan ruler, initiated in ESOP Volume 19. It is obvious that the Inca knew a lot more of the world than has been supposed.

The Tip of thc Iceberg: Deciphering Polynesian History (2 pp) Herb Kawainui Kane 20/1-p 120

A native Hawaiian artist-historian congratulates Fell on restoring to Polynesians a portion of their lost history and culture. Biographic information on the author is given.

Deciphering the Easter Island Tablets, Part 3 (16 pp) Barry Fell 20/1-p 122

This is a continuation of the article begun in Vol. 18 on the decipherment of the Kohau Rongorongo of Easter Island. Fell explains that the vocalizations of the Easter Island hieroglyphics comprise prosonomastic language, meaningless in itself, but comprehensible when the punning transforms are recognized. Polynesian scholars have written Fell to support this finding.

Occam's …Eraser? (1 p) Michael Skupin 20/1-p 137

The author elucidates the proper meaning and use of William of Occam’s contribution to the language: “Occam’s Razor.” Basically, it means “Don’t clutter up your explanations.”

Deciphering the Easter Island Tablets, Part 4 (8 pp) Barry Fell 20/1-p 138

As above, this is a continuation of the article begun in Vol. 18.

Easter Island Writing—the Hawaiian Connection (4 pp) Likeke R. McBride 20/1-p 146

A professional Hawaiian story-teller provides a comparison vocabulary for the Hawaiian and Easter Island languages. The similarities are evident.

Never Forget the Oral Tradition (1 p) Norman Murphy 20/1-p 149

The author stresses the importance of primary sources.

Was there a Prehistoric Migration of the Philippine Aetas to America? (3 pp) Virgilio R. Pilapil 20/1-p 150

The author presents evidence that Asiatic pygmies reached the Americas in prehistoric times. They may even have introduced the use of the bow and arrow.

Interpretation of the Cast of a Latex Mold Submitted by Gloria Farley (1 p) Barry Fell 20/1-p 153

This shows a graphic of an Ogam inscription the latex mold of which had been sent by Farley to Fell. Fell’s transliteration of the inscription is given.

The Grid Hieroglyph and Associated Ogam in Oklahoma (1 p) Gloria Farley 20/1-p 154

The author tells of her visit to the site of the above inscription (called “the Cattle Shelter”) in June 1973.

An Ogam Solution to the Agricultural Grid Symbol (2 pp) Barry Fell 20/1-p 154

Fell explains the meaning of the Ogam “agricultural grid” symbol and deciphers the inscription described above. He infers that the sense of the inscription refers to a location nearby of arable land suitable for the growing of corn or other crops.

Marshall McKusick and American Epigraphy (19 pp) Barry Fell & George Carter 20/1-p 156

A discussion by Barry Fell and George Carter, with additional comments by Norman Totten and David Kelley. They reply to McKusick's accusations and misrepresentations with a reasoned rebuttal to unreasoned arguments. Graphics of Libyan (Tifinag) inscriptions are shown as well as the Bat Creek Stone and the Paraiba inscription (Netto’s version).

Review: Poison Ivy League Archaeology (6 pp) George F. Carter 20/1-p 175

Fantastic Archaeology, the Wild Side of North American Prehistory by Stephen Williams, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1991. Williams’ stated aim is to show the need for critical thinking, but the format of the study “is decidedly an argument ad hominem,” despite his denials. For Williams the notion of overseas contacts is simply “some hyperdiffusionist madness.” Carter chides Williams for his “inability to get details right.”

Review: American Epigraphy on the High Road (2 pp) Lawrence F. Athy, Jr 20/1-p 181

American Epigraphy at the Crossroads edited by James P. Whittall Jr., ESRS, Rowley Mass, 1991.  Athy regards the book as timely and well-done, but he has a problem with it: it concentrates on an illogical and unimportant epigraphic controversy between pseudo-scientists, archaeologists and epigraphers. The archaeology-epigraphy controversy seems to be a false issue brought about by a few epigraphers who have sought the approval of anyone and everyone and by a few archaeologists who feel threatened by what they do not know or understand. Athy quotes from the book: “…It would seem best to avoid debate with the archaeologists unless there is artifactual evidence. … It is the linguist who will have to get involved if we are to be successful … and their interest can only be expected after careful and accurate transcriptions have been disseminated.” Athy recommends that the Epigraphic Society develop and disseminate standards for site identification as well as for methods of transcription of inscriptions. He also advocates the creation and maintenance of a central database of inscriptions.

American Epigraphy at Cross Purposes (1 p) Michael Skupin 20/1-p 182

The author comments on the above book: “…now they are publishing opinions about opinions about approaches to inscriptions in general. When is all this going to bottom out?”

Bat Creek Rebuttal: a Check-list for Doubletalkers (2 pp) Joseph B. Mahan 20/1-p 183

Mahan is responding to an article in Tennessee Anthropologist (volume XVI, number 1, Spring 1991) by Robert C. Mainfort and Mary L. Kwas: “The Bat Creek Stone: Judeans in Tennessee?” Mahan says it is full of “subterfuges, half-truths, and cleverly disguised deceptions.”

Clay Pigeons (1 p) Michael Skupin 20/1-p 184

Skupin explains why this volume concerns itself with replies to critics.

Tales of the Thought Police (13 pp) Raymond M. Beaumont 20/1-p 185

A man with ten years experience teaching in Northern Indian communities tells of the troubles he incurred when he revealed to the educational establishment that he was taking Fell’s work on Canadian inscription sites seriously and disseminating it as part of a teachers guide.

Gaelic As She Was Spoke (2 pp) Barry Fell & Bill Rudersdorf 20/1-p 198

Fell responds to attacks by Brenden O Hehir. Skupin adds a comment taking O Hehir to task for his attack upon the late Robert Meyer for supporting Fell (O Hehir alleged that Meyer, in his final years was mentally unstable and a drunk). Skupin quotes Donal Buchanan who testifies to Meyer’s excellence as a teacher who never drank to excess.

English as She is Rit (1 p) George Carter 20/1-p 199

Carter takes a stab at deciphering a modern inscription.

The Scientific Explanation (1 p) Warren W. Dexter 20/1-p 200

Dexter shows that the language of the nay-sayers hasn’t changed in years.

Review: Old Dog, Old Tricks (2 pp) Michael Skupin 20/1-p 201

The Bat Creek Stone: Judeans in Tennessee? by Robert C. Mainfort Jr. and Mary L. Kwas. Skupin says: “This dreary hatchet job is a rebuttal to J. Huston McCulloch’s 1989 article on the same subject. It is mostly the ex cathedra name-calling and misrepresentation one would expect, but carried out … clumsily…”

Corrected Carthaginian (1 p) Michael Skupin 20/1-p 202

Skupin does an excellent job of correcting himself. He reveals himself as an erudite –and honest—scholar.

Defining the Question (4 pp) Archibald S. Thom 20/1-p 203

The author compares Fell’s work to that of his father, Alexander Thom.

Editorial: Looking Both Ways (1 p) Bill Rudersdorf 20/1-p 207

Reports the existence of evidence for the early peopling of the Americas from Europe as well as from Asia.

Review: Archaeocentricism at its Best (4 pp) Lawrence F. Athy, Jr 20/1-p 208

Frauds, Myths and Mysteries: Science and Pseudoscience in Archaeology by Kenneth L. Feder, 1990. Athy congratulates the author of the book for an excellent chapter on epistemology. The author of the book stated that his aim was to put the analysis of unsubstantiated claims about the human past firmly within the perspective of the scientific method as it relates to archaeology rather than simply to debunk individual claims –then he proceeded to discredit all claims with total disregard to scientific methodology.

More Prosonomasia (1 p) Michael Skupin 20/1-p 211

Spanish examples of prosonomasia.

Three Lost Collections -- a Photographer's View (12 pp) Warren W. Dexter 20/1-p 212

Dexter tells of his investigation (with Warren Cook) of the artifact collection of Father Crespi in Cuenca, Ecuador; that of Credo V. Mutwa (with Brenda Sullivan) in South Africa; and finally, the forty year collection of the late Dr. Warren Cook. Excellent photos of Cook, Crespi, and Mutwa are shown, along with various inscribed artifacts, including: a copy on slate of a very old Zulu tri-alphabetic inscription (part of which is in Ogam); a verdite phallus from Soweto, South Africa, inscribed in vowelless ogam, Egyptian hieroglyphs and apparent “branch ogam” (latter not shown); apparent Bronze Age inscriptions in the Transvaal; the “Moses” Ten Commandments tablet in square Hebrew with some apparent Egyptian hieroglyphs; a verdite effigy of the Mother Goddess Banu (Tanit) on the back of which are inscriptions in Ogam and Tifinag; a verdite stone effigy of the ancient fertility god Baal, showing the symbol “Eye of Baal” on his chest, with the name B-L spelled out in vowelless ogam; also excellent pictures of four inscribed artifacts from Crespi’s collection.

Bahrain Honors Bushiri (1 p) Barry Fell 20/1-p 224

On 14 March 1992, Ali Akbar Bushiri received the State Award for National Achievement from the Prime Minister of Bahrain. This was in recognition of his past fifteen years of work on the culture of Dilmun.

Alphabetic Libyan Mason's Marks on Mochica Adobe Bricks (7 pp) Barry Fell 20/1-p 224

In 1990, while Fell was working on deciphering the masons’ marks on the Comalcalco bricks, James Woodman informed him that he had seen similar marks on adobe bricks in the Huaca Las Ventanas pyramids of the pre-Inca Mochica civilization. Fell studied those as well and concluded that the markings on them con-formed to established Libyan alphabets. They exhibit clear-cut and unquestionable affinities with the Libyan civilization of Roman times.

Tales of a Wall-Nut (1 p) Russell Swanson 20/1-p 231

There are a series of ancient walls in the hills of the eastern side of San Francisco Bay that have raised Dolmen-like stones associated with them.

On Cuna Writing (3 pp) George Carter & James Case 20/1-p 232

The Cuna Indians are among the few Amerindian tribes which are documented to have had writing at the time of first contact. It has not received the attention it deserves, perhaps because no texts in a form which allowed comparison with other writing were preserved. Few now can write or understand the Cuna ideographs.

Micmac Music? (1 p) Michaei Skupin 20/1-p 235

A report on the “Mass Book of Chief Abraham Jeremez of Nova Scotia,” a little know example of Micmac hieroglyphs that appear to be accompanied by musical notation. It is known to be a Kyrie. Skupin suggests that the notation was inspired by the Roman Catholic chant book, the Liber Usualis; and the tune may be a Micmac song preserved in plainchant notation.

The Bird and Fish Motif - New World and Old (1 p) Gloria Farley 20/1-p 236

The author notes that the same motif (a bird standing on a fish with its beak close to the fish’s mouth) exists on Mimbres, New Mexico, bowls, an Egyptian hieroglyph, a Babylonian vase, and was also used by the Chimu Indians in Peru.

The Size of a Man's Hand (1 p) Michael Skupin 20/1-p 237

Skupin introduces us to Fell’s very first work: “The Pictographic Art of the Ancient Maori of New Zealand,” published in Man, a publication of the Royal Anthro-pological Institute, in 1941.

You see what you are prepared to see! ((3 pp) George F. Carter 20/1-p 238

Archaeologists are trained to look at artifacts in a certain manner and thus can miss clues to conclusions that lie outside their experience, such as the presence of writing where no writing is expected. Carter points to the evident existence of Tifinag in the Western Mediterranean (Libya, Algeria, Morocco, and Spain), Scandinavia, and in the Americas (at Peterborough in Canada, Penobscot Bay, and, perhaps, amongst the Maya).

In Memoriam: Theodor H. Gaster (1 p) R. D. Flavin 20/1-p 240

The famous Semiticist passed away quietly on 3 February 1992. He made great contributions to ancient Near Eastern studies in religion and linguistics.

The Davenport and Newark Inscriptions (2 pp) Charles Moyer 20/1-p 241

The author corrects an error made by Fell in his reading of the Davenport stele: the word kholak does not refer to an event in March, but one in November or December. This makes the Djed festival a Winter Solstice event, not one for the Vernal Equinox. The writer also finds difficulties with the Newark “Holy Stones.”

Lost Horizons (1 p) Bill Rudersdorf 20/1-p 243

Rudersdorf replies to Moyer’s article, saying: “…Moyer did not have a good command of the facts.”

The Davenport Stone (1 p) Barry Fell 20/1-p 244

Fell also replies to Moyer’s attack. He suggests that the Davenport inscription cannot be earlier than the late Byzantine, perhaps a Late Byzantine adaptation of the old Djed Festival.

English-Gadelic Dictionary, Part 4 (12 pp) Burrell C. Dawson 20/1-p 245

The author continues his compilation of a Celtic vocabulary based on the decipher-ments of Barry Fell.

Proto-Ogam in Scotland (1 p) Lawrence F. Athy 20/1-p 257

The author highlights the comments of Francis C. Diack, expressed in a little known paper, “The Origin of the Ogam Alphabet,” published in Scottish Gaelic Studies, Volume 3, 1929. Diack postulated the existence of “Proto-Ogham” (possibly vowelless Ogham?) of which many examples can be found in Ireland and Scotland, but are ignored by most investigators as being simply “pseudo Ogham.”

Other First Thanksgivings (1 p) Bill Rudersdorf 20/1-p 257

A contemporary account of a Spanish expedition in Texas in 1598 states that they camped near El Paso and had a feast –leading Texas to plan to announce a second Thanksgiving day. Since it also seems that colonists in Maine in 1607 also gave thanks for a safe arrival in the country, we could end up with three Thanksgiving Days!

Photo: Midsummer sunrise at El Morro (1 p) Bill Rudersdorf 20/1-p 258.

Midsummer Sunrise at El Morro (1 p) Bill Rudersdorf 20/1-p 259

The author tells of his investigation of many inscriptions located within the bounds of the El Morro National Monument in New Mexico.

The Margaret and Burrell Dawson Memorial Fund (1 p) Margaret Dawson & Jon Polansky 20/1-p 260

Margaret Dawson, the wife of the late Burrell Dawson, who had previously given $10,000 to the Epigraphic Society sends a further check amounting $30,000 for a total donation of $40,000. It is intended to be used towards a “future repository for the Society’s books and collections.” Jon Polansky, then Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Epigraphic Society wrote in response that the Board had voted unanimously to restrict the use of the funds to the purpose stated in her letter.

A Smithsonian Collectible (2 pp) Michael Skupin 20/1-p 261

This is a review of a 10 page position paper on Barry Fell’s work issued by the Smithsonian Institution’s Museum of Natural History, May 1978, prepared by Yves Goddard and William W. Fitzhugh. Skupin derides it as dated, full of spurious absolutes delivered with a condescending and paternalistic attitude.

Pre-Columbian Syphilis and East Asia (1 p) JAMA 16:473-474, 1892 20/1-p 262

This is a reprint of an article which appeared in the Journal of the American Medical Association in 1891. The pre-Columbian existence of Syphilis in the Americas serves as proof of an early contact with Asia.

Review: Do-It-Yourself Hieroglyphics (1 p) Michael Skupin 20/1-p 263

Fun with Hieroglyphics by Catherine Roehrig, The Metropolitan Museum of Art & Viking. It is a short but sound guide book about the history of hieroglyphics with a set of rubber stamps and an ink pad so that the alphabetic portion of the hiero-glyphics can be rendered. It is a good companion piece to Egyptian Hieroglyphics: How to Read and Write Them by Stephane Rossini, Dover, 1989, which is an excellent, well-thought-out and elegant introduction to the field.

Origin of the Micronesian Script (6 pp) Barry Fell 20/1-p 263

Fell explains the history of the discovery of the Micronesian syllabic script. A table of the signs is given. Other graphics illustrate the authors thesis that the Micronesian script shows a strong connection to Egyptian hieroglyphs.

A Cree Centenary: Kit Utumeskatin, Lokan! (1 p) Barry Fell 20/1-p 269

Fell congratulates Fellow of the Epigraphic Society Robert Archibald Logan (known to his Cree friends as Lokan Metistikwan; photo shown) on his upcoming 100th birthday. Logan is the author of a Cree grammar as well as a two volume Cree dictionary.

How to Read an Inscription Upside-down (1 p) Barry Fell 20/1-p 269

Fell illustrates how even the “professionals” can make embarrassing mistakes. The famous Phoenician Stele found in Nora, Sardinia, was for many years read upside down and backwards until the error was corrected by Frank Moore Cross Jr. in 1980.

Petrographic Techniques and Styles of the Fremont and Anasazi Culture (6 pp) E. Morgan Kelley 20/1-p 270

An excellent overview of Southwestern petrographic inscriptions and attempts to date and decipher them. Highlights the work of LaVan Martineau as an “enlightening parallel” to the decipherments by Fell.

The Shaman Motif and the Kokopelli Figure (4 pp) E. Morgan Kelley 20/1-p 276

The author continues his excellent elucidation of Southwestern petrographic motifs.

A Ninth-Century Irish Scholar's Cat (1 p) Lucas Fysst 20/1-p 279

Gives his translation of a portion of a famous Old Irish poem about Pangur Ban, a scholar’s cat. [Buchanan comment: This is one of my favorite ancient poems and I’ve attempted my own translation of it.]

Barry Fell and the Anatolians (32 pp) Michael Skupin 20/1-p 278

The author again demonstrates his considerable erudition with an excellent and thorough introductory examination of the question of Anatolian roots for a number of ancient inscriptions (Etruscan, the Lemnos Stele, etc.). There is a particularly good elucidation of Fell’s decipherment of the three Pyrgi inscriptions on gold leaf (LP I – Phoenician; LP II & III – Etruscan).

Ainsuca: a Shaman's Solar Calendar? (14 pp) Harry A. Marriner 20/1-p 312

The author introduces us to a petroglyph site in Columbia which may been carved by a Shaman who used them as a calendar.

The Classical Labyrinth: Old World and New (14 pp) Charles F. Herberger 20/1-p 326

The author discusses the antecedents of the labyrinth and gives examples from both the Old and New Worlds.

Cuna Obstetrics Medicine (1 p) Clyde Keeler 20/1-p 340

The author, a medical man as well as an expert on the Cuna, discusses Cuna obstetrical medical practices.

On the Cover

The Karanovo Zodiac (the disc is shown at 2.8 times normal size). The photo is by Vladimir Vitanov of Sophia, Bulgaria.



Epigraphic Society Occasional Papers

Table of Contents, Volume 20/2, 1991


The Decipherment of Southwest Iberic (104 pp) by Donal B. Buchanan

Buchanan deciphers sepulchral inscriptions found in the Algarve area of Portugal. They are in a Celtic language and refer to the people there as “men of Conn.” The script has clear connections to the orthography of the Eastern Mediterranean. The inscriptions may date to as late as the first or second century AD.

(With the exception of the Introductory Remarks, this work is organized into nine parts or chapters with chapter-relevant paging throughout.)

Introductory Remarks 20/2-p ii

Locale: The Land and the People 20/2-Part I

The Script: Its Relationship with Other Mediterranean Scripts and Assignment of Sound Values 20/2-Part II

The Decipherment 20/2-Part III

Conclusions and Acknowledgements 20/2-Part IV

The Inscriptions 20/2-Part V

Line-by-line Transcription of the Inscriptions 20/2-Part VI

Line-by-line Translation of the Inscriptions 20/2-Part VII

Dictionary of Cognates 20/2-Part VIII

References (arranged by author and numerically) 20/2-Part IX



Map 1: The Pre-Roman Cultures of Iberia 20/2-p I-1

Map 2: Iberia (Spain & Portugal) Showing Epigraphic Sites 20/2-p I-2

Map 3: Celtic Movements into Iberia 20/2-p I-3

Map 4: General Distribution of Epigraphic Sites in Iberia 20/2-p II-1

Map 5: Locations of Inscriptions in Southwest Portugal 20/2-p II-3


Table l: Form & Value Comparison of Mediterranean Alphabets 20/2-p II-2

Table 2: Sound Values Assigned to Southwest Iberic by Various Scholars 20/2-p II-4


Graphics of Individual Inscriptions 20/2-pp V-1 thru V-43

On the Cover

A photograph of Bensafrim V (see page V-12).


Epigraphic Society Occasional Papers

Contents • Volume 21 • 1992

In Memoriam: Robert Edward Walker 1927-1992 (2 pp) Marj Haase & Larry Works 21-p 10

Walker, a retired Geologist, died in an automobile accident in Zambia where he was on assignment with the International Executive Service Corps. He drew the attention of the Society to the Ogam inscriptions in Cedar Canyon (north of Rock Springs, Wyoming –see Volume 16).

In Memoriam: Vincent J. Derbes, MD, FACP, 1912-1991 (2 pp) Rene Fell 21-p 11

An MD and a retired Chief and Professor of Dermatology at Tulane Medical Center in Louisiana, Derbes drew the Society’s attention to possible Ogam inscriptions on some of the artifacts found at Poverty Point in that state.

On fitting pieces together (2 pp) George F. Carter 21-p 12

He highlights the possible presence of Japanese mythological elements in Amerindian folklore (similar depictions of badgers and rabbits for instance).

A Heuristic Approach to Evaluating Epigraphic Evidence (7 pp) Jon Polansky 21-p 14

Discusses the importance of using other disciplines to validate or invalidate epigraphic finds. It is the author’s hope that the Epigraphic Society will continue to provide a heuristic testing ground in which scholarly ideas can be discussed openly in an attempt to sort through differing proposals so that the process will move ahead dynamically.

Forum: Three Scholars Comment on Burrows Cave (3 pp) Jean Hunt, Warren W. Dexter, & Dorothy L. Hayden 21-p 20

Jean Hunt informs as to how she decided not to publish an article by Russell Burrows after she discovered that he lied to her. Warren Dexter writes defending the late Warren Cook as scrupulous and truthful. [Buchanan comment: Which indeed Cook was to the greatest degree. He could be mistaken, but he always dealt from the top of the deck.] Dorothy Hayden, in her review of The Mystery Cave of Many Faces by Russell Burrows and Fred Rydholm, calls the book a hoax (it had been billed as the definitive book on Burrows Cave and its artifacts, but it is anything but). She says that “most of the book is irrelevant” and laced with “galloping paranoia” – one long “diatribe of complaint about all those who have not rushed to proclaim the artifacts genuine despite the fact that … all qualified people who tried to approach the project with an open mind were met by general and prolonged obstruction.”

Forum: Epigraphy in Cuba (1 p) Jorge Diaz 21-p 22

A gentleman from Cuba informs the Society (in Spanish) concerning the possible presence of inscriptions there in Ogam, Phoenician and Libyan. They are located in the Yumuri Valley in the Matanzas region of Cuba.

Forum: Robert Logan (1 p) Maria Vodden 21-p 22

The author thanks the Society for its kind letters and cards on the occasion of Robert Logan’s 100th birthday.

Review: Sichan Safari by Clyde Keeler (2 pp) Rene Fell 21-p 22

This book speaks of Clyde Keeler’s 1930 quest for Apollo’s Sacred White Mice in Turkey and the Greek Islands. He had been teaching at Harvard Medical School and had received a grant to go to Turkey to collect mice –a special breed suspected of carrying a recessive white albino gene. He went through many trials and vicissitudes at the hands of ignorant, suspicious, and corrupt authorities. As a result his final report read like fiction and he had difficulty getting it published. A book you can’t put down.

Review: Discovering Columbus by Paul H. Chapman (2 pp) George Carter & Norman Totten 21-p 24

An extraordinary book. It shows that Columbus was far more knowledgeable, accurate, and less lucky as a navigator than has been widely believed. It deals less with his discoveries than with the sources of his information. The book is logical, factual, and as accurate as the remaining records permit.

Review: Columbus Was Last by Patrick Huyghe (1 p) Barry Fell 21-p 25

A readable and entertaining account of the work of several modern epigraphic scholars.

Review: Did the Greeks Sail the Atlantic? (1 p) Victor Kachur 21-p 26

The Secret Code of the Odyssey by Gilbert Pillot (translated by Francis E. Albert), Abelard-Schuman, New York, 1969. The author pursues his theory that Greek mariners extended their explorations far into the Atlantic.

Review: Cave Man (2 pp) M. Skupin 21-p 26

The Mystery Cave of Many Faces by Russell Burrows and Fred Rydholm, Superior Heartland, 1991. A tiresome book full of name-calling, recriminations, and narratives that don’t gibe with one another.

Symbolism on a Qing Period Embroidery (3 pp) Norman Totten 21-p 28

The author discusses the meanings present in symbols appearing on an 18th century Chinese chair-cover.

Deciphering the Easter Island Tablets Part 5: Maui and the Fire Goddess (10 pp) Barry Fell 21-p 31

The author continues his series on the decipherment of the Rongorongo inscriptions. Fell reveals a masterful knowledge of Maori myths and culture.

lnscribed Bricks in Paraguay (1 p) Jim Woodman 21-p 40

The author points out that examples of Guarani native art from 1609 exist on adobe bricks made for early Jesuit Missions. A ship drawn on one of the bricks looks very unlike Spanish or Portuguese craft and more like a Scandinavian boat. Locals claim it is evidence of Viking visits.

Deciphering the Easter Island Tablets Part 6: Powers of the Tohunga (10 pp) Barry Fell 21-p 41

The author completes his series on the decipherment of the Rongorongo inscriptions.

The Crosses of the Inca, Part 2 (5 pp) Walter Stender 21-p 51

The author continues his discussion (begun in volume 17) of the use of the "square cross" (like the Red Cross symbol) by the Inca, which he maintains was a continuance from preceding cultures. He includes a graphic of a page from a America’s Ancient Civilizations by A. Hyatt Verrill which shows an inscription (believed by Verrill to be Sumerian) on a stone tablet found at Sachuayacu near Urumbamba, 150 miles north of Cuzco.

Annotated Transcription of the Ohio Decalogue Stone (16 pp) J. Huston McCulloch 21-p 56

An excellent analysis of a fascinating artifact by a careful scientist. Without remarking as to whether the artifact is a forgery or not, he states: “…a person rather fluent in Hebrew wrote the substance of the Decalogue down from memory, abridging it and paraphrasing it, but using standard square Hebrew letters, complete with terminal forms. …another person who knew the standard Hebrew alphabet, but who had very imperfect knowledge of the Hebrew language transcribed this text into the unique Ohio Decalogue alphabet, introducing a few outright orthographic errors in the process.”

A Greek Kylix Reconsidered (3 pp) Luise Ebert 21-p 72

The design on a Laconian bowl suggests to the author the possibility of a trade connection between China and ancient Greece.

Tree of Life and Labyrinth (16 pp) Clyde Keeler 21-p 75

A discussion of the cosmological beliefs of the Cuna Indians.

The Man Who Found the Runestones (1 p) Albert G. Hahn & Barry Fell 21-p 91

A photo of Walter Elliott, the discoverer of the Spirit Pond Runestones. Al Hahn has presented the Society with his collection of clippings recording the discovery and all that happened to Elliott and the stones after that.

The Spirit Pond Runestones of Maine, a Proposed Dating and Tentative Translation (22 pp) Richard Nielsen 21-p 92

An exhaustive examination of the Spirit Pond Runestones. The author concludes that rather than dating to 1011, they actually date to 1401. He further states that they are the result of a well-established trade route from Western Scandinavia to Iceland, around Greenland and on to North America –one more corroboration of an extensive pre-Columbian inter-exchange with Europe.

An In-depth Examination of the Spirit Pond Runestones (24 pp) Paul Chapman 21-p 114

Another scholar provides his decipherment of the Spirit Pond Runestones (excellent color photos accompany the article). Chapman attempts to show that the locale shown on the Mapstone is not Spirit Pond, but the northern tip of Newfoundland.

A New Look at the Spirit Pond Runestones (27 pp) Donal B. Buchanan 21-p 138

Buchanan published his first attempt at decipherment of the Spirit Pond Runestones as a special publication of the New England Antiquities Research Association (NEARA) in 1972: A Preliminary Translation of the Spirit Pond Runestones. This article is his final decipherment, discussed line by line. He shows transcriptions of the inscription, transliterations, and cognates; and makes comparisons with the work of colleagues (Einar Haugen, Alf Mongé, Richard Nielsen, and Paul Chapman) as well as his own earlier work. His carefully rendered graphics represent hours of study of the originals using a magnifying glass.

King Juba Remembered? (11 pp) Norman Totten 21-p 165

This is a progress report of research on the existence of possible North African Berber influence in the Andes, dealing with the origin of the Tiwanaku and Moche civilizations.

The Yuchis, American and Asian (4 pp) Joseph B. Mahan 21-p 176

The author compares the nomenclature and cultural practices of the Amerindian and Asian Yuchis.

The Sacred Cut in the Geometry of Stonehenge (8 pp) Charles F. Herberger 21-p 180

An examination of the units of measurement used in the construction of Stonehenge.

The Shawnee Creek Stone of Oklahoma (5 pp) Ali Akbar Bushiri & Gloria Farley 21-p 188

The author comments on symbolic elements appearing in the inscription on the Shawnee Creek Stone (see volume 18 of ESOP). He relates the motifs to Sumerian, backing Fell, who arrived at a similar conclusion.

Takhelne, a Celtiberian Language of North America (47 pp) Barry Fell 21-p 193

Fell feels that Celts (perhaps traders?) from Portugal and Spain, who spoke a dialect of Gaelic, were present in North America between 800 BC and later Roman times. Their linguistic traces are few because they were probably absorbed into the larger Algonquin population. Non-Celtic traders (Egyptians and Libyans) later visited the same region. Fell suggests that the Amerindian Takhelne preserve a large part of the language of the original Celtiberians of New England.

Dragons around the World (15 pp) Norman Totten 21-p 240

The author compares depictions of dragons found in Asia, Europe, and the Americas.

Nitukki, Kurutile, Tilmun and Dilmun Symbols (8 pp) Ali Akbar Bushiri 21-p 255

The author argues that the Dilmun culture existed as early as 3200 BC. He presents an analysis of pictographic and cuneiform signs found at Dilmun.

An Ancient Zodiac from Inyo, California (5 pp) Barry Fell 21-p 263

Fell updates his research concerning the inscription complex known as INY-272 (recorded by Heizer and Baumhoff in 1962) a portion of which was reported on by Fell in volume 8 of ESOP (Fell’s identification of the Inyo Zodiac). He has consulted with Robert F. Heizer and with Roderick Schmidt (whose work indicates that the whole complex needs reconsideration).

Swansea, a Multicultural Petroglyph Site in Inyo County, California (9 pp) Roderick L. Schmidt 21-p 268

Schmidt provides an excellent report on the petroglyph complex known as INY-272 in Inyo County, California, identified by Heizer and Baumhoff and heaviliy researched by Schmidt and the late Burrell Dawson.

Stick Charts of the Marshall Islands (18 pp) K.O. Emery 21-p 277

An explanation of the stick charts used by natives of the Marshall Islands to navigate within their archipelago.

The Micmac Manuscripts (26 pp) Barry Fell 21-p 295

Fell returns to his decipherment of Micmac using comparison with ancient Egyptian signs, elucidating previously unread material.

Easter Isiand Writing - The Hawaiian Connection, Part 2 (6 pp) Likeke R. McBride 21-p 321

The author compares the language of Hawaii with that of Easter Island, and also the shared symbols. He finds more connection between the languages than between the engraved symbols of the two cultures.

Four Hypothetical Mayan Star Clocks (3 pp) Milo Rea Gardner 21-p 327

A report on Mayan systems for measuring time.

Commentary on the Foregoing Paper (1 p) Alban Wall 21-p 330

A comment by Alban Wall is appended to the previous paper. He does not fully agree with Gardner’s findings, but believes his work is important.

The Transmigrations of Tanit (12 pp) Gloria Farley 21-p 331

The author discusses the appearance of representations of Tanit in a number of ancient cultures in the Mediterranean, Africa and the Americas.

Homer's Geographical Concepts and Their Influence on Ancient Authors (3 pp) Grigory G. Mikhailyuk 21-p 343

The author explains the Greek view of the World on the basis of their dependence on the works of Homer. Ancient maps appear to have had an East-West rather than a North-South orientation, with Eurasia as the Upper World and the Americas as the Underworld.


On the Cover

A Qing Period silk and metal thread embroidery; photo by Norman Totten.


 Epigraphic Society Occasional Papers

Table of Contents Volume 22 Part I 1993


In Memoriam: Ronald W. B. Morris (1902-1992) (2 pp) Archibald S. Thom 22/1-p 10

A good friend to the Thom family of many years, Morris became an expert on cup-and-ring markings, writing a number of books on the subject. His aim became the accurate presentation of rock art with a total lack of prejudice or bias. Morris and Alexander Thom combined their research which led to Thom’s establishment of the Megalithic Inch and the Megalithic Yard.

In Memoriam: Aurelio Tio Nazario (1907-1993) (1 p) Barry Fell 22/1-p 12A

An outstanding historian and researcher, he was director of the Puerto Rico Academy of History. He will be remembered for the role he played in the recognition and preservation of the inscriptions of the Taino scribes on stones found at Guayanilla, Puerto Rico. He meticulously catalogued the stones and produced two photographic collections which he submitted to Barry Fell for decipherment (see ESOP volumes 16 and 18 as well as Norman Totten’s article in this issue.

In Memoriam: Reginald Britten Hale (1911-1993) (1 p) Rene Fell 22/1-p 13

A journalist with a deep interest in history, for seven years he edited New World News, a global magazine with editions in 24 languages. He wrote two books, The Magnificent Gael (a life of Saint Columba of Iona) and The Beloved Saint Mungo (founder of Glasgow). He edited and illustrated You Can Defend America (with a forward by John J. Pershing). During WW II he served in Europe with the USAAF and was awarded the Bronze star. He and his wife Grete were good friends of the Fells and enthusiastic supporters of the Epigraphic Society.

In Memoriam: Margot de Chatelaine (1937-1991) (2 pp) Kevin Gilligan 22/1-p 14

A Celtic scholar and member of an ancient Irish family, Margot (Ruth Hamilton Burke) was a supporter of the Epigraphic Society from its earliest years. This touching memorial was written by her husband. [Buchanan Comment: Kevin Dixon Gilligan was the Chief Editor of Keltica, the journal of the Society of Inter-Celtic Arts and Culture. His wife Ruth was Managing Editor and (as Margot) was also Art Editor. In 1983 they were kind enough to use a small article of mine on Runic Cryptography. They turned out a wonderful publication and Margot is sorely missed.]

In Memoriam: Chief Shupshewana (1921-1992) (2 pp) Patti Brown 22/1-p 15

A member of the Epigraphic Society who was published in ESOP, Shup She (Howard La Hurreau) was recognized academically, professionally and spiritually as an outstanding Native American of Potawatomi descent. He was familiar with elements of nine languages, Potawatomi, Mississippian Trade Language, Low German, Quebecois French, Spanish, English, Hebrew, Greek, and Latin. He read Runes, Celtic and the Chinook Trade Language as well. He assisted in writing the legislation that established the Indian Land Claims Commission.

In Memoriam: Charles F. Fulton (1908-1992) (2 pp) Milo Rea Gardner 22/1-p 16

A long-time member and contributor to the publication of the Epigraphic Society, he was a prolific writer in his own professional field (chemical microscopy). He developed and interest and became proficient in the scientific aspects of French, German, Spanish, Latin and Mayan arithmetic (with particular attention to the calendar).

Forum-Letter: Saint Dunstan's Runes and Ogam (2 pp) Richard M. Smith 22/1-p 17

The author sends Fell material on Twig Runes (from An Introduction to Old Norse by E. V. Gordon) and “Latin Runes” (from St. Dunstan’s Classbook Umbrae Codicum Occidentalum, Vol. 4, North Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam, 1960).

Forum-Letter: Comalcalco Mason's Marks (1 p) Doyle Wilcox 22/1-p 19

The author calls attention to Studien Uber Steinmetz-Ziehen (Studies on Stone Masons’ Marks), a copy of which he encloses. Roman, Greek and Late Latin marks show many similarities with mason-marks found at Comalcalco.

Forum-Letter: Comment from Thailand (1 p) Gerhard Kraus 22/1-p 19

Expresses his support for Fell against critics, particularly Marshall McKusick and Stephen Williams.

Forum-Letter: Ogham Historical Society, Queensland 4109, Australia (1 p) Don Sisson 22/1-p 19

As a result of lectures on Fell’s work by Eugene Bishopp, the Queensland Irish Association passed a motion to formally affiliate itself with the Epigraphic Society. They have also requested the State Library of Queensland to stock current and past volumes of ESOP.

Forum-Letter: Illinois Historic Preservation Agency on "Burrows Cave" (1 p) Thomas E. Emerson 22/1-p 20

Illinois’ Chief Archaeologist responds to an enquiry from Lois Benedict (on behalf of the American Institute for Archaeological Research). He stated that, contrary to reports, with the exception of several telephone calls from Russell Burrows (in which Burrows intimated that he had little involvement with the matter and requested information on State burial laws), no one concerned with Burrows Cave has ever contacted his office requesting a permit to excavate at Burrows Cave (as required by law). Emerson stated: “It is my present opinion that there is little evidence to support either the existence of any protected burials and/or associated artifacts…” He said that if disturbance of a protected burial was found to be occurring, his agency would “notify the local law…and pursue prosecution of those involved. Finally, Emerson added that, in his experience, such a site would have come to the attention of locals, the collecting community, and other interested individuals and be virtually impossible to keep secret –yet none of the traditional sources of information were aware of the site except through the public comments of Russell Burrows.

Editorial: The Epigraphic Discipline (2 pp) Jon Polansky 22/1-p 21

The author lauds the scientific discipline being applied by Fell and others involved in epigraphic research using the comparative method. He points out that there exist trends that are potentially negative: 1) the desire for a “final translation” rather than arriving at an appreciation for the process of decipherment and the scholarly efforts entailed thereby; 2) appropriate methods to achieve productive critical evaluations –the postulates, methodology and evidence which requires testing (there must be no “sacred cows” nor currying favor with established authorities); and 3) epigraphic and linguistic problems, including the work of Fell, should be examined within the context of its own discipline, and it is crucial that adherence to the highest standards of performance and critical evaluation of data is essential, staying within academic boundaries insofar as possible. There should be a “battleground of ideas” rather than a “battleground of personalities.” Credit should be given to the pioneers who established postulates within the field as well as those who contributed in different ways to the careful appraisal of epigraphic evidence. Such efforts should facilitate the cooperation required to examine data and proposals while scientific discipline and personal integrity are maintained.

Editorial: Ad hominem Scholarship (2 pp) George F. Carter 22/1-p 22

Carter details the facts concerning the finding of the Bat Creek Stone and the strong evidence for its authenticity as well as the presence of first century Hebrews in Tennessee. He deplores the purely ad hominem attack made by Professor Lowell Kirk of Hiwassee College.

Editorial: Fell, Epigraphy and the Archaeological Monroe Doctrine (2 pp) George F. Carter 22/1-p 24

The author speaks of the development of his career and how he came to a Diffusionist point of view. He tells of his relationship with Barry Fell and his appreciation for Fell’s work which was carried out against fierce adverse criticism –which is a measure of the impact of his findings not only on Amerind prehistory, but on much of world history and our ideas concerning the growth and development of civilizations. Some noted epigraphers, however, such as Linus Brunner and David Kelley, have lauded Fell. Carter cites Kelley in particular who published a balanced review of Fell’s work in the Review of Archaeology. Kelley first listed in extenso what he called Fell’s linguistic and scholarly sins, then he considered Fell’s contributions, crediting Fell with identifying up to 13 Old World languages in the epigraphy of America ‘mostly correctly’. He added that Fell had made monumental contributions to the world of epigraphy that far offset his so-called ‘sins’.

Review: Ancient American Inscriptions by William McGlone, Phillip Leonard, Jamees Guthrie, Rollin Gillespie, & James Whittall, Early Sites Research Society, 1993 (2 pp) Norman Totten 22/1-p 25

Totten recognizes that he had not had sufficient time to properly evaluate the volume (he had written an introduction for an earlier precursor of this volume). He says on the dustjacket: “This is a book about which there may be considerable disagreement. The serious reader will find this book well-researched and provocative.” He admits that other members of the Society may not agree that the book is “well-researched.” He cites the volume as “relevant to the purposes of ESOP” and invites readers to submit short reviews of their own.

Review: African Presence in Early America edited by Ivan Van Sertima, Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick & London, 1992 (6 pp) George F. Carter 22/1-p 26

Carter calls this “…an interesting series of essays on the question of Africans in America.” Besides reviewing the work of pioneers in the field, such as Leo Wiener and Harold Gladwin, Van Sertima provides several chapters delineating his own work amassing evidence for a pre-Columbian connection between Africa and the Americas. There are also chapters by other leading researchers in the field, Von Wuthenau, Keith Jordan, Jean Covey, Beatrice Lumpkin, David Muffet, Harold Lawrence, Harold Gladwin (represented by a review of his book, Men Out of Asia), L. H. Clegg, and Wayne Chandler. Despite seeing a tendency on the part of the various authors to overstate their claims, it is obvious that the Carter finds this book to be a valuable addition to the corpus.

Gauguin and Easter Island Writing (2 pp) George F. Carter 22/1-p 32

Fell’s work on the Easter Island text seen in Gaugin’s portrait of his Tahitian wife suggested to Carter that the rest of Gaugin’s Polynesian work should be examined to see if other instances of his use of the local script could be found. He managed to find such an example on a carved wood cylinder by Gaugin titled Christ on a Cross.

Gauguin's Crucifix and its Decipherment (5 pp) Barry Fell 22/1-p 34

Fell translates the script shown on the Gaugin crucifix (dated to 1896/97): “The cross of the Blessed Son of God. Our Lord prays for our salvation and for the forgiveness of the countless sins of the world. Such were the sufferings of the Savior.” Gaugin’s crucifix shows that not only was he familiar with the prosonomastic principle of the rongorongo script, but was also acquainted with the post-European-contact religious vocabulary in use in Polynesian Christian communities.

Egyptian Gold Seekers and Exploration in the Pacific (7 pp) George F. Carter 22/1-p 38

Fell’s work on translating the material in the Libyan alphabet in North Africa and his finding that it was the key to reading inscriptions in the Indian and Pacific Ocean areas and even in the Americas, led him to translate the work of Quiring on “The Golden Isle of Isador Von Sevilla…” (given here with his comments in brackets) which dealt with the oceanic discoveries of Egyptian and Phoenician seafarers. Carter, in analyzing the manuscript, comes to the conclusion that Quiring was right in saying that the Egyptians explored Indonesia and also reached China.

The Merchant Fleet of Ancient Iberia (2 pp) Barry Fell 22/1-p 45

Excavations at Ullastret in Northeastern Spain have revealed that maize was stored in ancient silos there (dated to no later than 195 BC). Since the coinage of ancient cities often featured the principal products or trade goods on which their fortune depended, Fell examined the ancient coinage of Spain. He found strong evidence that cities in the northeastern portion of Spain in the vicinity of Ullastret were heavily involved in trade in ancient times, with their coins depicting obvious merchant ships which he inferred must have crossed the Atlantic to obtain the maize found in the silos of Ullastret.

Egyptian Pot Marks: A Dilemma (11 pp) Jesse E. Lasken 22/1-p 47

A very high percentage of non-Hieroglyphic marks found on Egyptian pots dated to the 1st Dynasty match letters from late alphabets. The only logical explanation is that the pots are from a time when alphabetical scripts were in use. This strongly suggests significant errors either in the Egyptian chronology or in current assessments of when the use of alphabetic scripts began.

New Etymology of Hittite (9 pp) Linus Brunner 22/1-p 58

Brunner adds his own contribution to the etymology of Hittite to that of Johann Friedrich (Hethitisches Wörterbuch, Heidelberg, 1952).

A Dialect of Minoan from Cyprus (4 pp) Barry Fell 22/1-p 67

Characteristics of the Paphian dialect show that speakers of Minoan were still to be found in Cyprus in classical times and that the tongue had been influenced by contact with Greek speakers. Fell analyzes an ancient inscribed leaden plaque found by A. P. Cesnola in a cemetery tomb near Salamis, Cyprus. A graphic of the Paphian syllabary is shown.

A Proper Dating of the Linear B Tablets (9 pp) Jesse E. Lasken 22/1-p 71

The Linear B tablets are shown to contain some Latin/Roman terminology. They must, therefore, date after about 207 BC. It is apparent “Mycenaeans” were  the Greeks known from classical and later sources. Since the links between the “Mycenaeans” and the Egyptians are indisputable, the revision of Mycenaean chronology compelled by the literary sources and the Linear B tablets provides further  proof that the Egyptian and other chronologies linked to it are fundamentally flawed.

Ogam Found in the Rio Grande Valley (2 pp) Arnold Murray 22/1-p 80

The author had the pleasure of visiting a mine site on Victoria Peak owned by Milton E. (Doc) Noss and his wife Ova, reputed to be the “Mountain of Gold” reported by Coronado. While there he spotted an Ogam inscription he copied and forwarded to Fell who deciphered it (shown).

The Ogam Bilingual at Kilbonane, Co Kerry (6 pp) Lawrence F. Athy 22/1-p 81

The author analyzes a sepulchral monument, delineating all the various attempts of scholars to translate the Ogam inscriptions upon it. It proves to be a bi-lingual inscription with Ogam script cloaking both Celtic and Latin language. Athy deftly solves a difficult problem in decipherment.

The Ogam Scales of the Book of Ballymote (46 pp) Barry Fell 22/1-p 87

Fell provides large clear diagrams of the Ogam Scales (that is, graphics of various versions of Ogam alphabets (those used to cloak language as well as script the purpose of which was either magical or mantic). Each ‘scale’ is accompanied by its name and a description of the manner and purpose of its use.

Petroglyphs of Japan (3 pp) Nobuhiro Yoshida (edited by John Williams) 22/1-p 133

More than 800 petroglyphs have been recorded throughout Japan. The most significant appear to be those that are remarkably similar in style to letters from the following ancient alphabets: Proto-Sumerian or Sumerian cuneiform and Ogam.

Letter: Gaelic Ogam in Oregon (1 p) Richard M. Smith & Barry Fell 22/1-p 135

Smith brings to Fell’s attention Ogam-like pictographs from eastern Oregon, one resembling a ladder and the other sun-like. Fell identified the first as Lad-Ogam as shown in the Book of Ballymote. He suggests that the location may be a solar observatory site.

Proto-ogams on Olmec Monuments (7 pp) Lawrence F. Athy 22/1-p 136

Athy reports on his investigation of Ogam-like markings on the tops of some of the Olmec Colossal Heads from La Venta (graphics shown). These markings were noted in a 1990 report by Neil Steede. [Buchanan comment: Rollin Gillespie knew of such markings in the mid-70s. I was with him on a visit to the National Geographic building in the District of Columbia when he persuaded them to provide a tall ladder so that we could examine the top of the Colossal Head they had on display in their lobby. The Ogam-like lines were indeed there.] Athy visited the La Venta park in Villahermosa, Tabasco, Mexico, to inspect and photograph the various Olmec monuments there. At least 18 of the monuments there (only some of which were Colossal Heads) had groups of incised parallel lines. An excellent photo of Monument #63 is shown with Ogam-like markings clearly displayed. Athy provides his trancription and transliteration of the inscription (using Ogam; graphic shown) and sends it and the photo to Fell.

Runestone with a Cryptic Built-in Date (5 pp) E.V. Nicolajsen & Ditlev Thyssen 22/1-p 143

Thyssen and Danish cryptologist Nicolajsen discuss and analyze two famous inscriptions --the Laeborg and Baekke-1 Runestones, both by the same Runemaster, Ravneunge Tufi (Raven Tue). Using Runic Cryptography, Thyssen demonstrates that both monuments carry the hidden date: 10 November 918. [Buchanan comment: Runic Cryptography was ably discussed and demonstrated by the late Alf Monge in several publications including his Norse Medieval Cryptography in Runic Carvings, Norseman Press, Glendale, California, 1967.]

An Enquiry into the Dating of Certain Celto-Scandinavian Inscriptions in the British Isles (6 pp) Donal Buchanan 22/1-p 148

Discussion, analysis and translation of 4 inscribed monuments, one from Ireland (Killaloe) and three from the Isle of Man (Maughold 1 & 2 and Michael 3), which exhibit (as well as Runic inscriptions) Ogham letters or have contents which indicate a Celtic influence. Their internal characteristics and runic cryptography combine to suggest dates for these inscriptions in the late 12th or early 13th centuries AD. The Bressay stone in Scotland, which bears an Ogham inscription and contains both Old Norse and Celtic language (discussed by R. R. Brash in his The Ogam Inscribed Monuments of the Gaedil in the British Islands, 1879) are noted, but is planned for coverage in a later paper.

Spirit Pond Runestones (4 pp) Paul Chapman 22/1-p 154

This article shows specifically which words of the various proposed translations of the inscriptions (by Buchanan, Carlson, Chapman, Haugen, and Nielsen) on these artifacts are in accord, and the extent of the accord, so that the degree of agreement is plain. Synonyms are counted and secondary renderings are included. The consensus translation reached agreement on 80% of the text. Compare this to the record of the National Museum of Denmark where only seven of the fifteen runestones on display have been completely translated. And also consider runeologist R. I. Page’s quotation of D. M. Wilson’s statement: “That for every inscription there shall be as many interpretations as there are scholars working on it.”

An Old Norse Translation of the Spirit Pond Runic Inscriptions of Maine (60 pp) Richard Nielsen 22/1-p 158

An analysis is presented which shows that previous interpretations of the Spirit Pond Runestones from Maine, USA, have erroneously placed their date around AD 1011, whereas the present analysis shows a dating of AD 1401-1402.The basis of this new interpretation is a closer consideration of the Golden Number rune series and the language use of the period surrounding AD 1401. The content of the inscriptions shows they are the result of a well-established trade route from Gotland to Western Scandinavia to Iceland, around Greenland, and on to North America. The impetus of this expanded trade route included the rich supply of ship timber and furs. Previously discovered runestones, such as the Kensington Runestone in Minnesota, USA, support the conclusion that medieval Scandinavian trade activity in North America was more extensive and occurred at an earlier date than presently accepted. The Spirit Pond Runestones are one more corroboration of this now probable extensive pre-Columbian exchange with Europe. This opens a new and rich opportunity for the re-evaluation of this period of history.

Medical Terminology of the Micmac and Abenaki Languages (14 pp) Barry Fell (edited by Jane Blume) 22/1-p 218

A study of the medical vocabulary of the two chief Amerindian dialects of Northern New England, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. It is apparent that the language of the ancient physicians of the Micmac and the Abenaki was essentially that of the writers of the medical papyri of the Copts and their predecessors, the Ptolemaic Greeks of Alexandran times.

Two Letters to Mr. Champollion in 1832 (9 pp) C.S. Rafinesque 22/1-p 232

A reprint of letters from Rafinesque, a Professor at the University of Pennsylvania, to Champollion on the graphic systems of America and more specifically, the glyphs of Otolum or Palenque in Central America. The letters reveal a man with a startlingly comprehensive grasp of Amerindian languages, culture and scripts unusual for his time –and even for our own.

Hemp Discovers America (8 pp) Jack Frazier 22/1-p  240

The author reviews the history of hemp and the evidence for hemp usage by Amerindians in pre-Columbian times. His article is followed by a commentary by George F. Carter.

The Los Lunas Decalogue (3 pp) Dan E. Rohrer 22/1-p 248

It is suggested that the Los Lunas inscription was carved by Jews who fled northward to New Mexico from Old Mexico at the time of the Inquisition (possibly about around 1580-1600). A graphic of the inscription is shown.

lnscribed Burial Birdstones (7 pp) Luther Damon Howard 22/1-p 251

In 1985, Howard discovered a stone artifact on the Pratt Farm (Middleboro, Plymouth County, Massachusetts) in 1985. It was in an area which he suggests could have been a burial platform. His curiousity about it and the markings upon it led him into a years-long investigation of similar artifacts such as those described by E. R. Moore (1979) which were found in Kent County, Michigan, on what might have been a burial platform. Moore referred to them as a form of “birdstone burial effigy.” In 1987 Howard became aware of the material found in Glozel, France, and recognized, in the script on the artifacts found there, the same markings he saw on the Middleboro and Kent County artifacts.

A Greek Christian Inscription in Clay Co., Kentucky (3 pp) James Burchell 22/1-p 258

In 1972 Burchell found some unusual engravings in a sandstone cave in Kentucky. In 1992, after seeing a documentary about Fell’s work, he returned to the cave, recorded the inscription, which he determined to be in Greek, and sent it to Fell. Fell determined it to be an abbreviation for an expression used in the Gospel of St. John: Jesus Christ, the only-begotten son of God the Father.

National Honor for Clyde Keeler (2 pp) Loretta Crosby 22/1-p 261

In August 1992 the Retinitis Pigmentosa Foundation presented to Keeler a special award in recognition of his pioneering work in the field. This is a reprint of an article in The Union Recorder newspaper, Milledgeville, Georgia.

Ogam Bricriu in the Cimarron Valley (1 p) Barry Fell 22/1-p 262

Fell takes the authors of Ancient American Inscriptions to task for an error in investigation, failing to take into account the possibility that a purported Ogam site in the Southwest might be in Ogam Bricriu.

Wyoming Students Awarded the Society's Medallions – A Case History of Establishments Bias (4 pp) Jon Polansky 22/1-p 263

Two high school students, Chris Bentsen and Dustin Jacobsen, prepared a truly outstanding History Day project (including an excellent display –photos available) on pre-Columbian messages in America. Many of the coaches of the various groups in the state entered in the History Day competition predicted that their project was a winner, but the judges deemed it “too controversial” and two others were chosen by the Governor to represent Wyoming in the national competition. Dr. Fell and Jon Polansky were made aware of the facts of this case by a teacher, Rod Laird. It was arranged that the two students should be awarded a Society Medal of Honor for their achievement. This occurred on 6 October 1993 in a short public ceremony conducted by District Superintendent of Schools Larry Mowry. Further, each of the two received personal letters of congratulations from the Governor of Wyoming, Mike Sullivan.

Swansea, a Multicultural Petroglyph Site in Inyo Co., Califomia, Part 2 (6 pp) Roderick L. Schmidt 22/1-p 267

This paper adds further details to the information provided in Part 1 (in volume 21 of ESOP). Excellent graphics and photographs are included.

A Dated Star Pattern in Arkansas (4 pp) Gloria Farley 22/1-p 273

In April 1970 the writer observed a site in the Ozarks –a wall bearing 21 pecked figures which appeared quite old and with patina evident in the grooves. The wall was dominated by one 22-inch figure who wore a radiant crown. He was much larger than the other figures which averaged 10 to 15 inches in height. Several of the figures (including a cross within a broken circle) were studded with drilled holes which suggested to Farley a star pattern. In 1992 she consulted David Deal about the site. He studied the photos and came to the conclusion that some kind of event was recorded as occurring in the constellation of Gemini. A conjunction of Saturn and Jupiter with Delta Geminorum is suggested as the event. This occurred on 30 March 710. Farley also suggests that the figures may have Egyptian connections. It is further suggested that excavation should take place at the site since some material once known inscribed on the wall has been covered by the rising ground level. A graphic of some of the figures is shown.

The Lone Pine Solar Site Glyphs (8 pp) Roberta C. Smith 22/1-p 277

These glyphs are shown to be derived from Egyptian hieroglyphs and mark a site for observing the summer solstice. Further study of Egyptian astronomy, astrology and religion resulted in the probable identification of the Anubis constellation in the Dendara Zodiac.

Challenge for Epigraphic Sleuths (2 pp) Gunnar Thompson 22/1-p 285

Murals in temples in Bonampak, Mexico, show Mayan priests performing sacred rites. The writer notes that, besides the typical Mayan glyphs, there appeared to be more than 8 lengthy inscriptions on the fringes of the robes worn by the priests. These inscriptions were in a style of writing unknown in the region, but similar to that used in an inscription seen in Chile which Fell identified as a Libyan proclamation left by an Egyptian expedition (see ESOP, volume 19, p 161). The challenge: identify the script and attempt a translation.

Letter: A Tifinag Inscription in Eastern Colorado (1 p) Gloria Farley & Barry Fell 22/1-p 286

Gloria Farley spotted a petroglyph of an owl in eastern Colorado with apparent Tifinag next to it (graphic provided). Fell reads it as W-L and relates it to Teutonic and Scandinavian words meaning “hoot.”

Analysis of an Aztec Artifact (8 pp) Alban Wall 22/1-p 287

17 artifacts similar to one another have been found in various areas of Mexico. They are mostly quite elaborate in design and contain complex symbols and configurations. The layout consists of concentric rings of elements the outermost being composed of eight equally spaced rectangular configurations. Alban came to the conclusion that the purpose of the artifacts was calendric. He analyzes one of the artifacts, which apparently came from an Aztec site. He compares it to the layout of Stonehenge and points out that dividing the year into eight half-seasons was a common calendrical practice (most prominently evident in the Celtic calendar where eight festival days delineate the divisions). There are excellent graphics.

The 260-Day Calendar of Sahagun (8 pp) Terry Stocker & George B. Dodge 22/1-p 295

The Aztec 260-day calendar presented in Sahagun’s Book of Soothsayers is analyzed. It is concluded that at least two different scribes painted the day signs. It is suggested that Sahagun’s confusion over the mechanism of the 260-day calendar may have resulted from the possibility that Sahagun himself never interviewed a soothsayer.

Taino: Indians who Discovered Columbus (6 pp) Norman Totten 22/1-p 303

Totten gives a brief history of the people of the Caribbean first encountered by Columbus. Numerous features in the Taino culture seem to relate directly or indirectly with pre-Columbian peoples in the southeast US, Mexico, Central America, and northern South America. It appears that writing did occur in the Taino culture, perhaps as an imported feature, guarded and secret. There is a discussion of the 800 inscribed stones found at Guayanilla, Puerto Rico.

The Cuna Soul Boat (8 pp) Clyde Keeler 22/1-p 309

Keeler describes a Cuna funerary practice and compares it to a similar Egyptian practice.

Dinosaurs at Ica (2 pp) George F. Carter 22/1-p 317

Carter makes a strong case of fraud against the artifacts from Ica which show dinosaurs.

Celtic Scholars Comment (1 p) Sanford Etheridge & Lou Menez 22/1-p 318

Sanford Etheridge, a linguist from Tulane University, and Lou Menez, a Breton missionary who worked with the Takhelne in the Northwest Territories, both separately comment favorably on Fell’s work.

The Kinderhook Plates (8 pp) Scott Young & Barry Fell 22/1-p 319

Young brought the six inscribed brass plates found near Kinderhook, Pike County, Illinois, to Fell’s attention in February 1977. The place are said to have been discovered on the 23rd of April 1843 during the excavation of a large mound. Fell proves to his satisfaction that the plates are fakes, fabricated as an April Fool’s joke in 1843 by a local named W. Fugate (one of the witnesses who attested to the original find). The plates are depicted in excellent graphics.

Filmore, Utah Inscription (2 pp) James Harris 22/1-p 327

The author links a petroglyph found near Filmore, Utah, to Egyptian motifs associated with Anubis.

On the Cover

A Brick Pyramid (also known as Temple 1) in Comalcalco, Tabasco, Mexico. Photo by Lawrence F. Athy. Built of fired bricks, thousands of which bear inscribed graffiti said by Fell to be like that of Roman North Africa, the pyramid has been the subject of continuing research published in recent volumes of ESOP. According to Fell, the graffiti show that the bricks were made by Christian and Moslem workers apparently held captive by the Mayans They used Punic, Libyan and Arabic scripts.


 Epigraphic Society Occasional Papers

Table of Contents Volume 22 Part II, 1994


The Spirit Pond Runestones

A Study in Linguistics (64 pp) by Paul H. Chapman


After an introduction in which he reviews the history of some Scandinavian inscriptions found in North America, Chapman gives a favorable review of the work of Donal Buchanan on the Spirit Pond Stones. He also covers work done by Einar Haugen and egregious errors made by Erik Wahlgren. He then goes on to provide his own translation of the stones.


Preface 22/2-p. iv


1. The Ultimate Crossword Puzzle 22/2-p 1

            The Kensington Misdirection           

            Donal Buchanan's Work           

            Wahlgren's Fantasy           




2. The Mapstone, A Challenge 22/2-p 9



            Mapstone Reverse


            Meeting with Dr. Einar Haugen

            Linguistic Time Frame

3. The Amulet, A Love Story 22/2-p 21

4. Three Steps to Translation 22/2-p 23



5. H E L P ! 22/2-p 27

            Evidence from Elsewhere

            A Trip to Iceland

            Help from Greenland

            Help from Denmark

            Help from Norway

6. Toward Agreement 22/2-p 35

            Final Breakthrough

7. The Memorial, A Saga in Stone 22/2-p 39



            Possible Error

            Those Strange Macrons

8. Also a Christian 22/2-p 49

9. Finally 22/2-p 51


10. Why Maine 22/2-p 55

            Postscript 22/2-p 56

            Notes 22/2-p 57

            Bibliography 22/2-p 59

            Index 22/2-p 60


On the Cover

The title, Spirit Pond Runestones, is set forth in Norse runes.


 Epigraphic Society Occasional Papers

Table of Contents, Volume 23, 1998

Officers of the Society (1 p) The Editors 23-p 2

The officers and Board members of The Epigraphic Society are listed and information is provided about them.

Barry Fell (1 p) Jon Polansky 23-p 4

A short elegy to Dr. Fell (1917-1994), lauding him as a teacher who encouraged independent thought and the pursuit of the scientific method.

Editorial: A Continuing Heritage (1 p) Donal Buchanan 23-p 5

Buchanan explains what Barry meant to him. Fell was important, not because he was always right –he wasn’t; but because he taught one to think.

Editorial: To Members & Subscribers (2 pp) Norman Totten 23-p 5

Totten introduces the first issue of ESOP to be published since Fell’s death. “The same emphasis on creativity will be maintained, with greater emphasis on inter-disciplinary approaches.”

Editorial: On Reading Ancient Scripts (4 pp) George Carter 23-p 6

Carter defends Fell’s record. Critics accused Fell of “forcing” a translation or decipherment and thus often falling into error. Carter points out that decipherment is not an exact science: even the best scholars often come to different translations of the same inscription. He goes on to describe evidence for difussion provided by scholars other than Fell.

Editorial: ESOP 23 and Beyond (4 pp) Jon Polansky 23-p 9

The Chief Editor of ESOP enlarges on his plans and desires for the journal. An interdisciplinary approach to developing methods and data bases for the investigation of cultural diffusions (including the involvement, where applicable, of Amerindian experts), the fostering of exchanges between scholars of differing views, as well as critical evaluation and re-evaluation of the evidence.

Letter: Under Our Noses‑Too Close to See (2 pp) Warren Dexter 23-p 13

Dexter points out that often we miss items of importance that others outside our frame of reference see at once. As an example, he points to an inscribed pillar (possible Ogham) on the Milk River in Canada (photo by Dexter shown).

Letter: Pre‑Columbian Contacts With Native American Cultures (2 pp) Vine Deloria 23-p 14

Deloria points out that besides inscriptions which may have been left by Old World explorers before Columbus, there is evidence from Amerindian sources of pre-Columbian contacts.

Letter: Early African Presence in the New World (4 pp) Richard Ashcroft 23-p 15

The writer sets forth evidence for an early pre-Columbian African presence in the Americas.
Letter: Semitic Inscriptions in the Americas (1 p) James Trimm 23-p 19

A Semiticist expresses his interest in proposed Semitic inscriptions found in the Americas. It is his hope that he can contribute to future investigations of this controversial question.

Letter: The Cree Syllabary and Native American Writing (2 pp) The Editors 23-p 19

An introduction to the next two letters, a correspondence on Cree between two noted scholars with widely differing views.

Letter: Historical Context of the Cree Syllabary (4 pp) Gerald M. Hutchison 23-p 20

Hutchison sets for the evidence for the creation of the Cree Syllabary by the Rev. James Evans.

Letter: The Cree Syllabary: An Indigenous Writing System (3 pp) Louis Buff Parry 23-p 23

Parry considers that the weight of the evidence clearly shows a pre-Columbian use of the Syllabary by the Cree (a graphic of the Cree Syllabary is provided).

Letter: Kuna Writing/Kogi Mythology (1 p) Daniel Lucas 23-p 26

Draws attention to a Kuna mola (graphic shown) which shows usage of a script similar to the Muisca glyphs known from the Bogota plains area of Colombia which are associated with calendrics (graphic shown).

Letter: Ancient Kuna Writing? (2 p) Tom Strider 23-p 27

Strider points to the strong similarity between Kuna writing as seen in an article by George Carter in volume 20 (graphic shown) and that used in the Wichub Wala document (graphic shown) apparently authored by one Enrique Figueroa (of Wichub Wala in the San Blas Islands where the Kuna lived). Indeed the Wichub Wala graphic appears to be a close duplicate of the first 13 lines shown in Carter’s graphic.

Letter: Walrus Bone Golden Numbers of the Norse (2 pp) Frans H. Dullemond 23-p 28

The author argues that the Walrus Calendar illustrated by Worm in 1643 dates to as early as 1100 AD rather than 1347 AD as suggested by Bugge.

Letter: The Epigraphic Seal (1 p) Bill Rudersdorf & Michael Skupin 23-p 29

Rudersdorf and Skupin commissioned an artist, Tex Welch, to create a steel replica of the Society’s seal for presentation to Dr. Barry Fell on the occasion of his 75th birthday.

Letter: Megalithic Monuments in Connecticut (1 p) E.T. Krumeich 23-p 30

Provides color photos (shown) of a stone chair and a possible dolmen, both located at sites in Connecticut.

Research Report: Old World Sites in the Northeast (3 pp) John A. Williams 23-p 31

One of the earliest members of the Society reflects upon his relationship with Barry Fell in research carried out in New England over a 20 year period (photos of stone chambers in New York and Connecticut shown).

Research Report: Mesoamerican Research: A Comalcalco Update (4 pp) Neil Steede 23-p 33

Steede originallycontacted Barry Fell at the suggestion of Alexander von Wuthenau. His relationship with Fell resulted in useful insights and added a focus and testable hypotheses to the ongoing research at Comalcalco and elsewhere (excellent color photos of the Comalcalco site shown). He discusses progress made since his last report on the site.

Research Report: Ship of Controversy (10 pp) George Carter 23-p 37

Discusses the original ship-glyph used as inspiration for the Society’s seal. He compares the various renditions with other depictions of early ships (numerous graphics).

The Decipherment of East Central Iberic (24 pp) Donal Buchanan 23-p 47

The sound values for the East Central Iberic script are for the most part identical with those for the Southwest Iberic script. While the area where this script is used was at one time known to be heavily Celtic before the arrival of the Romans, the language cloaked by this script is not Celtic, but a form of non-literary Latin or Old Spanish. The inscriptions using the script probably date no earlier than about 180 BC and, in some cases, may be as late as 100-200 AD. Decipherments of a number of inscriptions are given with numerous supporting graphics and a detailed vocabulary: The Abengibre Plates; Lead Laminas from El Llano de Consolacion, La Bastida de les Alcuses (Mogente); the inscribed stone at El Salobral; and the La Sagra Bowl.

A Precise Petroglyph Equinox Marker in Eastern California (15 pp) Alan Gillespie 23-p 71

Petroglyph site INY272 contains a simple pecked marker consisting of six vertical bars that can be used, during the week of the equinox, to predict the time of the equinox, relative to sunset, within 3 hours. The site, which is determined to be at least several hundred years old, reveals a surprising astronomical sophistication on the part of its creator (well illustrated).

The Karanovo Zodiac and Old European linear (7 pp) Richard Flavin 23-p 86

An examination of the origins of writing. Recent work comparing Old European Linear script with Cretan Linear A and Classical Cypriote syllabaries suggests a writing tradition which continued from Neolithic times down to later Mediterranean cultures, challenging earlier theories.

Ancient Linguistic Associations in the Mediterranean (7 pp) N. Falaschi 23-p 93

The author offers decipherments of eight Etruscan and Illyrian inscriptions from Italy and Albania (ancient Illyria), using Albanian as the key language. She also attempts the decipherment of two inscriptions from Southern Portugal. [Buchanan Comment: Unfortunately, the transcriptions she used for the latter two inscriptions were faulty. See my The Decipherment of Southwest Iberic, ESOP volume 20/2, 1991.]

Kenu District Inscriptions: Fr. Japan to the Ancient Orient (11 pp) H. Fukuda 23-p 100

The author, a member of the Japan Petroglyph Society relates the inscriptions to Sumerian mythology and symbols.

A Curious Element in Uto-Aztecan Linguistics (32 pp) Bryan D. Stubbs 23-p 109

A linguist sets forth data for a possible connection between Semitic and Uto-Aztecan.

The Rochester Creek Petroglyphs, Part 1: New Proposals (5 pp) Jon Polansky 23-p 141

Images suggesting the Corona Borealis and Bootes at the Rochester site led to the consideration that other aspects of archaeoastronomy or star lore traditions might also be represented there. Investigation suggested a Milky Way depiction involving recognizable Zodiacal elements. Both Old World and Amerindian elements can be seen.

Interpretations: 6-toed Footprints in Western Petroglyphs (7 pp) Gloria Farley 23-p 146

The author compares 6-toed Footprint petroglyphs in the Southwest with similar depictions in Egypt and Southern Africa.

Kuna Dimensions (13 pp) Norman Totten 23-p 153

Totten picks up the baton dropped by the late Clyde Keeler and expounds on Kuna culture and religious beliefs.

The Quincunx as an Internal/Extemal Orientation Symbol (9 pp) C. Herberger 23-p 166

The Quincunx or quadrilateral with crossed diagonals, like the swastika and the labyrinth, is one of the primordial symbols of untold age and worldwide distribution. It is a symbol of orientation with external and internal implications, referring to the sun’s movement in space as seen from the earth and its marking of cyclical time: a symbol of cosmological unity and wholeness.

Aztec 260 Day Count: Augury Table, not Calendar (12 pp) Terry Stocker 23-p 175

Building upon the author’s previous work, this presentation illustrates that the 260 day calendar has a lunar basis. It is not a calendar, but an augury table.
Forum: The Kensington Runestone --Introduction (1 p) The Editors 23-p 187

The editors introduce the participants, giving biographic information on Richard Nielsen, Robert Hall, and James Knirk.

Forum: Kensington Stone Linguistics (50 pp) Richard Nielsen 23-p 189

This paper concentrates on the non-Runic aspects of the Kensington Runestone and reviews the work of six well-known detractors of its authenticity --three Danes: Harry Andersen, Erik Moltke, and Karl Martin Nielsen; two Swedes: Sven Jansson and Brigitte Wallace; and one American: Erik Wahlgren. Their unsubstantiated assertions are all refuted by new evidence brought forth here.

Forum: Commentary (6 pp) Robert Hall 23-p 238

Says that the “negators” fail to do their ‘homework’ and, in the case of the Kensington Runestone, failed to follow the normal procedures of scholarly investigation. Lauds Nielsen for placing the whole discussion on a new and sounder basis.

Forum: Commentary (4 pp) James Knirk 23-p 244

Knirk presents linguistic difficulties that suggest strongly that the Kensington Runestone could not have been carved at the time suggested, but is a late forgery.

Forum: Responses (18 pp) Richard Nielsen 23-pp 242, 248

Nielsen concurs with Hall’s review and adds highlights with additional examples. He also responds to the specific linguistic criticisms by Knirk.

In Memoriam: Howard Barraclough Fell (1917-1994) (4 pp) René Fell 23-p 266                                                    

Mrs. Fell has written a touching tribute and excellent biography of her husband (good photos available).

In Memoriam: Barry Fell (1 p) Norman Totten 23-p 269

Totten lauds his old friend as a gentle warrior, peeling back the mysteries that time sets before us.

In Memoriam: Clyde Keeler (1900-1994) (2 pp) Gloria Farley 23-p 270

An excellent biography of Clyde (with a photo) by an old friend.

In Memoriam: Joseph Mahan (1921-1995) (1 p) Donal B. Buchanan 23-p 272

Memories of the founder of the Institute for the Study of American Cultures (ISAC) (photo available).

In Memoriam: Alexander Von Withenau (1 p) Neil Steede 23-p 272

Steede remembers him as an inspiring scholar who first suggested that he get in touch with Barry Fell about his Comalcalco site (photo available).

In Memoriam: Roberta C. & Edward A. Smith (1 p) Gloria Farley 23-p 273

Gloria remembers two fine researchers whose lives were snuffed out in a car accident in 1994 (photo available).

In Memoriam: Dr. Albert Gottfried Hahn (1917-1994) (1 p) Paul Chapman 23-p 273

A memory of a gentle scholar who will be sorely missed by his colleagues.
Information for Authors (1 p) 23-p 274

Delineates the Society’s requirements for authors desiring to appear in its publication. The final paragraph sets forth the copyright policy: that material appearing in ESOP may not be reproduced by others without prior written permission of the author(s) and ESOP, in whole or part, electronically or otherwise. Copyrights are retained for the authors who may reproduce their own work as they wish.

On the Cover

A photograph of a relief sculpture of Barry Fell made prior to his death.

Epigraphic Society Occasional Papers

Table of Contents, Volume 24, 2004


Officers of the Society (1 p) The Editors 24-p 2

The officers and Board members of The Epigraphic Society are listed and information is provided about them.

Three Dimensional Corn Representations from India in Pre-Columbian Times (1p) Carl Johannessen 24-p 4


Explains that the cover photo illustrates one of the many ears of corn in the hands of Goddesses in temples in Karnataka State, South India. Johannessen says these are clear indications of trans-oceanic cultural diffusion.


Consideration of Asian Crops Indicate Longstanding Transoceanic Pre-Columbian Contacts (8 pp) Carl Johannessen 24-p5


In our cover story, the author discusses his investigations in India and his findings that lead him to conclude that many cultures traded ideas and items with several others, either through intermediaries or directly. The evidence is irrevocable and we need to catch up with the realities of history.


Filler: Excerpt from an Interview with Carl Johannesen (1 p) Lauren Polansky 24-p 12


Lauren interviewed Johannessen in August 2004 about how he got interested in the subject of trans-oceanic contacts. (Photo of Johannessen.)


Editorial: The President’s Message –ESOP and History (2 pp) Norman Totten 24-p 13


The author describes Barry’s early struggles with the establishment during his founding of the Epigraphic Society. He goes on to discuss work done on the present volume and plans in existence for volumes 25, 26, and 27.  After some remarks concerning the Society’s library and his desire that it be catalogued and established in a permanent location, Totten concludes with comments about the Society’s finances and the necessity for production of a quality publication. (Photo of Totten.)


Interview: Totten Receives the Kidger Award (5 pp) The Editors 24-p 15


Editor Jon Polansky interviews Norman Totten about his career and his part in the founding of the Epigraphic Society and the furtherance of epigraphic research in America. (Photo of Totten receiving the Kidger Award.)


Filler: The Tunnel Rock Ogham: An Artist’s View (1 p) Ann Buchanan 24-p 19


This inscription was found at Corridor Site 3, Colorado, in  1976, by Don Ritchie of the Bureau of Land Management. It was deciphered by Barry Fell and featured in Ancient Celtic America by William McGlone and Philip Leonard.


Editorial: To My Epigraphic Colleagues (3 pp) Jon Polansky 24-p 20


Jon discusses the delay in publication of 24, mentioning his persistent illness. He apologizes to authors whose publications were delayed, and to the readers who had come to expect an ongoing source of epigraphic information. He goes on to discuss the contents and structure of volume 24 and future plans for the publication.


Filler: A Quote from Boswell’s Journal of a Tour of the Hebrides (1 p) James Boswell 24-p 22


Boswell expresses sorrow for the extinction of any language “because languages are the pedigree of nations.”


Editorial: Why the Issue Was Delayed (2 pp) Donal B. Buchanan 24-p 23


Enlarges on the discussion begun by Jon. Says that the editors are seeking to turn out a publication that can bridge the gap between professionals and amateurs. This necessitates that, insofar as possible, articles undergo review by knowledgeable people, and authors be requested to make revisions where necessary, all of which takes time. He points out that Barry was not always right but, in the final analysis, was able to face up to errors. We should emulate Barry by displaying a similar level of intellectual courage. We should beware falling into a ‘siege mentality’ when beleaguered by unfair criticism. We look forward to a more regular publication of ESOP and welcome the presence of other epigraphic publications and activities. We will carry on towards our goal: to provide a respected vehicle for the exchange of carefully acquired information about epigraphy and epigraphic sites and findings. We believe this is consistent with Barry’s vision for the Society, and look forward to making it a reality. It is a privilege to follow in his footsteps.


Filler: Comments On An Etruscan Inscription (1 p) Donal B. Buchanan 24-p 24


A sample page from the Etruscan Database under compilation by Buchanan. This particular inscription, while considered Etruscan, shows strong connections to both Latin and Greek.


Correspondence: Discussions with Ed Robertson (9 pp) Donal Buchanan & Ed Robertson 24-p 25


A selection of correspondence dated between July 1999 and February 2000. Robertson, writing from Scotland, is deeply involved in the study of Italo-Celtic languages with particular emphasis on Raetic. There is a lively discussion of Buchanan’s work on SW Iberic, the Lemnos Inscription, the Caslir and Ceglie inscriptions (Italo-Celtic), and the Scholastic Ogham inscriptions on Pictish stones in Scotland. A possible connection between the Etruscan and Iberic scripts is suggested. Discussions follow of Glyphbreaker by Fischer, Ruhlen’s Origin of Language, and Conway’s Prae-Italic Dialects. Also discussed: The Phaistos Disk and the Magliano Plate (graphics are shown of the latter). After receiving a sending from Buchanan containing his work on Lemnos, SW Iberic, and so-called ‘Pictish’ Ogham, Robertson asked 5 specific and pointed questions which Buchanan then answered.


Correspondence: Louis L’Amour –An Early Fan (2 pp) The Editors 24-p 34


The archives of the Epigraphic Society have turned up the fact that Louis L’Amour, the famous Western writer, was in touch with Dr. Fell as early as March 1977 (a letter from him to Fell was published in ESOP 14 in 1985). L’Amour speaks of coin finds he knows about and of a cave at Smith’s Fork, a branch of Caney Fork, where the bodies of three white people with red hair were found wrapped in deerskins sewn together and then further wrapped in blankets of woven bark. He stated that in the course of his research he had come across many such accounts. Only a one page of the letter is available at this time. It was in a folder with material on the Judaculla Rock, a petroglyph site on Caney Fork Creek, Jackson Co., NC. Information on Judaculla Rock and its inscriptions follow, along with quotes from L’Amour’s books showing his continuing interest in epigraphy and diffusion.


Correspondence: An Ogham Inscription in Colorado featured in Website (1 p) Marilynn Thomas 24-p 35


Thomas calls our attention to http://www.springfieldco.info/crkcave.htm which discusses the inscriptions found in Picture Canyon and Crack Cave (deciphered by Fell in 1985). A good photo by Bob Appel of one of the alleged Ogham inscriptions is shown.


Correspondence: Really Ancient Epigraphy (6 pp) Gordon Currie 24-p 36


Currie sent in an excellent photo (shown) of markings on rock found above Fraser Canyon in British Columbia. He asked for information, citing an article by Bruce A. MacDonald in ESOP Volume 7: The Inscribed Rock Near Spuzzum, British Columbia. Buchanan sent him the article (included here in its entirety) and remarked that the inscription reported by MacDonald looked remarkably like the ones reported by Currie. A reprint of MacDonald’s article is included at this point. Currie replied with his thanks for the article and stated that he had conducted tests that proved that the markings were not man-made, but fracture markings (illustrative picture shown). Buchanan thanked Currie for his material and requested permission to publish. He noted that while Fell had published MacDonald’s interesting report, he had never attempted a decipherment nor suggested there was one.


Correspondence: A Puzzlement to Solve (1 p) Fabio Campos 24-p 41


Campos sent Buchanan his copy of a strange script he had run across (shown). Buchanan replied that he was unable to identify it and asked for further information on its provenance. No reply was ever received. Input from readers requested.


Correspondence: The Saga of the False Cove Stone –The Epigrapher’s Tale (3 pp) Patrick L. Abbott 24-p 42


In September 1989, Barry Fell and his wife found an inscribed boulder on a rocky beach at False Cove, 300 yards north of Tourmaline Park at Pacific Beach, San Diego.  Abbott, a geologist with the Department of Geological Sciences, San Diego State University comments on Dr. Fell’s published translation of the Ogam-like markings on the stone and suggests that the grooves were most likely made by modern scoops and scrapers used to clear the beaches of kelp and other debris. (Good photo of Fell with the stone, p 42; excellent photo of stone, p 44).


Correspondence: The Saga of the False Cove Stone –Dr. Fell’s Reply (1 p) Barry Fell 24-p 45


Fell replies to Abbott’s critique pointing out how unlikely it would be that three successive attacks by a bulldozer could account for uniformly arranged letters in a Numidian text with a uniform patina covering the whole.


Correspondence: The Saga of the False Cove Stone –The False Cove Rock Gets a New Home (1 p) Marshall Payn 24-p 45


Marshall Payn, in a an e-mail exchange with Buchanan reports on the donation of the False Cove Rock to the Heritage of the Americas Museum on the Cuyamaca college campus where it will be amply safeguarded and will bear a plaque stating that it is the earliest known writing on the west coast. This donation, from the Epigraphic Society of Southern California, was arranged by Wayne Kenaston Jr. (President of that Society) and Marshall Payn (V.P. of that Society).


Correspondence: The Etowah Stone (2 pp) Amos J. Wright Jr. 24-p 46


An exchange of correspondence between the late Amos Wright and the editors of ESOP concerning an inscribed stone found in Etowah County, Alabama, in 1999. Wright was referred to ESOP by Donald Gilmore, Sue Carlson and Roz Strong of the New England Antiquities Research Association (NEARA). There is a facsimile of a news item about the stone written by Danny Crownover as well as good photos of the stone itself in two different orientations.


Correspondence: A Petroglyph in a Cave in New Mexico (1 p) Noel Chitwood 24-p 48


Chitwood contacted Donal Buchanan concerning an inscribed stone he saw in a cave in New Mexico. A good photo of the inscribed stone is shown. Buchanan suggested that the markings might be Amerindian.


Correspondence: Some Comments on Barry Fell’s Decipherment of the Rongo-Rongo Script  (4 pp) Phil Garn 24-p 49


Garn comments at length on Barry’s decipherment and on the structure of Polynesian languages. He discusses the religious and cultural practices of the area which are important to consider when attempting such a translation. He complains that he cannot find all of Fell’s references and admits that he is unable, due to his lack of knowledge and references, to comment critically or challenge Fell’s decipherment. He states that Fell’s approach was logical and finds no fault with his methodology.


Reprint: A Polynesian Inscription from Tahiti (4 pp) Barry Fell 24-p 52


As an adjunct to Garn’s correspondence we take pleasure in presenting a reprint of one of Fell’s most famous Rongo-Rongo decipherments (originally appearing in ESOP, Vol. 19, 1990, pp 278-280). He deciphered the inscription shown in the background of a painting by Paul Gaugin of his Tahitian mistress and entitled “The Many Ancestors of Tehamana.” Fell suggests that the Easter Island script was long known in Tahiti, but concealed from the European administrators of the island.


Correspondence: The Cree Syllabary and Native American Writing (7 pp) (continued from pp 19-25, Vol. 23) Editorial Comment 24-p 55


A second installment of the discussion begun in Volume 23 of ESOP by Gloria Farley, Louis Buff Parry, and Gerald Hutchison. Both Hutchison and Parry are preparing substantial contributions on related topics for a future edition of ESOP.


Correspondence: The Ancient Origin of the Cree Syllabary (4 pp) Gloria Farley 24-p 55


Farley tells of her reception of a Chippewa Indian alphabet (shown) from a Creek Indian friend in 1976. She sent it to Fell who identified it as an earlier example of the Cree-Ojibway alphabet and synonymous with the script of the ancient Arab city of Palmyra, in Syria. She cites ESOP, Vol. 3, Part I, paper #54. She goes on to speak further of Fell’s work on the Algonquian Cree syllabary (shown) and his identification of its relationship to the Basque syllabary. She shows a petroglyph of a turtle with an inscription on its back in Cree letters Fell read as “ke-si-toh” = “he makes” or “he creates.”


Correspondence: Origins of the Cree and Ojibway Syllabaries (2 pp) Louis Buff Parry 24-p 58


Parry relates the Cree and Ojibway syllabaries to proto-Hebrew and demonstrates its relationship with Palmyrene, a conclusion independently arrived at by James Evans, Barry Fell, and himself.


Correspondence: The Steinhauer Declaration (3 pp) Gerald Hutchison 24-p 59


Hutchison reviews Evans’ career as a Methodist missionary in Canada and his work on the syllabary. He quotes an Anglican missionary named William Mason who credits Evans with the invention of the Cree Syllabary. They were apparently unaware that the Cree characters may have been in existence before the advent of Evans.


Correspondence: Further Observations of Kogi Knowledge (2 pp) Daniel Lucas 24-p 62


Lucas follows up on his correspondence in ESOP 23 re Kuna writing and mythology. He recommends a BBC documentary on the Kogi: “Heart of the World” as well as a book by Alan Arera titled “Elder Brother.” He gives a corrected version of a graphic that was inadvertently published upside down. He discusses the queta symbols (sun symbols?) and the pispiska symbols, both apparently related to Kogi astronomical concepts.


Correspondence: A Passage in Ganong’s Cartographic Work, 1964 (1 p) Terry Deveau 24-p 63


Deveau brings our attention to a passage in William Francis Ganong’s Crucial Maps in the Early Cartography and Place-Nomenclature of the Atlantic Coast of Canada (Toronto, 1964) in which he mentions several undoubtedly ancient Norwegian battle axes, spears and smaller objects as having been found in divers parts of the Minnesota region. Ganong cited no references and ESOP readers are asked for information if available.


Correspondence: An Old Hebrew Inscription from Wadi el-Hol (3 pp) James Harris 24-p 64


Harris shows (and reads) an inscription in the Old Negev (proto-Sinaitic, proto-Canaanite) script dating to the Egyptian Middle Kingdom, c. 1800 BC. A table on the “Origin and Emergence of Archaic West Semitic Alphabets” is given. In the opinion of Editor Jon Polansky, work on Old Negev and related scripts may elucidate inscriptions found in the American Southwest such as the one shown on p. 140 of ESOP 23 (reprinted here).


Correspondence: Swedish Museum Working with Kensington, Minnesota (2 pp) Susanna Larsson 24-p 66


Ms. Larsson works for the Halsingland Museum in Sweden. The Kensington Runestone, through the efforts of Richard Nielsen, was part of a display in two Swedish museums, the Historiska Museet in Stockholm and the Halsingslands Museum in Hudiksvall. She speaks of an exhibit on the Kensington Stone that they are working on which they would like to share with America –the city of Kensington having been chosen to host it. It will, through the use of artifacts, text and pictures, focus on the life and times of Olof Ohman (the discoverer of the Runestone) in Sweden and America. It will be a cooperation between the Halsinglands Museum and the City of Kensington. Donations are requested.


Filler: The Noble Twins Inscription –An Artist’s View (1 p) Ann Buchanan 24-p 67


A lovely rendition of the inscription located in the Sun Temple Site in Southeast Colorado.


Research Report: Progress on the Kensington Runestone (31 pp) Dr. Richard Nielsen 24-p 68


Nielsen goes into great detail on the work accomplished since the Forum on the Kensington Runestone in ESOP 23 (an excellent photo of Nielsen at work heads the piece). He carefully reviews his publications and presentations (including his responses to criticisms raised by Dr. James Knirk and Nielsen’s collaboration with Scott Wolter) since the forum and discusses Olof Ohman, his family, and his origins in Sweden.


Research Report: The Geology of the Kensington Runestone (5 pp) Scott F. Wolter 24-p 99


A thorough-going report, profusely illustrated on the geology of the Runestone as well as that of the so-called “AVM Stone.”


Filler: Thoughts on Dating the Trojan War (1 p) Donal Buchanan 24-p 103


It is suggested that the Trojan War took place at a much later date than usually recognized, perhaps sometime between –770 to  -675 BC.


Article: The Decipherment of a Sepulchral Inscription from the Island of Lemnos (11 pp) Donal B. Buchanan 24-p 104


This inscription, usually regarded as Etruscan, is shown to be in a variant Italo-Celtic script deriving from Western Greek (thus sharing an origin with the group of scripts to which Etruscan belongs). I cloaks a language which is basically a heavily Latinized dialect of Celtic. A decipherment is given, showing that the site is probably the sepulcher of a Roman soldier of Celtic lineage who was resettled in Lemnos after retirement, perhaps in the second century BC.


Filler: Whatsit? (1 p) Donal Buchanan 24-p 114


Readers are asked to identify or comment on an un-Etruscan seeming inscribed artifact found in a no-longer function website dealing with Etruscan finds.


Article: Decipherment of the “6-Month” Inscription from the Anubis Caves (5 pp) Donal B. Buchanan 24-p115


The author, while in the main supporting Fell’s decipherment, has a small disagreement about the reading of the final portion of the inscription. He gives his decipherment and points out that while Old Irish and other Celtic languages seem to have a VSO structure, this inscription shows and SOV structure. Perhaps the VSO language, existing in a sea of SOV Amerinds, eventually shifted to SOV.


Filler: Comments on a Scholastic Ogham Inscription from Scotland (1 p) Donal Buchanan 24-p 119


Buchanan elucidates an inscription from a knife handle. It apparently was a “birthing knife” used by a Scottish midwife named Mattie.


Article: The Hidden Mountain Astronomical Petroglyphs (5 pp) Zena Halpern 24-p 120


Halpern discusses the “Zodiac Stone” located at the top of Hidden Mountain near Los Lunas, New Mexico, and its possible relation to the apparent paleo-Hebrew inscription (often called the “Decalogue Stone”) located at the base of the mountain. She suggests they could have been left by ancient voyagers from Judea or the surrounding Mediterranean diaspora sometime in the second or first centuries BC.


Article: The Hidden Mountain Petroglyphs: Evaluation of Astronomical Proposals (2 pp) Louis Winkler 24-p125


The late Louis Winkler, an astronomer, differs with David Deal’s 1984 reading of the petroglyph. He agrees that it is an astronomical petroglyph. He suggests that it marks an eclipse which occurred on 18 September 107 BCE (Julian).


Article: Rock-Art Dating at the Turn of the Millenium (4 pp) Alan Gillespie 24-p 127


The author reviews the process and difficulties of rock-art dating. He concludes that it remains difficult and uncertain.


Filler: A Dislike of Empty Space (1 p) Donal Buchanan 24-p 130


The Editor gives his reasons for the many fillers used –his dislike of “empty spaces” in a publication.


Article: Astronomical Dating of a Solstice Sun-dagger Petroglyph at Swansea, Inyo County, California (19 pp) Alan R. Gillespie and Donald E. Sabol 24-p 131


The authors discuss a petroglyph at INY-272 which appears to mark a Summer Solstice site. They date the creation of the petroglyph to a period postdating 10 CE give or take 210 years.


Article: The Forgotten Harmonical Science of the Bible (20 pp) Ernest G. McClain 24-p 150


The author calls this a “progress report” on the decoding of ancient biblical arithmetic. He points out that Philo of Alexander, writing in the first century AD, concluded that Moses must have understood tuning theory long before Pythagoras brought it home to Greece. McLain demonstrates a deep knowledge of biblical arithmetic and harmonic practices. He adds an appendix on “Davidic” harmonic theory.


Filler: The Wyoming County, WV Inscription –An Artist’s View (1 p) Ann Buchanan 24-p 169


A reproduction of a painting done in the 80s in honor of Dr. Fell’s decipherment. It now hangs proudly in the Buchanan home.


Article: The Canon of Lespugue (6 pp) Ralph H. Abraham and William Irwin Thompson 24-p 170


Linear measurements taken from the Venus of Lespugue, a 25,000 year old sculpture, closely match the diatonic scale of the Vedic Aryans, also known as the Dorian mode of the ancient Greeks.


Authentic Medieval Elements in the Kensington Stone (6 pp) Keith A. J. Massey and Kevin Massey-Gillespie 24-p 176


The authors examine two lines of the inscription that have been neglected in some important aspects. They contain authentic medieval elements that suggest to scholars of the medieval period, even outside of runology and Scandinavian linguistics, that a reexamination of the Kensington Stone is necessary.


Filler: Comment on an Iberic Inscription from Liria (1 p) Donal Buchanan 24-p 181


Buchanan elucidates a short inscription found on a ceramic artifact from Liria. This comes from his Inscriptions Database.


Article: A Sphinx Pipe from Missouri (4 pp) Gloria Farley 24-p 182


The author suggests that an artifact found by a Missouri family may indicate an ancient Egyptian contact with American Indians.


Filler: Quote from The History of Language (1 p) Henry Sweet 24-p 185


“In philology, as in all branches of knowledge, it is the specialist who most strenuously opposes any attempt to widen the field of his methods.”


Article: A Global Tau (9 pp) T. R. Greaves 24-p 186


The ancient “Tau” character is found in diverse artistic, ritual, and architectural contexts in the pre-Columbian Americas. These closely parallel and often duplicate examples taken from Old World cultures. It is considered very unlikely that any mechanism other than communication could account for this conventionality in meaning and use.


Article: Native American Boats of Renewal (16 pp) Jesse E. Warner 24-p 195


Analyses were conducted of possible boat depictions in a survey of petroglyphs from the American western deserts, in which context, repetition, and potentially relevant ethnographic sources were evaluated. Several were identified as probably pertaining to a “boats of renewal” concept –a concept known from other continents. These observations are discussed as part of studies concerning observed associated forms, and ideas relating to their meanings being developed from studies of petroglyphs, primarily in the American west. In the context of native American traditions, these appear to relate to a ‘metaphysical transport’ of the soul to the land of the dead or back to the beginning place of creation.


Filler: Identification of a ‘Lost’ Mayan Language (1 p) David Keys 24-p 210


A sacred religious language once used by the Mayan ruling class has been identified with a language spoken by the Ch’orti in Guatemala. See Keys’ report at http://www.mayanmajix.com/art439a.html.


Article: Introduction to the Fertility Symbolism at the Rochester Creek Petroglyph Site: The Role of Symbolic Solar Interactions (SSIs) (21 pp) Jesse E. Warner 24-p 211


The author examines a number of sites which show the presence of distinctive Rochester Creek (RC)-style copulation scenes. This, and other symbolism at the sites indicate that intricate mysteries are being represented. The author introduces some of his current thinking on the apparent ‘sexual symbolism’ on and near the main panel at Rochester Creek. The placement of the glyphs on the rock surface in relation to cracks and other natural features is noted as important –as well as the presence of potentially informative Symbolic Solar Interactions (SSIs).


Article: The Rochester Creek Petroglyph Site: Further Relationships of Iconography to Star Lore Traditions (Continuation of Part 1) (10 pp) Jon R. Polansky 24-p 232


The author has further evaluated the iconography at the Rochester Creek (RC) petroglyph site in Utah for the influence of star lore traditions that might complement his prior findings. The earlier identification made of the prominent ‘rainbow’ arch on the main petroglyph panel as the Milky Way was used as an initial framework to consider other star groupings/constellations and potentially related mythologies. Evaluations of three new regions on the main RC panel provided additional evidence of important asto-mythic content. This paper illustrates ways in which archaeoastronomy and astro-mythology can be considered together in developing useful knowledge at the RC site. Similar approaches could have value at other Native American sites.


Filler: Comments on an Iberic Inscription from Barcelona, Spain (1 p) Donal Buchanan 24-p 242


Like many Iberic inscriptions found in the Inscriptions Database, this illustrates that the language is a dialect somewhere between Common or Vulgar Latin and Old Spanish.


Article: Deciphering Poussin’s Reversed Relief of “The Shepherds of Arcadia” at Shugborough Hall, Staffordshire, England, on the Lichfield Estate (2 pp) Louis Buff Parry 24-p 243


“The Shepherds of Arcadia” depicts two key motifs: the Shepherd and the Crypt. The enigmatic Roman letters between the D and the M (seen below the relief; the D and M standing for 1500) tell us precisely where at Machpelah (where Jacob is said to be buried) the Grail “stone” is buried. (Photos of Poussin’s painting and the Shugborough Hall relief are shown.)


Filler: Glozel (1 p) Donal Buchanan 24-p 244


Inscription 86/3C (photo shown) from the Glozel Corpus as compiled by the author. It is as yet undeciphered, but probably reads boustrophedon from the upper right. Buchanan has published suggested decipherments of some inscriptions and is watching with great interest the work of Hans-Rudolf Hitz. Alice Gerard and her husband are working closely with Hitz in his effort to solve the mystery of the Glozel material.


Article: The Language of Ancient Astronomy –A Clue to the Atlantis Myth? (21 pp) Harald A. T. Reiche 24-p 245


It is clear that Stone Age man lacked our mathematical systems and computational techniques and the knowledge of writing. It is equally clear, however, that he was able to raise Stonehenge and similar structures which involved precise measurements and celestial alignments. Reiche seeks to explain how they did it –what they used in lieu of technical language. He finds his answer in the vast storehouse of formulaic phrases (illustrated in the works of Homer). It is suggested that the form in which Neolithic and Bronze Age astronomers explained and transmitted knowledge was rhythmic (i.e., metric and versified speech), perhaps coupled with melody and elaborately styled pantomime. Reiche draws heavily on the work of Hertha von Dechend. He identifies 4 corollaries which define the method: 1) the mythological motif of successive world ages; 2) the mythological motif of monstrous deeds followed by “catastrophes,” usually floods or fires or both; 3) the association of each world age with a planetary ruler (i.e., one of the naked-eye planets); and 4) the consensus, virtually universal among ancients that the “true” identity of a foreign deity can be deduced from its attributes. In the remainder of the article, the author reconsiders Plato’s Atlantis myth in the light of the above corollaries. He identifies Plato’s Atlantis myth as a piece of sacred cosmology deliberately expressed in pseudohistorical and pseudogeographic terms familiar from “mythic” language in its ancient capacity as a technical shorthand for astronomical systems.


Filler: Comments on an Inscription from a Cathedral in Roskilde, Sjaelland, Denmark (1 p) Donal Buchanan 24-p 266


This inscription was possibly carved by a bored chorister (it was found on a wall behind the choir benchs). It is an example of Runic Cryptography and memorializes Godfrey (probably the chorister) “over the nave” who cut it on feast of St. Magnus, Sunday, 6 October 1168.


Forum: Interview with Gloria Farley (7 pp) Alan Gillespie 24-p 267


Gillespie conducted the interview in 2002. Biographic information on Farley (with a good recent photo) is given and they discuss her long and wide-ranging epigraphic work.


Filler: “The Sun Strikes (Here) on the Day of Bel” –An Artist’s View (1 p) Ann K. Buchanan 24-p 273


A lovely rendition of an Ogham inscription found on the north wall of the Crack Cave site in southeast Colorado. It was deciphered by Phil Leonard.


Forum: Interview with Roderick Schmidt (14 pp) Alan Gillespie 24-p 274


Schmidt (photo shown) speaks candidly with Gillespie concerning his background and his archaeological and epigraphic interests. They speak in depth about the California site INY-272 (also studied by Gillespie) and Schmidt’s ideas concerning the site. Schmidt has established an excellent web site known as “The Equinox Project,” one aim of which is to facilitate the preservation of INY-272. It also features information concerning the Epigraphic Society.


In Memoriam: William R. McGlone (4 pp) Ida Jane Gallagher, Phil Leonard, Ted & Alma Barker, David H. Kelley, Judy Morehouse, Jim Guthrie, and Larry Athy 24-p 288


Several friends remember a good friend (photos shown). Bill co-authored 3 books and was working on a fourth at the time of his death. He also produced numerous articles for scholarly publications. He was a man of extraordinary attributes, endowed with an uncommon combination of talent and character. A member of the American Rock Art Association, and an honorary member of the Colorado Archaeology Society, Bill was a founder and dedicated leader of the Western Epigraphic Society. He is sorely missed.


In Memoriam: Donald Lee Cyr (2 pp) Marianne Macy 24-p 291


Don Cyr (photo shown) had a lifelong involvement in archaeological theory and his thoughts on the subject were often years, if not decades, ahead of the rest of the pack. His central work was an interdisciplinary study of the idea that Stonehenge was not just an astronomical observatory, but was set up to study halos, a meteorological phenomenon he believed the ancients observed in the sky and recorded in everything from stone carvings to high art. His was a lifelong quest that involved him in travel all over the world. His theories drew upon the work of Isaac Vail. Cyr’s ability to draw associations between ancient texts and maps and possible historic voyages was dazzling. Many in the Epigraphic Society will remember Cyr’s publication, Stonehenge Viewpoint.


In Memoriam: Don Gladstone Rickey, Jr. (2 pp) Donal Buchanan 24-p 292


Don (photo shown –in full kilt as High Commissioner of the Stewart Clan) had a long career as an historian of the American West and the Indian Wars. He held several important positions in the National Park Service and also served as Lecturer and Curator in Military History at the Army War College. He ended his career with the Bureau of Land Management in Denver, CO. Members of the Epigraphic Society will remember him for his interests in identifying and deciphering enigmatic inscriptions he ran across during his researches about the West.


Filler: Lives of Great Men (1 p) Henry Wadsworth Longfellow 24-p 293)


Lives of great men all remind us we can make our lives sublime and, departing, leave behind us footsteps in the sands of time.


In Memoriam: James P. Whittall Jr. (3 pp) David P. Barron, Donal Buchanan, and Connie Whittall 24-p 293


Jim Whittall (photo shown) was many things: an architect, founder of the Early Sites Research Society (ESRS), and an excellent archaeologist who shared his expertise with many others. He was an avid collector of old books, particularly on Celtic researches, and was an indefatigable scholar who had little patience with anything he regarded as mental laziness. He was always ready to challenge old ideas and thoroughly investigate new ones. He was one of a kind and is sadly missed.


Cartoon: J. P. Whittall Expected in Heaven (1 p) Donal Buchanan 24-p 295


Angel to St. Peter: “We’ve got a curmudgeon from New England coming in who wants to test the authenticity of the Ten Commandment tablets.”


In Memoriam: David P. Barron (2 pp) Doug Schwartz 24-p 296


Dave (photo shown) was president and founder of the Gungywamp Society in Groton, CT, a non-profit educational research organization dedicated to preserving possible Christian carvings and signs of serial occupancy at an ancient site in northern Groton (one carbon date placed an element of the site at 455 AD). Dave died far too young and leaves a great void.


In Memoriam: Dr. Hertha von Dechend (2 pp) Richard D. Flavin 24-p 296


A controversial scholar, Hertha von Dechend is most often remembered for her co-authorship with Giorgio de Santillana of Hamlet’s Mill: An essay on myth and the frame of time (Boston, Gambit Inc., 1969). Although she majored in archaeology and ethnology, Dechend concentrated most of her efforts in the study and teaching of science. Her major publications were few, but her intellect and influence were profound.


In Memoriam: Ethel Georgina Stewart (1 p) John J. White III 24-p 298


Stewart was an Indian teacher and Northern Affairs administrator in the Northwest Territories of Canada for 20 years. Her writing career began with articles published by Thomas Lee (Anthropological Journal of Canada) and Barry Fell (ESOP) and culminated with her magnum opus: The Dene and Na-Dene Indian Migration –1233 AD: Escape from Genghis Khan to America.


In Memoriam: Paul Haselton Chapman (1 p) Donal B. Buchanan 24-p 299


A successful businessman, Paul (photo shown), in retirement, pursued an interest in the history of early American discovery, researching and writing books and one docudrama. Besides his scholarship, he made heavy financial contributions to both ISAC and the Epigraphic Society and deserves strong credit for the survival of both organizations.


In Memoriam: Cyrus Herzl Gordon (2 pp) Donal Buchanan, Eric Pace, and Richard Flavin 24-p 300


Cyrus (photo shown) was a scholar of Near East culture and a leading expert on ancient languages. He was a professor of Near Eastern Studies at Brandeis (1956-1973), and chairman of its department of Mediterranean studies (1958-1973). He was a professor of Hebrew Studies at NY University (1973-1989). For some years he was also directory of NYU’s Center for Ebla Research. During WW II he served as a military cryptanalyst, a fitting position for a great decipherer (his work on Ugaritic is widely recognized). Dr. Gordon became a friend and correspondent of many members of ISAC and of the Epigraphic Society.


In Memoriam: Vincent John Mooney Jr. (1 p) Donal B. Buchanan 24-p 301


Vincent (photo shown) was a dedicated student of diffusionist theories. His mastery of written Hebrew served him well in his studies of anomalous inscriptions. A longtime supporter of the International Fortean Society (INFO), he made many presentations to their meetings. He also served as an advisor and consulting editor for the Ancient American magazine. He was active in the Epigraphic Society and was a Conference Chairman for the Institute for the Study of American Cultures (ISAC). He was also a member of Mensa and often served as program chair for their local organization. He was also a good friend.


In Memoriam: Dr. Louis Winkler (1 p) Zena Halpern 24-p 302


Louis (photo shown) was a professor of astronomy at Pennsylvania State University for 37 years. He was a scholar with wide interests, one of which was the application of astronomy to historical problems (this led to his teaching a class in archaeological astronomy at Penn. State). He was fascinated with ancient cultures and their astronomical knowledge. He was a good man and a good friend.


In Memoriam: Rollin Wilson Gillespie (2 pp) Alan R. Gillespie 24-p 303


Rollin (photo shown) was an unusual person who had an unusual and varied career. Trained in chemistry, he started out with the Geological Survey as a dishwasher and assistant chemist. He was later involved in rocket design and orbital mechanics (he had a hand in the establishment of NASA). He was attracted to the Epigraphic Society because he suspected that ancient peoples were as adventuresome as their modern counterparts and there were no overwhelming technical obstacles preventing them from traveling widely –including between continents. He never failed to maintain a strong interest in and enthusiasm for epigraphic concepts and evidence, but he felt strongly that epigraphic scholars should not be afraid to submit their research to critical examination.


In Memoriam: René Fell (3 pp) Julian Fell 24-p 304


René was Barry Fell’s helper, his chauffeur, house-mate, companion and soul mate. She danced totally to her own tune. Conformation to the conventions of society occurred only when those conventions coincided with her own inclinations. She was a unique persona. It was René who persuaded Barry in 1974, when he found he could not publish his epigraphic discoveries concerning Polynesia, to establish the organization which later became the Epigraphic Society (and which she served ably as its first Secretary).


In Memoriam: George F. Carter (1 p) Stephen C. Jett 24-p 307


A professor of geography, George (photo shown) had two principal research and teaching interests: Early Man in America and the sea-borne exchange of culture and domesticates between the hemispheres. Both these interests were controversial and Carter was often bitterly attacked by his colleagues. Nevertheless he remained true to his convictions and enthusiastic in the pursuit of truth as he perceived it. He was convinced that humans were very early in the New World and felt that pre-Columbian transoceanic diffusion played a key role in the development of the cultures of the two hemispheres. This latter interest led to his collecting examples of Old World writing in ancient New World contexts. He shared his interest with Barry Fell and inspired Fell to shift his epigraphic interest from Oceania to the New World. And the rest is history.


In Memoriam: Mary Ritchie Key (1 p) Stephen C. Jett 24-p 308


Mary Key (photo shown) was a Professor of Linguistics at the University of California, Irvine. She was the author of about 100 scholarly articles, reviews, and books and edited a number of works. She had a strong interest in the history of linguistics and collected an extensive list of works proposing relationships between Old World and New World languages. She hypothesized early Pacific crossings as well as ancient voyages around the tip of Africa and across the Atlantic. Her research materials have gone to the library of her alma mater, the University of Texas, Austin.


In Memoriam: Lawrence F. Athy Jr. (1 p) Gayle Athy, Tom Stryder & Houston Chronicle 24-p 309


Larry (photo shown) was a long-time member of the Epigraphic Society and once served on its Board. He had a vast knowledge of and was a longtime collector of pre-Columbian and African artifacts. He became engrossed in the study of the Ogham alphabet and trained himself to be a leading expert in the script. He also developed a marvelous collection of Oghamic and other epigraphic material.


In Memoriam: Warren Lawrence Cook (1 p) Warren W. Dexter 24-p 310


Warren Cook (photo shown) and Warren Dexter were extensively involved for a number of years in research on ancient cultures worldwide. Cook earned his Ph.D from Yale University awarded for his production of a magnificent book: Flood Tide of Empire –Spain and the Pacific Northwest 1543-1819. This book received a Pulitzer nomination and won the Herbert E. Bolton prize for Latin American history. He taught history and anthropology at Castleton State College in VT from 1960-1989. In 1978 he published Ancient Vermont in which he suggested that several ancient cultures, much before Columbus, had visited the Americas. We miss a good friend.  


In Memoriam: Jon Polansky (2 pp) Donal Buchanan, Stephen Jett & John White III, Vol. 24, p 311


Jon was an early student of Dr. Barry Fell and rose to become a mainstay of the Epigraphic Society. He was a member of the Board of the Society and Chief Editor of Volume 23 of ESOP as well as the present volume. Jon was also a Vice President of the Institute for the Study of American Cultures (ISAC). As a research ophthamologist he was chiefly responsible for identification of the gene responsible for primary open-angle glaucoma, opening up new vistas for diagnosis, management, and possibly new therapies for many glaucoma sufferers. As his work in epigraphy progressed in later years, Jon became increasingly interested in Native American matters and developed a number of important contacts in that field. He is survived by his wife, Cindy Van der Stuy, his daughter, Lauren, and his younger brother, Jerry. [Buchanan Comment: He was a wonderful scholar and friend and will be sorely missed by all who knew him.]

Information for Authors (1 p) 24-p 311

Delineates the Society’s requirements for authors desiring to appear in its publication. The final paragraph sets forth the copyright policy: that material appearing in ESOP may not be reproduced by others without prior written permission of the author(s) and ESOP, in whole or part, electronically or otherwise. Copyrights are retained for the authors who may reproduce their own work as they wish.

On the Cover

Illustrates one of many ears of corn in the hands of Goddesses in temples in Karnataka State, South India.


Epigraphic Society Occasional Papers

Table of Contents, Volume 25, 2004  


About the Epigraphic Society (inside front cover)


Describes the Society, its formation and purpose. This issue was dedicated to the memory of Gloria Farley and Linus Brunner who both, in their separate ways, did so much to further the work of the Epigraphic Society.


Officers of the Epigraphic Society (1 p) 25-p 2


The officers and Board members of The Epigraphic Society are listed and information is provided about them.


Table of Contents (2 pp) 25-p 4


Photo: Barry Fell at work in his study (1 p) Peter Garfall 25-p 4


The President's Message (2 pp) Norman Totten 25-p 5


Norman (photo) discusses Burrows Cave and points out its fraudulence. Then he speaks of the Taino Indians. That and Barry Fell's decipherment of a script found on Taino artifacts on on stones in areas occupied by the Taino.


A Word from the Editor (2 pp) Donal Buchanan 25-p 6


Buchanan (photo) states the requirements for membership in the Epigraphic Society (none: like Barry Fell, we regard our readers as our members). He then discusses the editorial policy of the Society (to produce a publication in which both amateurs and professionals feel comfortable to appear) and goes on to highlight the contents of volume 25.


(Memorial) In Memoriam Gloria S. Farley (1916-2006) A Lifetime of Discovery (2 pp) Julian Fell 25-p 8


Julian has written a beautiful eulogy to Gloria and her long and special relationship with Barry Fell and the Epigraphic Society. There are several graphics (2 photos: 1 portrait of Gloria, 1 showing her with Barry and Norman; and 1 cartoon by Buchanan (used in Gloria's book, In Plain Sight).


(Memorial) A Life Worth Living (1 p) Norman Totten 25-p 10


Norman describes how Gloria surmounted numerous difficulties and demonstrated how focus and determination could succeed against all odds.


(Memorial) A Friend Remembered (1 p) Donal Buchanan 25-p10


Buchanan remembers a dear friend of over 30 years and lauds her indefatigable search for inscriptions (photo of Gloria in the field examining an inscription).


Two Previously Unpublished Inscriptions Provided by Gloria Farley (1 p) Barry Fell 25-p 11


These inscriptions were found in correspondence between Gloria Farley and Barry Fell. She provided them to Barry and he sent her the decipherments.


Gloria Farley, Barry Fell, and the Role of the Amateur in Intellectual Advancement (1 p) Julian Fell 25-p 12


Julian points out that the term amateur derives from the Latin verb "to love" and denotes someone who indulges in an activity because of his love for it. It is used properly in sports, where it relates to source of employment rather than competence (a very good amateur has been known to defeat a professional in a sporting situation). As a professional biologist, Barry Fell was always appreciative of the assistance of amateurs. It is worth noting that in linguistics and epigraphy, no major decipherment has been the work of a mainstream expert. Champollion, Rawlinson, Ventris, Fell, Knorosov were all amateurs.


Pre-Columbian Trans-Oceanic Contacts: The Context of Alleged Old World Inscriptions (5 pp) Stephen Jett 25-p 13


The original version of this article was presented as a paper at a special session at the 1988 annual meeting of the American Rock Art Association (ARARA) Problems of Methodology in Linguistic Interpretation of Rock Art, concerning the North American petroglyphs alleged by Barry Fell and his associates and former associates such as William R. McGlone and Phillip M. Leonard ("Bill and Phil") to be pre-Columbian inscriptions written in early Old World alphabets and languages. No known "pro" presenters were invited to speak (ARARA was aware that Jett had been critical of one of Fell's decipherments, but they were unaware of other work he had done generally sympathetic to the possibility of transoceanic contacts. Jett discusses the history of interest in such contacts, the varieties of evidence, and the difficulties of interpreting inscriptions.


Mayan Pottery Heads: Evidence of Pre-Columbian Diffusion? (6 pp) Dana Chandler 25-p 18


Many explorers and archaeologists have remarked upon the strange, familiar faces they've seen in temple bas reliefs and in ceramic carvings. These faces and their accouterments harken to other civilizations and racial types. These are a part of the evidence that leads investigators to suspect diffusion.


Report on Two Inscribed Stones Found in the Catskills (5 pp) Zena Halpern 25-p 24


Zena describes the discovery and investigation of two stones found at a site in the Catskills that bear inscriptions in early Semitic script (possibly Phoenician or Paleo Hebrew). Zena and her colleagues have been investigating the site since 2001 along with its finder, Donald Ruh.


Gloria Farley Publications Incorporated (1 p) Bart Torbert 25-p 28


Bart announces the formation of a charitable organization (501C3) to promote and continue to make available Gloria Farley's publications. He heads the organization with his wife as Vice President. Betty Meggers, Alan Gillespie, and Scott Wolter are members of the Board of Directors.


The Catskill Mountains Inscription (3 pp) Scott Wolter 25-p 29


This report presents the results of his examination into the physical features of one of the inscribed stones mentioned in Zena's article. It is quite clear that the inscription was carved into fresh rock below the weathered surface and the inscriptions have since weathered. It appears that the weathering of the inscription has taken many years to develop.


The Stone Balls of Costa Rica (1 p) Marshall Payn 25-p 32


Marshall demonstrates his ability to "think outside the box." Here he uses the services of Joseph Mcmoneagle (USA Ret.), who served as a Remote Viewer at various classified military establishments from 1978-1995, to investigate the methods used to create the enigmatic stone balls found at numerous sites in Costa Rica.


These Stones with Holes Have More to Tell (Part I) (4 pp) Judi Rudebusch 25-p 33


The author is interested in the so-called "mooring holes" found at sites in South Dakota, Minnesota, and other states as far away as Missouri and the East coast. She describes her research and her association with Valdimar Samuelsson a researcher in Iceland who has come to the conclusion that the holes may have been used as boundary markers.


These Stones with Holes Have More to Tell (Part II) (3 pp) Valdimar Samuelsson 25-p 36


Samuelsson has spent years researching ancient boudary markers in Iceland which were usually cairns, but also involved the use of "mooring stakes." He came in contact with Rudebusch and suggested to her that at least some of the so-called "mooring stones" (thought to have been used to moor boats) might have been receptacles for mooring stakes and thus actually boundary markers.


The Atlantic Conference (1 p) Steve St. Clair 25-p 38


The announcement of a planned conference on trans-Atlantic migration before 1492 to be held in Halifax, Nova Scotia, in August 2008.


Introduction to Researching the Raetic Language (4 pp) Alfred Toth 25-p 39


The beginning article of four intended as a Homáge to the late (died December 1987) Professor Dr. Linus Brunner of Switzerland (photo available), who pioneered the study and decipherment of Raetic inscriptions. Brunner was a good friend of Barry Fell and encouraged and supported him in his epigraphic work. Alfred Toth worked with Brunner for many years and remembers him as a friend, colleague, and teacher. Toth discusses various theories concerning the origin of the Raetic people and their language and script.


The "Method of Internal Combination" and the Reconstruction of Raetic (2 pp) Alfred Toth 25-p 43


"There are only two methods used in the reconstruction of unknown, but already deciphered languages: historical reconstruction and internal combination. ... Ideally, both methods should be combined." This is an extract from the beginning paragraph of this article. Brunner used both methods in his work with Raetic. Toth illustrates the "so-called method of internal reconstruction ad absurdum" by "proving" that a sentence in German is really Raetic.


The Raetic Inscriptions: First Edition With Translation and Bibliography (9 pp) Alfred Toth & Linus Brunner 25-p 45


Toth presents Brunner's decipherment of 55 Raetic inscriptions.


More Newly Identified Raetic Inscriptions (4 pp) Alfred Toth 25-p 54


Toth's decipherment of 23 additional Raetic inscriptions.


Comment on CIE 5007, An Etruscan Sepulchral Inscription (1 p) Donal Buchanan 25-p 58


This and other inscriptions seem to indicate that the Etruscans came from or drew people and vocabulary from Asia Minor (as many scholars suggest). But the language still appears strongly Indo-European.


Linguistic Evidence Linking the Algonquin Language Family to the Afro-Asiatic Language Family (17 pp) John Thomas Fuhler 25-p 59